37. Women Whom Allah, Most Majestic, Most Glorious, Made Lawful for Marriage

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ نُوحِ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ قَالَ سَأَلَ ابْنُ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَلَيْسَ اللهُ حَكِيماً قَالَ بَلَى وَهُوَ أَحْكَمُ الْحَاكِمِينَ قَالَ فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ مَثْنى‏ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلا تَعْدِلُوا فَواحِدَةً أَلَيْسَ هَذَا فَرْضاً قَالَ بَلَى قَالَ فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّساءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ أَيُّ حَكِيمٍ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِهَذَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ جَوَابٌ فَرَحَلَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ إِلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ يَا هِشَامُ فِي غَيْرِ وَقْتِ حَجٍّ وَلا عُمْرَةٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ لأمْرٍ أَهَمَّنِي إِنَّ ابْنَ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ سَأَلَنِي عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدِي فِيهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ وَمَا هِيَ قَالَ فَأَخْبَرَهُ بِالْقِصَّةِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ مَثْنى‏ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلا تَعْدِلُوا فَواحِدَةً يَعْنِي فِي النَّفَقَةِ وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّساءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوها كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ يَعْنِي فِي الْمَوَدَّةِ قَالَ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِ هِشَامٌ بِهَذَا الْجَوَابِ وَأَخْبَرَهُ قَالَ وَاللهِ مَا هَذَا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Nuh ibn Shu’ayb and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan who has said the following: “Once, ibn abu al-‘Awja’ asked Hisham ibn al-Hakam, ’Is not Allah wise?’ Hisham ibn al-Hakam replied, ’Yes, He is. He is the most firm of the judges.’ He (ibn abu al-’Awja’) then asked, ’Tell me about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Marry whomever of women you like, two, three or four and if you fear of failure to maintain justice then marry only one.” (4:3) Is not it obligatory?’ He replied, ‘Yes, it is.’ He then asked, ‘Tell me about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “You can never maintain justice among women no matter how strongly you desire, so do not incline completely to a particular side.” (4:128) What kind of a wise person makes such statements?’ Hisham ibn al-Hakam did not have an answer for it so he traveled to al-Madinah to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He (the Imam) asked, ’O Hisham, this is not the season of Hajj or ‘Umrah.’ Hisham replied, ‘Yes, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I have come for what is very important for me. Ibn abu al-‘Awja’ asked me a question and I did not have any answer to it.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What is the question?’ He explained the story and abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘The words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Marry whomever of women you like, two, three or four and if you fear of failure to maintain justice then marry only one,” (4:3) are about maintenance and expenses and the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “You can never maintain justice among women no matter how strongly you desire, so do not incline completely to a particular side to leave her in suspense,” (4:128) are about love.’ He (the narrator) has said that when Hisham ibn al-Hakam came back with this answer he (ibn abu al-‘Awja’) said, ‘By Allah, this is not from you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/80)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى أَحَلَّ الْفَرْجَ لِعِلَلِ مَقْدُرَةِ الْعِبَادِ فِي الْقُوَّةِ عَلَى الْمَهْرِ وَالْقُدْرَةِ عَلَى الإمْسَاكِ فَقَالَ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ مَثْنى‏ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلا تَعْدِلُوا فَواحِدَةً أَوْ ما مَلَكَتْ أَيْمانُكُمْ وَقَالَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلا أَنْ يَنْكِحَ الْمُحْصَناتِ الْمُؤْمِناتِ فَمِنْ ما مَلَكَتْ أَيْمانُكُمْ مِنْ فَتَياتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِناتِ وَقَالَ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَ‏آتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَلا جُناحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيما تَراضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ فَأَحَلَّ اللهُ الْفَرْجَ لأهْلِ الْقُوَّةِ عَلَى قَدْرِ قُوَّتِهِمْ عَلَى إِعْطَاءِ الْمَهْرِ وَالْقُدْرَةِ عَلَى الإمْسَاكِ أَرْبَعَةً لِمَنْ قَدَرَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَلِمَنْ دُونَهُ بِثَلاثٍ وَاثْنَتَيْنِ وَوَاحِدَةٍ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى وَاحِدَةٍ تَزَوَّجَ مِلْكَ الْيَمِينِ وَإِذَا لَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى إِمْسَاكِهَا وَلَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى تَزْوِيجِ الْحُرَّةِ وَلا عَلَى شِرَاءِ الْمَمْلُوكَةِ فَقَدْ أَحَلَّ اللهُ تَزْوِيجَ الْمُتْعَةِ بِأَيْسَرِ مَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَهْرِ وَلا لُزُومِ نَفَقَةٍ وَأَغْنَى اللهُ كُلَّ فَرِيقٍ مِنْهُمْ بِمَا أَعْطَاهُمْ مِنَ الْقُوَّةِ عَلَى إِعْطَاءِ الْمَهْرِ وَالْجِدَةِ فِي النَّفَقَةِ عَنِ الإمْسَاكِ وَعَنِ الإمْسَاكِ عَنِ الْفُجُورِ وَإِلا يُؤْتَوْا مِنْ قِبَلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي حُسْنِ الْمَعُونَةِ وَإِعْطَاءِ الْقُوَّةِ وَالدَّلالَةِ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْحَلالِ لَمَا أَعْطَاهُمْ مَا يَسْتَعِفُّونَ بِهِ عَنِ الْحَرَامِ فِيمَا أَعْطَاهُمْ وَأَغْنَاهُمْ عَنِ الْحَرَامِ وَبِمَا أَعْطَاهُمْ وَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ وَضَعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْحُدُودَ مِنَ الضَّرْبِ وَالرَّجْمِ وَاللِّعَانِ وَالْفُرْقَةِ وَلَوْ لَمْ يُغْنِ اللهُ كُلَّ فِرْقَةٍ مِنْهُمْ بِمَا جَعَلَ لَهُمُ السَّبِيلَ إِلَى وُجُوهِ الْحَلالِ لَمَا وَضَعَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَدّاً مِنْ هَذِهِ الْحُدُودِ فَأَمَّا وَجْهُ التَّزْوِيجِ الدَّائِمِ وَوَجْهُ مِلْكِ الْيَمِينِ فَهُوَ بَيِّنٌ وَاضِحٌ فِي أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِكَثْرَةِ مُعَامَلَتِهِمْ بِهِ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ وَأَمَّا أَمْرُ الْمُتْعَةِ فَأَمْرٌ غَمَضَ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ لِعِلَّةِ نَهْيِ مَنْ نَهَى عَنْهُ وَتَحْرِيمِهِ لَهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مَوْجُودَةً فِي التَّنْزِيلِ وَمَأْثُورَةً فِي السُّنَّةِ الْجَامِعَةِ لِمَنْ طَلَبَ عِلَّتَهَا وَأَرَادَ ذَلِكَ فَصَارَ تَزْوِيجُ الْمُتْعَةِ حَلالا لِلْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ لِيَسْتَوِيَا فِي تَحْلِيلِ الْفَرْجِ كَمَا اسْتَوَيَا فِي قَضَاءِ نُسُكِ الْحَجِّ مُتْعَةِ الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ لِلْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ فَدَخَلَ فِي هَذَا التَّفْسِيرِ الْغَنِيُّ لِعِلَّةِ الْفَقِيرِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْفَرَائِضَ إِنَّمَا وُضِعَتْ عَلَى أَدْنَى الْقَوْمِ قُوَّةً لِيَسَعَ الْغَنِيَّ وَالْفَقِيرَ وَذَلِكَ لأنَّهُ غَيْرُ جَائِزٍ أَنْ يُفْرَضَ الْفَرَائِضُ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَقَادِيرِ الْقَوْمِ فَلا يُعْرَفُ قُوَّةُ الْقَوِيِّ مِنْ ضَعْفِ الضَّعِيفِ وَلَكِنْ وُضِعَتْ عَلَى قُوَّةِ أَضْعَفِ الضُّعَفَاءِ ثُمَّ رَغِبَ الأقْوِيَاءُ فَسَارَعُوا فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ بِالنَّوَافِلِ بِفَضْلِ الْقُوَّةِ فِي الأنْفُسِ وَالأمْوَالِ وَالْمُتْعَةُ حَلالٌ لِلْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ لأهْلِ الْجِدَةِ مِمَّنْ لَهُ أَرْبَعٌ وَمِمَّنْ لَهُ مِلْكُ الْيَمِينِ مَا شَاءَ كَمَا هِيَ حَلالٌ لِمَنْ يَجِدُ إِلا بِقَدْرِ مَهْرِ الْمُتْعَةِ وَالْمَهْرُ مَا تَرَاضَيَا عَلَيْهِ فِي حُدُودِ التَّزْوِيجِ لِلْغَنِيِّ وَالْفَقِيرِ قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Allah, most High has made marriage lawful on the basis of His servants’ ability to pay mahr (dower) and their ability to provide maintenance, so He has said, “Marry whomever of women you like, two, three or four and if you fear of failure to maintain justice then marry only one or a slave-girl that you own.” (4:3) Allah has also said, “Anyone of you who is not able to pay mahr (dower) to marry chaste believing woman he can marry of the slave-girls that you own of the young believing woman.” (4:128) Allah has said, “If you seek advantage from the women then pay their compensation as an obligation and it is not unlawful if you settle among yourselves.” (4:24) Allah has made marriage lawful for those who are able to pay mahr (dower) according to their financial resources and their ability to provide maintenance for four or for three or two or just one. Those who cannot provide expenses for one they can marry slave-girls whom they own. If one cannot maintain women, marry free women or buy a slave-girl; Allah has made al-Mut‘ah lawful by means of whatever is easy of mahr (dower) to pay in which providing maintenance and all expenses is not necessary. Allah makes each one self-sufficient by means of whatever He has given them in the form of their abilities to pay mahr (dower) with (or without) constraint in expenses for maintenance and the ability to refrain from indecent activities and the ability to refrain. From Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, are good resources, capabilities and guidance to lawful goals by means of what He has given them so they can maintain chastity, remain away from unlawful matters by means of what He has given them and has made them free of needing unlawful matters and by whatever He has given them and has explained to them. Thus He has set limits upon them, like punishment by lashing and stoning, Li ‘an (condemnation) and separation. Had Allah not met the needs of each group by the resources that are made available to them and the lawful ways He would not set any of such limitation upon them. “The permanent manner of marriage and owning slave-girls are well-known among people because of being practiced so often. The issue of al-Mut‘ah is not clear for many people because of the prohibition of the One who prohibited it even though permission for it exists in the revelation (al- Quran) and is mentioned in the universal Sunnah for those who may like to find the reason and like to know it. Marriage in the manner of al-Mut‘ah is permissible for rich and poor with equal measure of lawfulness of marriage as they are equal in completing the obligation of al-Hajj and al-Mut‘ah in al- Hajj. The offering animal is for both rich and poor to offer. In this respect rich and poor are equal. It is because obligatory matters are sanctioned on the basis of the ability of those with the least amount of abilities to include both rich and poor. It is not fair to sanction obligatory matters on the basis of the abilities of people, otherwise, weakness and strength become confused. They are sanctioned on the basis of the least amount of abilities, thereafter the stronger ones are exhorted to compete in good deeds in optional matters because of their strength in their persons and wealth. Al-Mut‘ah is lawful for rich and poor, for those with limited abilities and for those with four wives or those who are married with slave-girls, if one likes. It is lawful for those who can only find enough for mahr (dower) of al- Mut‘ah and mahr (dower) is whatever they agree on within the limits of marriage for rich and poor regardless of being very little or a great deal.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح موقوف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/80)