86. Performing Salah (Prayer) in Dangerous Conditions

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ صَلاَةِ الْخَوْفِ قَالَ يَقُومُ الإِمَامُ وَتَجِي‏ءُ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ فَيَقُومُونَ خَلْفَهُ وَطَائِفَةٌ بِإِزَاءِ الْعَدُوِّ فَيُصَلِّي بِهِمُ الإِمَامُ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ يَقُومُ وَيَقُومُونَ مَعَهُ فَيَمْثُلُ قَائِماً وَيُصَلُّونَ هُمُ الرَّكْعَةَ الثَّانِيَةَ ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُونَ فَيَقُومُونَ فِي مَقَامِ أَصْحَابِهِمْ وَيَجِي‏ءُ الآخَرُونَ فَيَقُومُونَ خَلْفَ الإِمَامِ فَيُصَلِّي بِهِمُ الرَّكْعَةَ الثَّانِيَةَ ثُمَّ يَجْلِسُ الإِمَامُ فَيَقُومُونَ هُمْ فَيُصَلُّونَ رَكْعَةً أُخْرَى ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَيَنْصَرِفُونَ بِتَسْلِيمِهِ قَالَ وَفِي الْمَغْرِبِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ يَقُومُ الإِمَامُ وَتَجِي‏ءُ طَائِفَةٌ فَيَقُومُونَ خَلْفَهُ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّي بِهِمْ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ يَقُومُ وَيَقُومُونَ فَيَمْثُلُ الإِمَامُ قَائِماً وَيُصَلُّونَ الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ فَيَتَشَهَّدُونَ وَيُسَلِّمُ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُونَ فَيَقُومُونَ فِي مَوْقِفِ أَصْحَابِهِمْ وَيَجِي‏ءُ الآخَرُونَ وَيَقُومُونَ خَلْفَ الإِمَامِ فَيُصَلِّي بِهِمْ رَكْعَةً يَقْرَأُ فِيهَا ثُمَّ يَجْلِسُ فَيَتَشَهَّدُ ثُمَّ يَقُومُ وَيَقُومُونَ مَعَهُ وَيُصَلِّي بِهِمْ رَكْعَةً أُخْرَى ثُمَّ يَجْلِسُ وَيَقُومُونَ هُمْ فَيُتِمُّونَ رَكْعَةً أُخْرَى ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيْهِمْ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about performing Salah (prayer) in fearful conditions. He (the Imam) said, ‘The Imam stands up and one group of his people comes and stands up behind him. The other group faces the enemy. The Imam performs one Rak‘at, then stands up and they also stand up. He remains standing but they perform the second Rak‘at, then say Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to each other and end their Salah (prayer). They then stand up in place of the other group facing the enemy. Now this group comes and stands up behind the Imam who performs the second Rak‘at with them. The Imam then sits down and they stand up to perform another Rak‘at. He then says Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) and they also end their Salah (prayer) with his saying Salam.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In al-Maghrib they do similarly. The Imam stands up and one group stands up behind him. He then performs one Rak‘at with them, then stands up and they also stand up. The Imam remains standing but they complete the two Rak‘at, say Tashahhud (testimonies of belief), Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to each other and end their Salah (prayer). They then stand guard in place of the other group who joins the Imam for Salah (prayer). He performs with them a Rak‘at with recitation, then sits down and says Tashahhud (testimonies of belief). He then stands up and they also stand up with him. He performs one more Rak‘at with them, then sits down but they stand up to complete another Rak‘at, then he says Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to them to end.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/423)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ صَلَّى رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِأَصْحَابِهِ فِي غَزْوَةِ ذَاتِ الرِّقَاعِ صَلاَةَ الْخَوْفِ فَفَرَّقَ أَصْحَابَهُ فِرْقَتَيْنِ أَقَامَ فِرْقَةً بِإِزَاءِ الْعَدُوِّ وَفِرْقَةً خَلْفَهُ فَكَبَّرَ وَكَبَّرُوا فَقَرَأَ وَأَنْصَتُوا وَرَكَعَ فَرَكَعُوا وَسَجَدَ فَسَجَدُوا ثُمَّ اسْتَتَمَّ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَائِماً وَصَلَّوْا لأَنْفُسِهِمْ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ ثُمَّ خَرَجُوا إِلَى أَصْحَابِهِمْ فَقَامُوا بِإِزَاءِ الْعَدُوِّ وَجَاءَ أَصْحَابُهُمْ فَقَامُوا خَلْفَ رَسُولِ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَصَلَّى بِهِمْ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ تَشَهَّدَ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَامُوا فَصَلَّوْا لأَنْفُسِهِمْ رَكْعَةً ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah performed Salah (prayer) with his followers during the armed expedition at Dhat al-Riqa‘ in a fearful condition. The Messenger of Allah divided his companions in two groups. One group was made to stand up facing the enemy and the other group behind him for Salah (prayer). He said Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) and they also did so. He recited and they remained silent. He performed Ruku‘ (bowing down on one’s knees) and they also did so. He performed Sajdah (prostration), and they also did so. The Messenger of Allah in order to complete remained standing but they performed one Rak‘at for themselves, then they said Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to each other. They then went to stand guard in place of the group facing the enemy. This group stood behind the Messenger of Allah who performed one Rak‘at with them, then said Tashahhud (testimonies of belief) and Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to them. They then stood up to perform one Rak‘at for themselves, then said Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to each other.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/424)



3ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنْ كُنْتَ فِي أَرْضِ مَخَافَةٍ فَخَشِيتَ لِصّاً أَوْ سَبُعاً فَصَلِّ عَلَى دَابَّتِكَ.


3. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘If you are in a land where you are afraid of thieves or beasts, perform Salah (prayer) on your stumper.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/425)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ زُرْعَةَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الأسِيرِ يَأْسِرُهُ الْمُشْرِكُونَ فَتَحْضُرُهُ الصَّلاَةُ فَيَمْنَعُهُ الَّذِي أَسَرَهُ مِنْهَا قَالَ يُومِىُ إِيمَاءً.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Khalid from his father from Zur’ah from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who is a captive of the pagans. It becomes time for Salah (prayer) and they do not allow him to perform Salah (prayer). He (the Imam) said, ‘He makes gestures as gestures are made.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/425)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ قُلْتُ أَكُونُ فِي طَرِيقِ مَكَّةَ فَنَنْزِلُ لِلصَّلاَةِ فِي مَوَاضِعَ فِيهَا الأعْرَابُ أَ نُصَلِّي الْمَكْتُوبَةَ عَلَى الأرْضِ فَنَقْرَأُ أُمَّ الْكِتَابِ وَحْدَهَا أَمْ نُصَلِّي عَلَى الرَّاحِلَةِ فَنَقْرَأُ فَاتِحَةَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّورَةَ فَقَالَ إِذَا خِفْتَ فَصَلِّ عَلَى الرَّاحِلَةِ الْمَكْتُوبَةَ وَغَيْرَهَا وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْحَمْدَ وَسُورَةً أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ وَلاَ أَرَى بِالَّذِي فَعَلْتَ بَأْساً.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about my traveling between Makkah and al-Madinah and in the time of Salah (prayer), we disembark where Arabs are found. Can we perform the obligatory Salah (prayer) on the ground and recite just al-Fatihah, or perform it when riding and recite al-Fatihah al-Kitab and Surah (chapter) as well? He (the Imam) said, ‘If you are afraid, then perform the obligatory Salah (prayer) and other Salah (prayer) on your stumper. If you recite al-Hamd and Surah (chapter) it is more beloved to me and I do not see anything harmful in what you have done.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/425)



6ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجالاً أَوْ رُكْباناً كَيْفَ يُصَلِّي وَمَا يَقُولُ إِذَا خَافَ مِنْ سَبُعٍ أَوْ لِصٍّ كَيْفَ يُصَلِّي قَالَ يُكَبِّرُ وَيُومِىُ إِيمَاءً بِرَأْسِهِ.


6. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . if you are afraid then it is on foot or riding. . . .’(2:240), ‘How is this Salah (prayer) performed and what do you say if one is afraid of beasts or thieves?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He says Takbir (Allah is great beyond description) and makes gestures with his head as gestures are made.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/426)