54. Divorce of One Compelled and Coerced

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عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلًا مُسْلِماً مَرَّ بِقَوْمٍ لَيْسُوا بِسُلْطَانٍ فَقَهَرُوهُ حَتَّى يَتَخَوَّفَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ أَوْ يُطَلِّقَ فَفَعَلَ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ .


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from certain persons of his people from ibn abu ‘Umayr or others from ‘ Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘If a Muslim man passes by a people who do have not any valid authority and they force him, he fears for his life, to set free a slave or divorce and he complies, it does not have any valid effect against him/”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/215)



عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ طَلَاقِ الْمُكْرَهِ وَ عِتْقِهِ فَقَالَ لَيْسَ طَلَاقُهُ بِطَلَاقٍ وَ لَا عِتْقُهُ بِعِتْقٍ فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي رَجُلٌ تَاجِرٌ أَمُرُّ بِالْعَشَّارِ وَ مَعِي مَالٌ فَقَالَ غَيِّبْهُ مَا اسْتَطَعْتَ وَ ضَعْهُ مَوَاضِعَهُ فَقُلْتُ وَ إِنْ حَلَّفَنِي بِالطَّلَاقِ وَ الْعَتَاقِ فَقَالَ احْلِفْ لَهُ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ تَمْرَةً فَحَفَنَ بِهَا مِنْ زُبْدٍ كَانَ قُدَّامَهُ فَقَالَ مَا أُبَالِي حَلَفْتُ لَهُمْ بِالطَّلَاقِ وَ الْعَتَاقِ أَوْ أَكَلْتُهَا .


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the divorce of a man who is coerced and about his setting free slaves. He (the Imam) said, ‘His divorce is not a divorce and his setting free slaves is not valid freedom/ I then said, ‘I am a merchant and I pass by a one-tenth tax collector, with certain amount of assets with me/ He (the Imam) said, ‘Keep it concealed as much as you can in their proper place/ I then asked, ‘What must I do if they ask me to swear about divorce and setting free slaves?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You can swear for him.’ He (the Imam) then took a piece of date and immersed it in butter in front of him (the Imam).’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘I do not mind about your swearing for divorce and setting free slaves or eating this.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/215)



حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ عُبَيْسِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ وَ صَالِحِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ يُونُسَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الْعَبْدَ الصَّالِحَ ( عليه السلام ) وَ هُوَ بِالْعُرَيْضِ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي قَدْ تَزَوَّجْتُ امْرَأَةً وَ كَانَ تُحِبُّنِي فَتَزَوَّجْتُ عَلَيْهَا ابْنَةَ خَالِي وَ قَدْ كَانَ لِي مِنَ الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَدٌ فَرَجَعْتُ إِلَى بَغْدَادَ فَطَلَّقْتُهَا وَاحِدَةً ثُمَّ رَاجَعْتُهَا ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُهَا الثَّانِيَةَ ثُمَّ رَاجَعْتُهَا ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ مِنْ عِنْدِهَا أُرِيدُ سَفَرِي هَذَا حَتَّى إِذَا كُنْتُ بِالْكُوفَةِ أَرَدْتُ النَّظَرَ إِلَى ابْنَةِ خَالِي فَقَالَتْ أُخْتِي وَ خَالَتِي لَا تَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهَا وَ اللَّهِ أَبَداً حَتَّى تُطَلِّقَ فُلَانَةَ فَقُلْتُ وَيْحَكُمْ وَ اللَّهِ مَا لِي إِلَى طَلَاقِهَا سَبِيلٌفَقَالَ لِي هُوَ مِنْ شَأْنِكَ لَيْسَ لَكَ إِلَى طَلَاقِهَا سَبِيلٌ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّهُ كَانَتْ لِي مِنْهَا بِنْتٌ وَ كَانَتْ بِبَغْدَادَ وَ كَانَتْ هَذِهِ بِالْكُوفَةِ وَ خَرَجْتُ مِنْ عِنْدِهَا قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ بِأَرْبَعٍ فَأَبَوْا عَلَيَّ إِلَّا تَطْلِيقَهَا ثَلَاثاً وَ لَا وَ اللَّهِ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مَا أَرَدْتُ اللَّهَ وَ مَا أَرَدْتُ إِلَّا أَنْ أُدَارِيَهُمْ عَنْ نَفْسِي وَ قَدِ امْتَلَأَ قَلْبِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَفَمَكَثَ طَوِيلًا مُطْرِقاً ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَيَّ وَ هُوَ مُتَبَسِّمٌ فَقَالَ أَمَّا مَا بَيْنَكَ وَ بَيْنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَلَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ وَ لَكِنْ إِذَا قَدَّمُوكَ إِلَى السُّلْطَانِ أَبَانَهَا مِنْكَ .


3. Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from ibn Sama‘ah from ‘Ubays ibn Hisham and Salih ibn Khalid from Mansur ibn Yunus who has said the following: “I once asked Allah’s virtuous servant, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when he was in al-‘Arid, (name of a place) saying, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I married a woman who loved me. I then married the daughter of my maternal uncle and from the woman I had a son. I returned to Baghdad and divorced her once, then I went back to her, then divorced her for the second time, then I went back to her and then left for this journey. I arrived in al-Kufah to see the daughter of my maternal uncle, and my sister and maternal aunt told me that, by Allah, I could never look at her until I divorced so and so. I then told them: ‘Fie on you; I have no way to divorce her.’ He said, ‘It is up to you and it is your problem.’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause. From her I had a daughter who lived in Baghdad and this is in al-Kufah; I had left her before four and they refused to allow me to see her unless I divorced her three times. No, by Allah, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I did not want to do so except that I wanted to keep them away from myself, and my heart has become full (of disappointment with them). I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause.’ He (the Imam) then bent down his head for a long time, then raised his head, smiling and said, ‘Between you and Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, there is no problem, however, if they take their case against you before the Sultan (ruling authorities) they can make her to become stranger to you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/215)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ لَا يَجُوزُ الطَّلَاقُ فِي اسْتِكْرَاهٍ وَ لَا يَجُوزُ عِتْقٌ فِي اسْتِكْرَاهٍ وَ لَا يَجُوزُ يَمِينٌ فِي قَطِيعَةِ رَحِمٍ وَ لَا فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ فَمَنْ حَلَفَ أَوْ حُلِّفَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ هَذَا وَ فَعَلَهُ فَلَا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْهِقَالَ وَ إِنَّمَا الطَّلَاقُ مَا أُرِيدَ بِهِ الطَّلَاقُ مِنْ غَيْرِ اسْتِكْرَاهٍ وَ لَا إِضْرَارٍ عَلَى الْعِدَّةِ وَ السُّنَّةِ عَلَى طُهْرٍ بِغَيْرِ جِمَاعٍ وَ شَاهِدَيْنِ فَمَنْ خَالَفَ هَذَا فَلَيْسَ طَلَاقُهُ وَ لَا يَمِينُهُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ يُرَدُّ إِلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ .


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from Yahya ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn af-Hassan who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Divorce under coercion is not permissible or setting free of a slave. It is not permissible to swear for cutting off good relations with relatives or for a sinful act in disobedience to Allah. Thus, whoever swears or is made to swear about something of this kind, it does not have any valid effect on him. Divorce is what is meant to be divorce, and without coercion or harming in a divorce in the manner of waiting period, according to the Sunnah, in a Hayd (menses)-free period, without sexual intercourse and is pronounced in the presence of two witnesses. If one opposes this, his divorce and oath do not have any valid effect and it is returned to the book of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/216)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْجُعْفِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) أَمُرُّ بِالْعَشَّارِ وَ مَعِي مَالٌ فَيَسْتَحْلِفُنِي فَإِنْ حَلَفْتُ لَهُ تَرَكَنِي وَ إِنْ لَمْ أَحْلِفْ لَهُ فَتَّشَنِي وَ ظَلَمَنِي فَقَالَ احْلِفْ لَهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْتَحْلِفُنِي بِالطَّلَاقِ فَقَالَ احْلِفْ لَهُ فَقُلْتُ فَإِنَّ الْمَالَ لَا يَكُونُ لِي قَالَ فَعَنْ مَالِ أَخِيكَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) رَدَّ طَلَاقَ ابْنِ عُمَرَ وَ قَدْ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَهُ ثَلَاثاً وَ هِيَ حَائِضٌ فَلَمْ يَرَ ذَلِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً .


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab from ’Isma‘il al-Ju‘fiy who has said the following: “I pass by one-tenth tax collector for trading with a certain amount of assets with me and the party (tax collector) asks me to swear. If I swear he allows me to go, but if I do not swear he searches my assets and does injustice to me. He (the Imam) said, ‘You can swear for him.’ I then said, ‘He asks me to swear in the issue of divorce. He (the Imam) said, ‘You can swear for him.’ I said, ‘The asset does not belong to me.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Do it for the assets of your brother. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, reversed the divorce of ibn ‘Umar, who had divorced his wife three times during her Hayd (menses) and the Messenger of Allah considered it invalid and devoid of valid effect.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/216)