Al-Kāfi - Volume 5 > Women Whom Allah, Most Majestic, Most Glorious, Made Lawful for Marriage
Hadith #1

1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ نُوحِ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ قَالَ سَأَلَ ابْنُ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَلَيْسَ اللهُ حَكِيماً قَالَ بَلَى وَهُوَ أَحْكَمُ الْحَاكِمِينَ قَالَ فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ مَثْنى‏ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلا تَعْدِلُوا فَواحِدَةً أَلَيْسَ هَذَا فَرْضاً قَالَ بَلَى قَالَ فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّساءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ أَيُّ حَكِيمٍ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِهَذَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ جَوَابٌ فَرَحَلَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ إِلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ يَا هِشَامُ فِي غَيْرِ وَقْتِ حَجٍّ وَلا عُمْرَةٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ لأمْرٍ أَهَمَّنِي إِنَّ ابْنَ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ سَأَلَنِي عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدِي فِيهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ وَمَا هِيَ قَالَ فَأَخْبَرَهُ بِالْقِصَّةِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ مَثْنى‏ وَثُلاثَ وَرُباعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلا تَعْدِلُوا فَواحِدَةً يَعْنِي فِي النَّفَقَةِ وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّساءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ فَلا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوها كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ يَعْنِي فِي الْمَوَدَّةِ قَالَ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِ هِشَامٌ بِهَذَا الْجَوَابِ وَأَخْبَرَهُ قَالَ وَاللهِ مَا هَذَا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ.

1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Nuh ibn Shu’ayb and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan who has said the following: “Once, ibn abu al-‘Awja’ asked Hisham ibn al-Hakam, ’Is not Allah wise?’ Hisham ibn al-Hakam replied, ’Yes, He is. He is the most firm of the judges.’ He (ibn abu al-’Awja’) then asked, ’Tell me about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Marry whomever of women you like, two, three or four and if you fear of failure to maintain justice then marry only one.” (4:3) Is not it obligatory?’ He replied, ‘Yes, it is.’ He then asked, ‘Tell me about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “You can never maintain justice among women no matter how strongly you desire, so do not incline completely to a particular side.” (4:128) What kind of a wise person makes such statements?’ Hisham ibn al-Hakam did not have an answer for it so he traveled to al-Madinah to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He (the Imam) asked, ’O Hisham, this is not the season of Hajj or ‘Umrah.’ Hisham replied, ‘Yes, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I have come for what is very important for me. Ibn abu al-‘Awja’ asked me a question and I did not have any answer to it.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What is the question?’ He explained the story and abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘The words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Marry whomever of women you like, two, three or four and if you fear of failure to maintain justice then marry only one,” (4:3) are about maintenance and expenses and the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “You can never maintain justice among women no matter how strongly you desire, so do not incline completely to a particular side to leave her in suspense,” (4:128) are about love.’ He (the narrator) has said that when Hisham ibn al-Hakam came back with this answer he (ibn abu al-‘Awja’) said, ‘By Allah, this is not from you.’”