34. Marriage of a Free Man with a Slave

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الْحُرِّ يَتَزَوَّجُ الأمَةَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ إِذَا اضْطُرَّ إِلَيْهَا.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah from abu Basir who has said the following: “About the case of a free man who marries a slave-girl, abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ’It is not unlawful if it is an emergency.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/70)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ تَزَوَّجِ الْحُرَّةَ عَلَى الأمَةِ وَلا تَزَوَّجِ الأمَةَ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ وَمَنْ تَزَوَّجَ أَمَةً عَلَى حُرَّةٍ فَنِكَاحُهُ بَاطِلٌ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘A free woman can become a second wife, the first wife being a slave-girl; but a slave-girl cannot become a second wife, the first wife being a free woman. If one marries a slave-girl as a second wife, the first being a free woman, such marriage is invalid.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/71)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ نِكَاحِ الأمَةِ قَالَ يَتَزَوَّجُ الْحُرَّةَ عَلَى الأمَةِ وَلا تُتَزَوَّجُ الأمَةُ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ وَنِكَاحُ الأمَةِ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ بَاطِلٌ وَإِنِ اجْتَمَعَتْ عِنْدَكَ حُرَّةٌ وَأَمَةٌ فَلِلْحُرَّةِ يَوْمَانِ وَلِلأمَةِ يَوْمٌ لا يَصْلُحُ نِكَاحُ الأمَةِ إِلا بِإِذْنِ مَوَالِيهَا.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah from abu Basir who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the marriage with a slave-girl. He (the Imam) said, ‘One can marry a free woman as a second wife, the first being a slave- girl, but he cannot marry a slave-girl as a second wife, the first being a free woman, and the marriage contract of slave-girl as a second wife, the first being a free woman, is invalid. If you have a free and a slave-girl wife, for the free wife are two days and for the slave-girl one day and it is not proper to marry a slave-girl without the permission of the master.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/71)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى اللَّحَّامِ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً حُرَّةً وَلَهُ امْرَأَةٌ أَمَةٌ وَلَمْ تَعْلَمِ الْحُرَّةُ أَنَّ لَهُ امْرَأَةً أَمَةً قَالَ إِنْ شَاءَتِ الْحُرَّةُ أَنْ تُقِيمَ مَعَ الأمَةِ أَقَامَتْ وَإِنْ شَاءَتْ ذَهَبَتْ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَرْضَ بِذَلِكَ وَذَهَبَتْ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا أَفَلَهُ عَلَيْهَا سَبِيلٌ إِذَا لَمْ تَرْضَ بِالْمَقَامِ قَالَ لا سَبِيلَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا إِذَا لَمْ تَرْضَ حِينَ تَعْلَمُ قُلْتُ فَذَهَابُهَا إِلَى أَهْلِهَا هُوَ طَلاقُهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذَا خَرَجَتْ مِنْ مَنْزِلِهِ اعْتَدَّتْ ثَلاثَةَ أَشْهُرٍ أَوْ ثَلاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجُ إِنْ شَاءَتْ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahbub from Yahya al-Lahham from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “About the case of a man who marries a free woman and he has a wife who is a slave-girl and the free woman does not know that he has a slave-girl wife, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the free woman wants to live with his slave-girl wife, she can do so and if she wants she can go to her family.’ I then asked, ‘If she did not like to live with his slave-girl wife and went to her family, is there a way for him to bring her back?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He has no way to bring her back if she does not agree when she finds out.’ I then asked, ‘Is her going to her family her divorce?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, when she goes out of his house, she commences her waiting period for three months or three cycles of menses then she can marry if she so chooses.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/71)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَلْ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ النَّصْرَانِيَّةَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمَةِ وَالأمَةَ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ فَقَالَ لا تُتَزَوَّجُ وَاحِدَةٌ مِنْهُمَا عَلَى الْمُسْلِمَةِ وَتُتَزَوَّجُ الْمُسْلِمَةُ عَلَى الأمَةِ وَالنَّصْرَانِيَّةِ وَلِلْمُسْلِمَةِ الثُّلُثَانِ وَلِلأمَةِ وَالنَّصْرَانِيَّةِ الثُّلُثُ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if a man can marry a Christian woman as a second wife, the first being a Muslim woman or a slave-girl as a second wife, the first being a free woman. He (the Imam) said, ‘He cannot marry anyone of them as a second wife, the first being a Muslim woman. One can marry a Muslim woman as a second wife, the first being a slave-girl or a Christian woman. The Muslim woman will have two-thirds of the time, the slave-girl and the Christian woman one-third of the time.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/72)



6- أَبَانٌ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَتَزَوَّجُ الأمَةَ قَالَ لا إِلا أَنْ يُضْطَرَّ إِلَى ذَلِكَ.


6. Aban has narrated from Zurarah ibn ‘A‘yan who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the marriage of a slave-girl. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, unless it is an emergency.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/72)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الرَّجُلُ الْحُرُّ الْمَمْلُوكَةَ الْيَوْمَ إِنَّمَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ حَيْثُ قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلا وَالطَّوْلُ الْمَهْرُ وَمَهْرُ الْحُرَّةِ الْيَوْمَ مَهْرُ الأمَةِ أَوْ أَقَلُّ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from certain persons of our people who have said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not proper today for a free man to marry a slave- girl. It was permissible as Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘If one cannot find resources. . . .’ (4:25) Resources is a reference to mahr (dower). Today mahr (dower) is like the mahr (dower) of slave-girls or less.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/72)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ وَغَيْرِهِ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْهُمْ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُسْلِمِ الْمُوسِرِ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الأمَةَ إِلا أَنْ لا يَجِدَ حُرَّةً فَكَذَلِكَ لا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلا فِي حَالِ الضَّرُورَةِ حَيْثُ لا يَجِدُ مُسْلِمَةً حُرَّةً وَلا أَمَةً.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘Isma’il ibn Marrar and others from Yunus from ‘A’immah who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not proper for an affluent Muslim man to marry a slave-girl unless he cannot find a free woman. So also, it is not proper for him to marry a woman from the people of the book unless it is an emergency when he cannot find a free Muslim woman or a slave- girl.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/76)



9- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي لِلْحُرِّ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الأمَةَ وَهُوَ يَقْدِرُ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ وَلا يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الأمَةَ عَلَى الْحُرَّةِ وَلا بَأْسَ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الْحُرَّةَ عَلَى الأمَةِ فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَ الْحُرَّةَ عَلَى الأمَةِ فَلِلْحُرَّةِ يَوْمَانِ وَلِلأمَةِ يَوْمٌ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘Isma’il ibn Marrar from Yunus from ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not proper for a free man to marry a slave-girl when he is able to marry a free woman, and it is not proper for him to marry a slave-girl as a second wife, the first being a free woman but it is not unlawful to marry a free woman as a second wife, the first being a slave-girl; and if he did so, two days of time is for the free woman and one day for the slave-girl.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/76)