17. Inheritance of the Son, with Husband and Woman and Both Parents

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِزُرَارَةَ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ مُسْلِمٍ وَبُكَيْراً يَرْوِيَانِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي زَوْجٍ وَأَبَوَيْنِ وَابْنَةٍ فَلِلزَّوْجِ الرُّبُعُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ أَرْبَعَةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَبَقِيَ خَمْسَةُ أَسْهُمٍ فَهُوَ لِلابْنَةِ لأنَّهَا لَوْ كَانَتْ ذَكَراً لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا غَيْرُ خَمْسَةٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَإِنْ كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا خَمْسَةٌ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً لأنَّهُمَا لَوْ كَانَا ذَكَرَيْنِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمَا غَيْرُ مَا بَقِيَ خَمْسَةٌ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ قَالَ زُرَارَةُ هَذَا هُوَ الْحَقُّ إِذَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تُلْقِيَ الْعَوْلَ فَتَجْعَلَ الْفَرِيضَةَ لا تَعُولُ فَإِنَّمَا يَدْخُلُ النُّقْصَانُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَهُمُ الزِّيَادَةُ مِنَ الْوُلْدِ وَالأخَوَاتِ مِنَ الأبِ وَالأمِّ فَأَمَّا الزَّوْجُ وَالإخْوَةُ لِلأمِّ فَإِنَّهُمْ لا يُنْقَصُونَ مِمَّا سَمَّى اللهُ لَهُمْ شَيْئاً.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from and Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman all from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah who has narrated the following: “I once said to Zurarah that I have heard Muhammad ibn Muslim and Bukayr narrating from abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the husband, both parents and a daughter. The share of the husband is one-fourth, three shares out of twelve shares, the parents receive two-sixth, four shares out of twelve shares and the remaining five shares belong to the daughter because if she were a male she would not have more than five out of twelve shares. If they were two daughters, they would have five out of twelve shares because if they were two males they would not have anything other than the five remaining from twelve shares. Zurarah then said, ‘This is right. If you face deficiency, you must not place deficiency on ordained shares. Deficiency is placed on those who have extra, like children and sisters from the side of the father and mother. Husband and brothers from the side of mother do not pay the deficiency from the ordained shares that Allah has made for them.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/145)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ وَعَلاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي امْرَأَةٍ مَاتَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَأَبَوَيْهَا وَابْنَتَهَا قَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ الرُّبُعُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ سَهْمَانِ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَبَقِيَ خَمْسَةُ أَسْهُمٍ فَهِيَ لِلابْنَةِ لأنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ ذَكَراً لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ خَمْسَةِ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ سَهْماً لأنَّ الأبَوَيْنِ لا يُنْقَصَانِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِنَ السُّدُسِ شَيْئاً وَأَنَّ الزَّوْجَ لا يُنْقَصُ مِنَ الرُّبُعِ شَيْئاً.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “This is about the case of a woman who leaves behind her husband, both parents and a daughter. Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The husband receives one-fourth. It is three shares out of twelve. The parents each receives one-sixth, two shares out of twelve. The remaining five shares belong to the daughter because if she was a male she would not receive more than five shares out of twelve shares: the parents do not face deficiency. They each receive one-sixth and the husband does not face deficiency with his one-fourth share.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/146)



3- حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ دَفَعَ إِلَيَّ صَفْوَانُ كِتَاباً لِمُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ لِي هَذَا سَمَاعِي مِنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ وَقَرَأْتُهُ عَلَيْهِ فَإِذَا فِيهِ مُوسَى بْنُ بَكْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ هَذَا مِمَّا لَيْسَ فِيهِ اخْتِلافٌ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ وَعَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُمَا سُئِلا عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَأُمَّهَا وَابْنَتَيْهَا فَقَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ الرُّبُعُ وَلِلأمِّ السُّدُسُ وَلِلابْنَتَيْنِ مَا بَقِيَ لأنَّهُمَا لَوْ كَانَا رَجُلَيْنِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمَا شَيْ‏ءٌ إِلا مَا بَقِيَ وَلا تُزَادُ الْمَرْأَةُ أَبَداً عَلَى نَصِيبِ الرَّجُلِ لَوْ كَانَ مَكَانَهَا وَإِنْ تَرَكَ الْمَيِّتُ أُمّاً وَأَباً وَامْرَأَةً وَابْنَةً فَإِنَّ الْفَرِيضَةَ مِنْ أَرْبَعَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ سَهْماً لِلْمَرْأَةِ الثُّمُنُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنْ أَرْبَعَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ وَلأحَدِ الأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَبَقِيَ خَمْسَةُ أَسْهُمٍ هِيَ مَرْدُودَةٌ عَلَى سِهَامِ الابْنَةِ وَأَحَدِ الأبَوَيْنِ عَلَى قَدْرِ سِهَامِهِمَا وَلا يُرَدُّ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ أَبَوَيْنِ وَامْرَأَةً وَبِنْتاً فَهِيَ أَيْضاً مِنْ أَرْبَعَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ سَهْماً لِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ ثَمَانِيَةُ أَسْهُمٍ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا أَرْبَعَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلْمَرْأَةِ الثُّمُنُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ سَهْماً وَبَقِيَ سَهْمٌ وَاحِدٌ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَى الابْنَةِ وَالأبَوَيْنِ عَلَى قَدْرِ سِهَامِهِمْ وَلا يُرَدُّ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ أَباً وَزَوْجاً وَابْنَةً فَلِلأبِ سَهْمَانِ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ وَهُوَ السُّدُسُ وَلِلزَّوْجِ الرُّبُعُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ وَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ سِتَّةُ أَسْهُمٍ مِنِ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ وَبَقِيَ سَهْمٌ وَاحِدٌ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَى الابْنَةِ وَالأبِ عَلَى قَدْرِ سِهَامِهِمَا وَلا يُرَدُّ عَلَى الزَّوْجِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يَرِثُ أَحَدٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللهِ مَعَ الْوَلَدِ إِلا الأبَوَانِ وَالزَّوْجُ وَالزَّوْجَةُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ وَلَدٌ وَكَانَ وَلَدُ الْوَلَدِ ذُكُوراً كَانُوا أَوْ إِنَاثاً فَإِنَّهُمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَلَدِ وَوَلَدُ الْبَنِينَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَنِينَ يَرِثُونَ مِيرَاثَ الْبَنِينَ وَوَلَدُ الْبَنَاتِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَنَاتِ يَرِثُونَ مِيرَاثَ الْبَنَاتِ وَيَحْجُبُونَ الأبَوَيْنِ وَالزَّوْجَ وَالزَّوْجَةَ عَنْ سِهَامِهِمُ الأكْثَرِ وَإِنْ سَفَلُوا بِبَطْنَيْنِ وَثَلاثَةٍ وَأَكْثَرَ يَرِثُونَ مَا يَرِثُ وَلَدُ الصُّلْبِ وَيَحْجُبُونَ مَا يَحْجُبُ وَلَدُ الصُّلْبِ.


3. Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad from Sama‘ah who has said that Safwan gave to him the book of Musa ibn Bakr which he read it before him and found Musa ibn Bakr narrating it from Sa’id from Zurarah who has said that: there are no differences among our people about the following case. Abu ‘Abd Allah, and abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, were asked about a case in which a deceased woman left behind her husband, her mother and two daughters. He (the Imam) said, ‘The husband receives one-fourth of the legacy, the mother receives one-sixth and the rest belongs to the two daughters. It is because if they were two men, they would not receive more than what remained after deducting the shares of the mother and husband, and the share of female is never more than the share of males. If a deceased leaves behind the mother, father and a daughter, the distribution is possible from twenty- four shares of which the shares of the woman is one-eighth, three out of twenty-four, each parent receives one-sixth, four shares out of twenty-four shares and the daughter receives one-half, twelve shares. The remaining are five shares which are returned to the daughter and one of the parents, proportionate to their shares and nothing is returned to the woman. If a deceased leaves behind both parents, a woman and daughter, this also can be distribution from twenty-four shares of which two- sixth, eight shares, is for the parents four for each, the woman receives one-eighth, three shares out of twenty-four and the daughter receives one-half, twelve shares. The remaining one share is returned to the daughter and both parents, proportionate to the ratio of their shares and nothing is returned to the woman. If a deceased leaves behind the father, husband and a daughter, the father receives two shares out of twelve, which is one-sixth. The husband receives one-fourth, three shares out of twelve and the daughter receives one-half which are six shares out of twelve and one remaining share is returned to the daughter and father, proportionate to the ratio of their shares and nothing is returned to the husband. No one of the creatures of Allah inherits with a child except parents, husband and wife. If there are no children but the children of children, male or female, they keep the place of their parents. Children of sons are like the sons and inherit like sons and children of daughters keep the place of daughter, they inherit like daughter and bar parents, husband and wife from their shares of a larger amount, even if they are lower generations like one, two, three or more generations. They inherit what children from one’s seed inherit and bar what the children from one’s seed bar.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/146)