87. Performing Salah (Prayer) in Battlefield

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ الْقُمِّيُّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُذَافِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا جَالَتِ الْخَيْلُ تَضْطَرِبُ السُّيُوفُ أَجْزَأَهُ تَكْبِيرَتَانِ فَهَذَا تَقْصِيرٌ آخَرُ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim al-Qummiy has narrated from his father from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from Muhammad ibn ‘Adhafir who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When horses roam and swords shake, two Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) are sufficient for him and this is another reduction.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/426)



2ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ وَفُضَيْلٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ فِي صَلاَةِ الْخَوْفِ عِنْدَ الْمُطَارَدَةِ وَالْمُنَاوَشَةِ يُصَلِّي كُلُّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ بِالإِيمَاءِ حَيْثُ كَانَ وَجْهُهُ وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْمُسَايَفَةُ وَالْمُعَانَقَةُ وَتَلاَحُمُ الْقِتَالِ فَإِنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) صَلَّى لَيْلَةَ صِفِّينَ وَهِيَ لَيْلَةُ الْهَرِيرِ لَمْ تَكُنْ صَلاَتُهُمُ الظُّهْرُ وَالْعَصْرُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ وَالْعِشَاءُ عِنْدَ وَقْتِ كُلِّ صَلاَةٍ إِلاَّ التَّكْبِيرَ وَالتَّهْلِيلَ وَالتَّسْبِيحَ وَالتَّحْمِيدَ وَالدُّعَاءَ فَكَانَتْ تِلْكَ صَلاَتَهُمْ لَمْ يَأْمُرْهُمْ بِإِعَادَةِ الصَّلاَةِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah and Fudayl and Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about performing Salah (prayer) in frightening conditions during pursuits and the skirmishes, has said, ‘Every one of them perform Salah (prayer) by making gestures to whatever direction they face, even if swords work neck and neck and the fight goes on in a hand-to- hand manner. ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, performed Salah (prayer) during the night of Siffin which is called Lilatu al-Harir. Their Salah (prayer) of al-Dhuhr, al-‘Asr, al-Maghrib and al-‘Isha’ were only Takbir (Allah is great beyond description), Tahlil, (no one deserves worship except Allah), Tasbih (Allah is free of all defects), Tahmid (all praise belongs to Allah) and supplications. It was their Salah (prayer) and they were not commanded to perform Salah (prayer) again.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسنه الفضلء - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/427)



3ـ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ بَعْضَ أَصْحَابِنَا يَذْكُرُ أَنَّ أَقَلَّ مَا يُجْزِئُ فِي حَدِّ الْمُسَايَفَةِ مِنَ التَّكْبِيرِ تَكْبِيرَتَانِ لِكُلِّ صَلاَةٍ إِلاَّ الْمَغْرِبَ فَإِنَّ لَهَا ثَلاَثاً.


3. It is a narration from him (narrator of previous Hadith) by ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah who has said the following: “I have heard from certain persons of our people saying that the minimum recitation when swords are at work is two Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) for every Salah (prayer) except that there are three Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) for al-Maghrib.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن موقوف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/428)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُناحٌ أَنْ تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قَالَ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ تُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمَا وَاحِدَةٌ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Ahmad ibn Idris Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from all from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz who has said the following: “About the word of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘It is permissible for you to reduce of Salah (prayer) if you fear that the unbelievers may create mischief for you,’ (4:101), abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Two Rak‘at becomes one Rak‘at.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/428)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ صَلاَةِ الْقِتَالِ فَقَالَ إِذَا الْتَقَوْا فَاقْتَتَلُوا فَإِنَّ الصَّلاَةَ حِينَئِذٍ التَّكْبِيرُ وَإِنْ كَانُوا وُقُوفاً لاَ يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى الْجَمَاعَةِ فَالصَّلاَةُ إِيمَاءٌ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about Salah (prayer) during fighting. He (the Imam) said, ‘If they meet (the armies) and kill each other, then Salah (prayer) in such time is Takbir (Allah is great beyond description), but if they are standing and are not able to overpower the group, then it is in the form of gestures.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/429)



6ـ مُحَمَّدٌ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنِ الْمُوَاقِفُ عَلَى وُضُوءٍ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ وَلاَ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى النُّزُولِ قَالَ يَتَيَمَّمُ مِنْ لِبْدِهِ أَوْ سَرْجِهِ أَوْ مَعْرَفَةِ دَابَّتِهِ فَإِنَّ فِيهَا غُبَاراً وَيُصَلِّي وَيَجْعَلُ السُّجُودَ أَخْفَضَ مِنَ الرُّكُوعِ وَلاَ يَدُورُ إِلَى الْقِبْلَةِ وَلَكِنْ أَيْنَمَا دَارَتْ دَابَّتُهُ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ يَسْتَقْبِلُ الْقِبْلَةَ بِأَوَّلِ تَكْبِيرَةٍ حِينَ يَتَوَجَّهُ.


6. Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad from Hammad from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “Once, I asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a soldier who does not have Wudu’ and what is he required to do when he is not able to dismount? He (the Imam) said, ‘He can make Tayammum on his pad, saddle or mane of his stumper over which dust accumulates. He then performs Salah (prayer), makes Sujud (prostrations) lower than Ruku‘ (bowing down on one’s knees) and does not turn to al-Qiblah (al-Ka‘bah) but turns his face wherever his stumper goes, except that he turns to al-Qiblah (al-Ka‘bah) when saying the first Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) when paying attention.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/429)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْعَمْرَكِيِّ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَخِيهِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَلْقَى السَّبُعَ وَقَدْ حَضَرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ وَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُ الْمَشْيَ مَخَافَةَ السَّبُعِ فَإِنْ قَامَ يُصَلِّي خَافَ فِي رُكُوعِهِ وَسُجُودِهِ السَّبُعَ وَالسَّبُعُ أَمَامَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِ الْقِبْلَةِ فَإِنْ تَوَجَّهَ إِلَى الْقِبْلَةِ خَافَ أَنْ يَثِبَ عَلَيْهِ الأسَدُ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ قَالَ فَقَالَ يَسْتَقْبِلُ الأسَدَ وَيُصَلِّي وَيُومِىُ بِرَأْسِهِ إِيمَاءً وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ الأسَدُ عَلَى غَيْرِ الْقِبْلَةِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from al-‘Amrakiy ibn Ali from Ali ibn Ja‘far who has said the following: “I once asked my brother, abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about one who faces a beast and it is time for Salah (prayer). He is not able to walk, because of fear from the beast. If he stands up he fears to perform Ruku’ (bowing down on one’s knees) or Sujud (prostrations) with the beast in front of him in a direction other than that of al-Qiblah (al-Ka’bah). If he turns to al-Qiblah (al-Ka’bah), he fears the lion’s attack. What is he required to do in such case? He (the Imam) said, ‘ He faces the lion and performs his Salah (prayer) with gestures in a standing position, if the lion is in a direction other than that for al-Qiblah (al-Ka’bah).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/429)