44. The Amount a Supervisor of the Properties of Orphans Can Lawfully Use

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ كانَ فَقِيراً فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَقَالَ مَنْ كَانَ يَلِي شَيْئاً لِلْيَتَامَى وَهُوَ مُحْتَاجٌ لَيْسَ لَهُ مَا يُقِيمُهُ فَهُوَ يَتَقَاضَى أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَيَقُومُ فِي ضَيْعَتِهِمْ فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِقَدَرٍ وَلا يُسْرِفْ وَإِنْ كَانَ ضَيْعَتُهُمْ لا تَشْغَلُهُ عَمَّا يُعَالِجُ لِنَفْسِهِ فَلا يَرْزَأَنَّ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ شَيْئاً.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘One who is poor can eat to the proper limit’, (4:6) abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is one who manages the properties of orphans but is needy and does not have anything to support himself. He collects debts that people owe to them (orphans) and looks after them, he can eat from their assets only what he needs without excess, but if their assets do not take his time to work for his own-self, then he must not use anything of the properties of the orphans.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/96)



2- عُثْمَانُ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِنْ تُخالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوانُكُمْ قَالَ يَعْنِي الْيَتَامَى إِذَا كَانَ الرَّجُلُ يَلِي لأيْتَامٍ فِي حَجْرِهِ فَلْيُخْرِجْ مِنْ مَالِهِ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يُخْرِجُ لِكُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ فَيُخَالِطُهُمْ وَيَأْكُلُونَ جَمِيعاً وَلا يَرْزَأَنَّ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ شَيْئاً إِنَّمَا هِيَ النَّارُ.


2. ‘Uthman has narrated from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘If you mix with them then they are your brothers in religion’, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is a reference to orphans. If one becomes the person-in-charge of the affairs of orphans, one must take from one’s own assets a certain amount, and equal to this amount from every one of the orphan assets take the same amount; then mix them for the use of all of them together. One must not use anything from their property; it is the fire.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/97)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ قَالَ الْمَعْرُوفُ هُوَ الْقُوتُ وَإِنَّمَا عَنَى الْوَصِيَّ أَوِ الْقَيِّمَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَمَا يُصْلِحُهُمْ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from all from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘He must eat to the proper limit’, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Al-Ma‘ruf (proper limit) is what one needs for sustenance. It applies to the executor of the will or one who is appointed as the custodian of their assets and to work for their welfare.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/97)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ حَنَانِ بْنِ سَدِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سَأَلَنِي عِيسَى بْنُ مُوسَى عَنِ الْقَيِّمِ لِلْيَتَامَى فِي الإبِلِ وَمَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ مِنْهَا قُلْتُ إِذَا لاطَ حَوْضَهَا وَطَلَبَ ضَالَّتَهَا وَهَنَأَ جَرْبَاهَا فَلَهُ أَنْ يُصِيبَ مِنْ لَبَنِهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ نَهْكٍ بِضَرْعٍ وَلا فَسَادٍ لِنَسْلٍ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il from Hanan ibn Sadir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ‘Isa ibn Musa asked about guardians of orphans, camels and what is lawful in matters of camels. I said, ‘If he repairs their water tank, finds the lost ones, scratches their itch, he then is entitled to use their milk without excessive use of their udder or harming their young.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/98)



5- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ كانَ فَقِيراً فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَقَالَ ذَلِكَ رَجُلٌ يَحْبِسُ نَفْسَهُ عَنِ الْمَعِيشَةِ فَلا بَأْسَ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ إِذَا كَانَ يُصْلِحُ لَهُمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَإِنْ كَانَ الْمَالُ قَلِيلا فَلا يَأْكُلْ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً قَالَ قُلْتُ أَرَأَيْتَ قَوْلَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِنْ تُخالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوانُكُمْ قَالَ تُخْرِجُ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَكْفِيهِمْ وَتُخْرِجُ مِنْ مَالِكَ قَدْرَ مَا يَكْفِيكَ ثُمَّ تُنْفِقُهُ قُلْتُ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانُوا يَتَامَى صِغَاراً وَكِبَاراً وَبَعْضُهُمْ أَعْلَى كِسْوَةً مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَبَعْضُهُمْ آكَلُ مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَمَالُهُمْ جَمِيعاً فَقَالَ أَمَّا الْكِسْوَةُ فَعَلَى كُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ ثَمَنُ كِسْوَتِهِ وَأَمَّا [أَكْلُ] الطَّعَامِ فَاجْعَلُوهُ جَمِيعاً فَإِنْ الصَّغِيرَ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِثْلَ الْكَبِيرِ.


5. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl from abu al-Sabbah al-Kinaniy who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘One who is poor can eat within the proper limits’, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘He is a man who holds himself back from making his living (to help the orphans). It is not harmful if he eats within the proper limits when he looks after their properties. If the properties are of a small amount he must not eat thereof.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘What is the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “If you mix then they are your brothers in religion”?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must take out from their property an amount that is sufficient for them for a certain time and from your own property a similar amount which is sufficient for you; then you can spend it.’ I then asked about the case where certain ones are smaller and others are bigger and of different amount of expenses for food and clothing. He (the Imam) said, ‘In matters of clothes each individual pays what is spent for that individual, but in matters of food they all share; a small person perhaps uses as much food as a larger one.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/98)



6- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ عِيصِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْيَتِيمِ يَكُونُ غَلَّتُهُ فِي الشَّهْرِ عِشْرِينَ دِرْهَماً كَيْفَ يُنْفَقُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهَا قَالَ قُوتُهُ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَسَأَلْتُهُ أُنْفِقُ عَلَيْهِ ثُلُثَهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ وَنِصْفَهَا.


6. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from certain persons of our people from Us ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about an orphan whose income every month is twenty dirham; how I must spend it. He (the Imam) said, ‘Spend what the orphan needs of food and dates.’ I asked if spending one-third is sufficient. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, you must spend half of the income.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/99)