45. Using the Properties of Orphans in Business and Lending

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَسْبَاطِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) كَانَ لِي أَخٌ هَلَكَ فَأَوْصَى إِلَى أَخٍ أَكْبَرَ مِنِّي وَأَدْخَلَنِي مَعَهُ فِي الْوَصِيَّةِ وَتَرَكَ ابْناً لَهُ صَغِيراً وَلَهُ مَالٌ فَيَضْرِبُ بِهِ أَخِي فَمَا كَانَ مِنْ فَضْلٍ سَلَّمَهُ لِلْيَتِيمِ وَضَمِنَ لَهُ مَالَهُ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ لأخِيكَ مَالٌ يُحِيطُ بِمَالِ الْيَتِيمِ إِنْ تَلِفَ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ فَلا يَعْرِضْ لِمَالِ الْيَتِيمِ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Asbat ibn Salim who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I had a brother who has died and made a will in which he appointed my brother who is elder to me and myself as executors. He has left behind a small son and has left behind a certain amount of assets. My brother uses that asset in business and gives the extra to the orphan and has taken the responsibility for the assets of the orphan. He (the Imam) said, ‘If your brother’s own asset is sufficient to cover the assets of the orphan, then it is not harmful; but if he does not have that much asset he must not bother with the assets of the orphan.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/99)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ قَالَ الْعَامِلُ بِهِ ضَامِنٌ وَلِلْيَتِيمِ الرِّبْحُ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِلْعَامِلِ بِهِ مَالٌ وَقَالَ إِنْ أُعْطِبَ أَدَّاهُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “About the case of the assets of orphans, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘One who uses the assets of the orphan in business is responsible and the profit belongs to the orphan, if the worker does not have anything of his own assets in it.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This person is responsible to pay for any damage caused.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/99)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ رِبْعِيِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ عِنْدَهُ مَالُ الْيَتِيمِ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ مُحْتَاجاً وَلَيْسَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَلا يَمَسَّ مَالَهُ وَإِنْ [هُوَ] اتَّجَرَ بِهِ فَالرِّبْحُ لِلْيَتِيمِ وَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ.


3. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Rib’iy ibn ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “About the case of a man who has the assets of an orphan with him, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If he is poor and has no assets of his own, he must not touch the assets of the orphan; and if he uses it in business, he is responsible for it and the profit belongs to the orphan.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/100)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَسْبَاطِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقُلْتُ أَمَرَنِي أَخِي أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ عَنْ مَالِ يَتِيمٍ فِي حَجْرِهِ يَتَّجِرُ بِهِ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ لأخِيكَ مَالٌ يُحِيطُ بِمَالِ الْيَتِيمِ إِنْ تَلِفَ أَوْ أَصَابَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ غَرِمَهُ لَهُ وَإِلا فَلا يَتَعَرَّضْ لِمَالِ الْيَتِيمِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat from Asbat ibn Salim who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that my brother has told me to ask you about the assets of an orphan who is under his (my brother’s) guardianship and he uses the assets of the orphan in business. He (the Imam) said, ‘If your brother’s assets are sufficient to cover the assets of the orphan in case it is destroyed, it is permissible; otherwise, it is not permissible and he must not hassle with the assets of the orphan.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/100)



5- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ وُلِّيَ مَالَ يَتِيمٍ أَيَسْتَقْرِضُ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) قَدْ كَانَ يَسْتَقْرِضُ مِنْ مَالِ أَيْتَامٍ كَانُوا فِي حَجْرِهِ فَلا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ.


5. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Mansur ibn Hazim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who is the person in charge of the assets of an orphan; if he can borrow from such assets. He (the Imam) said, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would borrow from the assets of orphans under his guardianship, thus, it is not harmful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/100)



6- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ وُلِّيَ مَالَ يَتِيمٍ أَيَسْتَقْرِضُ مِنْهُ قَالَ كَانَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) يَسْتَقْرِضُ مِنْ مَالِ يَتِيمٍ كَانَ فِي حَجْرِهِ.


6. Al-Husayn from Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from Mansur ibn Hazim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who is the person in charge of the assets of orphans; if he can borrow from such assets. He (the Imam) said, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would borrow from the assets of orphans under his guardianship.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/100)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَصَفْوَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ مَالٌ لأيْتَامٍ فَيَدْفَعُهُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ دَرَاهِمَ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهَا وَلا يُعْلِمُ الَّذِي كَانَ عِنْدَهُ الْمَالُ لِلأيْتَامِ أَنَّهُ أَخَذَ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ شَيْئاً ثُمَّ تَيَسَّرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَيُّ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ أَيُعْطِيهِ الَّذِي كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ أَمْ يَدْفَعُهُ إِلَى الْيَتِيمِ وَقَدْ بَلَغَ وَهَلْ يُجْزِئُهُ أَنْ يَدْفَعَهُ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِ عَلَى وَجْهِ الصِّلَةِ وَلا يُعْلِمُهُ أَنَّهُ أَخَذَ لَهُ مَالا فَقَالَ يُجْزِئُهُ أَيُّ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَ إِذَا أَوْصَلَهُ إِلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَإِنَّ هَذَا مِنَ السَّرَائِرِ إِذَا كَانَ مِنْ نِيَّتِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ رَدَّهُ إِلَى الْيَتِيمِ إِنْ كَانَ قَدْ بَلَغَ عَلَى أَيِّ وَجْهٍ شَاءَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْلِمْهُ أَنْ كَانَ قَبَضَ لَهُ شَيْئاً وَإِنْ شَاءَ رَدَّهُ إِلَى الَّذِي كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ وَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ صَاحِبُ الْمَالِ غَائِباً فَلْيَدْفَعْهُ إِلَى الَّذِي كَانَ الْمَالُ فِي يَدِهِ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from af-Fadf ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Safwan from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man in whose family someone has the assets of orphans and he gives a certain amount of dirham to him that he needs; and the person with whom there are the assets of orphans does not know if he has taken anything from their assets. He thereafter becomes affluent. Is it better for him to give it back to the one who had given him such assets or to the orphan who has reached maturity? Is it sufficient if he gives it to the one from whom he had received the amount in the form of gifts without informing him about his borrowing anything from him? He (the Imam) said, ’Either way is sufficient. To give it as gift to his friend is sufficient because it is of the secret matters, if he had the intention to return to the orphan who has become mature, and in whatever manners he returns even if he does not inform him about his borrowing or if he wants he can return to the one from whom he had received the amount.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If his friend is absent, he then must return it to the one from whom he had received the amount.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/100)



8- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ وُلِّيَ مَالَ يَتِيمٍ فَاسْتَقْرَضَ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً فَقَالَ إِنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) كَانَ اسْتَقْرَضَ مَالا لأيْتَامٍ فِي حَجْرِهِ.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from Khalid ibn Jarir from abu al-Rabi‘ who has said the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who becomes the person in charge of the assets of orphans and borrows a certain amount thereof. He (the Imam) said, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn, would borrow from the assets of orphans under his guardianship.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/100)