16. The Inheritance of a Son with both Parents

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ أَوْ قَالَ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ أَقْرَأَنِي أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) صَحِيفَةَ كِتَابِ الْفَرَائِضِ الَّتِي هِيَ إِمْلاءُ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَخَطُّ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِيَدِهِ فَوَجَدْتُ فِيهَا رَجُلٌ تَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ وَأُمَّهُ لِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلأمِّ السُّدُسُ سَهْمٌ يُقْسَمُ الْمَالُ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَسْهُمٍ فَمَا أَصَابَ ثَلاثَةَ أَسْهُمٍ فَلِلابْنَةِ وَمَا أَصَابَ سَهْماً فَهُوَ لِلأمِّ قَالَ وَقَرَأْتُ فِيهَا رَجُلٌ تَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ وَأَبَاهُ فَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلأبِ السُّدُسُ سَهْمٌ يُقْسَمُ الْمَالُ عَلَى أَرْبَعَةِ أَسْهُمٍ فَمَا أَصَابَ ثَلاثَةَ أَسْهُمٍ فَلِلابْنَةِ وَمَا أَصَابَ سَهْماً فَلِلأمِّ قَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَوَجَدْتُ فِيهَا رَجُلٌ تَرَكَ أَبَوَيْهِ وَابْنَتَهُ فَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ [لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا سَهْمٌ] يُقْسَمُ الْمَالُ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَسْهُمٍ فَمَا أَصَابَ ثَلاثَةً فَلِلابْنَةِ وَمَا أَصَابَ سَهْمَيْنِ فَلِلأبَوَيْنِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al- Rahman all from Safwan or he said from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “Once abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, made me read the page of the book of ordained shares. It was according to the dictation of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and with the handwriting of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. I found in it this, ’If a deceased leaves behind his daughter and mother, the share of the daughter is one- half or three shares and for the mother one-sixth. The legacy is made in four parts, of which three are for the daughter and one is for the mother/” “He (the narrator) has said, I read in it that, “If a deceased leaves behind his daughter and his father, the share of the daughter is one-half: three shares and the share of the father is one-sixth share. The legacy is made in four parts of which three are for the daughter and one is for the father.’” “Muhammad has said, T found in it that if a deceased leaves behind both parents and his daughter; the share of the daughter is one-half, three shares and the shares of parents are one-sixth for each. Such legacy can be made of five portions of which three are for the daughter and two for the parents.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/142)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ وَجَدْتُ فِي صَحِيفَةِ الْفَرَائِضِ رَجُلٌ مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ وَأَبَوَيْهِ فَلِلابْنَةِ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا سَهْمٌ يُقْسَمُ الْمَالُ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَجْزَاءٍ فَمَا أَصَابَ ثَلاثَةَ أَجْزَاءٍ فَلِلابْنَةِ وَمَا أَصَابَ جُزْءَيْنِ فَلِلأبَوَيْنِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I found in the book of ordained shares that if a deceased leaves behind his daughter and both parents, the share of the daughter are three shares and the parents each receives one share. The legacy is made in five parts of which three are for the daughter and two for the parents, one share each.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/143)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْجَدِّ فَقَالَ مَا أَجِدُ أَحَداً قَالَ فِيهِ إِلا بِرَأْيِهِ إِلا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللهُ فَمَا قَالَ فِيهِ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ غَداً فَالْقَنِي حَتَّى أُقْرِئَكَهُ فِي كِتَابٍ قُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللهُ حَدِّثْنِي فَإِنَّ حَدِيثَكَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ تُقْرِئَنِيهِ فِي كِتَابٍ فَقَالَ لِيَ الثَّانِيَةَ اسْمَعْ مَا أَقُولُ لَكَ إِذَا كَانَ غَداً فَالْقَنِي حَتَّى أُقْرِئَكَهُ فِي كِتَابٍ فَأَتَيْتُهُ مِنَ الْغَدِ بَعْدَ الظُّهْرِ وَكَانَتْ سَاعَتِيَ الَّتِي كُنْتُ أَخْلُو بِهِ فِيهَا بَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ وَكُنْتُ أَكْرَهُ أَنْ أَسْأَلَهُ إِلا خَالِياً خَشْيَةَ أَنْ يُفْتِيَنِي مِنْ أَجْلِ مَنْ يَحْضُرُهُ بِالتَّقِيَّةِ فَلَمَّا دَخَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى ابْنِهِ جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لَهُ أَقْرِئْ زُرَارَةَ صَحِيفَةَ الْفَرَائِضِ ثُمَّ قَامَ لِيَنَامَ فَبَقِيتُ أَنَا وَجَعْفَرٌ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الْبَيْتِ فَقَامَ فَأَخْرَجَ إِلَيَّ صَحِيفَةً مِثْلَ فَخِذِ الْبَعِيرِ فَقَالَ لَسْتُ أُقْرِئُكَهَا حَتَّى تَجْعَلَ لِي عَلَيْكَ اللهَ أَنْ لا تُحَدِّثَ بِمَا تَقْرَأُ فِيهَا أَحَداً أَبَداً حَتَّى آذَنَ لَكَ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ حَتَّى يَأْذَنَ لَكَ أَبِي فَقُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللهُ وَلِمَ تُضَيِّقُ عَلَيَّ وَلَمْ يَأْمُرْكَ أَبُوكَ بِذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لِي مَا أَنْتَ بِنَاظِرٍ فِيهَا إِلا عَلَى مَا قُلْتُ لَكَ فَقُلْتُ فَذَاكَ لَكَ وَكُنْتُ رَجُلا عَالِماً بِالْفَرَائِضِ وَالْوَصَايَا بَصِيراً بِهَا حَاسِباً لَهَا أَلْبَثُ الزَّمَانَ أَطْلُبُ شَيْئاً يُلْقَى عَلَيَّ مِنَ الْفَرَائِضِ وَالْوَصَايَا لا أَعْلَمُهُ فَلا أَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَى إِلَيَّ طَرَفَ الصَّحِيفَةِ إِذَا كِتَابٌ غَلِيظٌ يُعْرَفُ أَنَّهُ مِنْ كُتُبِ الأوَّلِينَ فَنَظَرْتُ فِيهَا فَإِذَا فِيهَا خِلافُ مَا بِأَيْدِي النَّاسِ مِنَ الصِّلَةِ وَالأمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ الَّذِي لَيْسَ فِيهِ اخْتِلافٌ وَإِذَا عَامَّتُهُ كَذَلِكَ فَقَرَأْتُهُ حَتَّى أَتَيْتُ عَلَى آخِرِهِ بِخُبْثِ نَفْسٍ وَقِلَّةِ تَحَفُّظٍ وَسَقَامِ رَأْيٍ وَقُلْتُ وَأَنَا أَقْرَؤُهُ بَاطِلٌ حَتَّى أَتَيْتُ عَلَى آخِرِهِ ثُمَّ أَدْرَجْتُهَا وَدَفَعْتُهَا إِلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحْتُ لَقِيتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لِي أَقَرَأْتَ صَحِيفَةَ الْفَرَائِضِ فَقُلْتُ نَعَمْ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ رَأَيْتَ مَا قَرَأْتَ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَاطِلٌ لَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ هُوَ خِلافُ مَا النَّاسُ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فَإِنَّ الَّذِي رَأَيْتَ وَاللهِ يَا زُرَارَةُ هُوَ الْحَقُّ الَّذِي رَأَيْتَ إِمْلاءُ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَخَطُّ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِيَدِهِ فَأَتَانِي الشَّيْطَانُ فَوَسْوَسَ فِي صَدْرِي فَقَالَ وَمَا يُدْرِيهِ أَنَّهُ إِمْلاءُ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَخَطُّ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِيَدِهِ فَقَالَ لِي قَبْلَ أَنْ أَنْطِقَ يَا زُرَارَةُ لا تَشُكَّنَّ وَدَّ الشَّيْطَانُ وَاللهِ إِنَّكَ شَكَكْتَ وَكَيْفَ لا أَدْرِي أَنَّهُ إِمْلاءُ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَخَطُّ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِيَدِهِ وَقَدْ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ جَدِّي أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) حَدَّثَهُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لا كَيْفَ جَعَلَنِيَ اللهُ فِدَاكَ وَنَدِمْتُ عَلَى مَا فَاتَنِي مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَلَوْ كُنْتُ قَرَأْتُهُ وَأَنَا أَعْرِفُهُ لَرَجَوْتُ أَنْ لا يَفُوتَنِي مِنْهُ حَرْفٌ قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ أُذَيْنَةَ قُلْتُ لِزُرَارَةَ فَإِنَّ أُنَاساً حَدَّثُونِي عَنْهُ وَعَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِأَشْيَاءَ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ فَأَعْرِضُهَا عَلَيْكَ فَمَا كَانَ مِنْهَا بَاطِلا فَقُلْ هَذَا بَاطِلٌ وَمَا كَانَ مِنْهَا حَقّاً فَقُلْ هَذَا حَقٌّ وَلا تَرْوِهِ وَاسْكُتْ فَحَدَّثْتُهُ بِمَا حَدَّثَنِي بِهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الابْنَةِ وَالأبِ وَالابْنَةِ وَالأمِّ وَالابْنَةِ وَالأبَوَيْنِ فَقَالَ هُوَ وَاللهِ الْحَقُّ. وَقَالَ الْفَضْلُ بْنُ شَاذَانَ فِي ابْنَةٍ وَأَبٍ لِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ وَلِلأبِ السُّدُسُ وَمَا بَقِيَ رُدَّ عَلَيْهِمَا عَلَى قَدْرِ أَنْصِبَائِهِمَا وَكَذَلِكَ إِنْ تَرَكَ ابْنَةً وَأُمّاً فَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ وَلِلأمِّ السُّدُسُ وَمَا بَقِيَ رُدَّ عَلَيْهِمَا عَلَى قَدْرِ أَنْصِبَائِهِمَا وَقَدْ قَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ وَمَا بَقِيَ فَلِلابْنَةِ لأنَّهَا أَقْرَبُ مِنَ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَغَلِطَ فِي ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ لأنَّ الأبَوَيْنِ يَتَقَرَّبَانِ بِأَنْفُسِهِمَا كَمَا يَتَقَرَّبُ الْوَلَدُ وَلَيْسُوا بِأَقْرَبَ مِنَ الأبَوَيْنِ وَالصَّوَابُ أَنْ يُرَدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَا بَقِيَ عَلَى قَدْرِ أَنْصِبَائِهِمْ لأنَّهُمُ اسْتَكْمَلُوا سِهَامَهُمْ فَكَانُوا أَقْرَبَ الأرْحَامِ فَكَانَ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْمَالِ لَهُمْ بِقَرَابَةِ الأرْحَامِ فَيُقْسَمُ ذَلِكَ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَنَازِلِهِمْ فَيَكُونُ حُكْمُ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْمَالِ حُكْمَ مَا قَسَمَهُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَيْنَهُمْ لا يُخَالَفُ اللهُ فِي حُكْمِهِ وَلا يَتَغَيَّرُ قِسْمَتُهُ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ بِنْتاً وَأَبَوَيْنِ فَلِلابْنَةِ النِّصْفُ وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ وَمَا بَقِيَ رُدَّ عَلَيْهِمْ عَلَى قَدْرِ أَنْصِبَائِهِمْ لأنَّ اللهَ جَلَّ وَعَزَّ لَمْ يَرُدَّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ دُونَ الآخَرِ وَجَعَلَ لِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيباً كَمَا جَعَلَ لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيباً وَسَوَّى فِي هَذِهِ الْفَرِيضَةِ بَيْنَ الأبِ وَالأمِّ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ ابْنَتَيْنِ وَأَبَوَيْنِ فَلِلابْنَتَيْنِ الثُّلُثَانِ وَلِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ ثَلاثَ بَنَاتٍ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ فَلِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ وَلِلْبَنَاتِ الثُّلُثَانِ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ أَبَوَيْنِ وَابْناً وَبِنْتاً فَلِلأبَوَيْنِ السُّدُسَانِ وَمَا بَقِيَ فَبَيْنَ الابْنِ وَالابْنَةِ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus all from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the grandfather. He (the Imam) said, ‘I do not find anyone who has spoken about it but that they have spoken out of their opinion except ’ Amir al- Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. I then asked, T pray to Allah to keep you well, what has ’ Amir al- Mu’minin said about it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Tomorrow meet me so I can make you read it in a book.’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep you well, speak to me about it; I like your speaking more than making me read in a book.’ He (the Imam) said again, ‘Listen to what I say. Tomorrow meet me, so I will make you read in a book.’ The next day I went to see him (the Imam) after al-Zuhr (noontime) and it was the hour that I would meet him between al-Zuhr and al-‘Asr (afternoon time) and I did not like to ask him in the presence of people for fear of his answering in taqiyah (caution because of fear). When I met him (the Imam) his son Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, came to me and he (the Imam) said to him, ‘Make Zurarah to read the book of ordained shares.’ He (the Imam) left for his siesta. Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and I were left in the house. He stood up and brought for me a book (which looked) like the thigh of a camel. He (Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam ) said, ‘I will not allow you to read it until you promise before Allah that you will never tell anyone about what you will read in it until I will give permission’, and he did not say, ‘until my father gives you permission.’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep you well, why do you restrict me when your father has not commanded you to do so?’ He said, ‘You must not look in it on what is other than what I will tell you to read.’ I said, ‘That is up to you.’ I was a knowledgeable man in ordained shares of inheritance and wills and well aware of them and in calculating them. I waited for quite a long time to find something about ordained shares and wills that I did not know and can deal with. When he placed a side of the book before me, it was a thick book and one can notice that it was of the books of earlier generations. I looked in it and I found it to be different from what is commonly accepted among people, such as matters of compensation and urging others to do good things, in which there is not any difference. I found the majority of it like that until the end of it, with a filthy soul, very little memorization and defective opinion; and I said, ‘Do I (need) to read this?’ It is false. I reached its end. I closed it and returned it to him (Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam ). The next day I met abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and he asked me, ‘Did you read the book of ordained shares?’ I replied, ‘Yes, I read it.’ He (the Imam) then asked, ‘How did you find what you read?’ He (the narrator) has said that he said, ‘It is false and it does not have any valid effect. It is against what people say and do.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What you saw O Zurarah, by Allah, is the truth. What you saw is the dictation of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, in the handwriting of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam.’ Satan came to me with temptation in my chest and said, ‘He does not know if it is the dictation of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and the handwriting of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He (the Imam) said to me before I spoke, ‘O Zurarah, do not doubt. Satan loved to make you doubt. How it is possible that I remain ignorant of its not being the dictation of the Messenger of Allah and the handwriting of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when my father narrated to me from my grandfather ’ Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, who narrated to him about it.’ He (the narrator) has said that I said, ‘No, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause. I regretted for not reading what I did not read of the book. Had I read it and I had known it I would hope not to miss anything thereof; not even a single letter.’ “‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah has said, ‘I said to Zurarah that people have spoken to me from him (the Imam) and from his father, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, about certain things on ordained shares. Can I present them before you so you can tell me what is false and what is true and do not narrate so I remain quiet? I narrated to him what Muhammad ibn Muslim had narrated from abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the daughter and father and about a daughter and both parents. He said that it is true. “Al-Fadl ibn Shadhan about a daughter and father has said, that the daughter receives one-half and the father receives one-sixth and the remaining is returned to them proportionate to their shares. “So also is the case if a deceased leaves behind a daughter and mother. One-half belongs to the daughter, the mother receives one-sixth, and the remaining is returned to them proportionate to their shares. Certain people have said that the remaining belongs to the daughter because she is closer than both parents are. It is a mistake totally; the parents are close by themselves as the children are, but children are not closer than parents are. The correct thing is to return the remaining to all of them proportionate to their shares. They have received their shares and as nearest relatives the remaining asset belongs to them as relatives, thus it is divided among them according to the distribution of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, among them. Allah does not cause difference in His rule and His division does not change.’ “If a deceased leaves behind one daughter and both parents then one-half belongs to the daughter and the parents receive one-sixth. The remaining is returned to them proportionate to their shares because Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has not returned to one and not to the other one. He has made a share for women just as He has made a share for men. It is equal in this obligation between mother and father. If a deceased leaves behind two daughters and both parents, the share of daughters is two- thirds and parents receive two-sixths. If a deceased leaves behind three daughters or more then the share of parents is two-sixths and the daughters receive two-thirds. If a deceased leaves behind parents and one son and one daughter, the parents receive two-sixths and the remaining is distributed among the son and daughter where the son receives twice as much as the share of the daughter.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/143)