43. Consuming the Properties of Orphans

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَوْعَدَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ بِعُقُوبَتَيْنِ إِحْدَاهُمَا عُقُوبَةُ الآخِرَةِ النَّارُ وَأَمَّا عُقُوبَةُ الدُّنْيَا فَقَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعافاً خافُوا عَلَيْهِمْ الآيَةَ يَعْنِي لِيَخْشَ أَنْ أَخْلُفَهُ فِي ذُرِّيَّتِهِ كَمَا صَنَعَ بِهَؤُلاءِ الْيَتَامَى.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has issued two kinds of warnings about consuming properties of orphans. One is the suffering by the fire in the next life. The punishment in this life is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Those who leave behind weak offspring for whom he is afraid. . . .” (4:11) It means that one must be afraid of leaving behind weak offspring who will be treated as he has treated the orphans.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/94)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ عَجْلانَ أَبِي صَالِحٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ أَكْلِ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ فَقَالَ هُوَ كَمَا قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوالَ الْيَتامى‏ ظُلْماً إِنَّما يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ ناراً وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيراً ثُمَّ قَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ أَسْأَلَهُ مَنْ عَالَ يَتِيماً حَتَّى يَنْقَطِعَ يُتْمُهُ أَوْ يَسْتَغْنِيَ بِنَفْسِهِ أَوْجَبَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ الْجَنَّةَ كَمَا أَوْجَبَ النَّارَ لِمَنْ أَكَلَ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim from ‘Ajlan abu Salih who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who consumes the properties of orphans. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is as Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “Those who consume the properties of orphans unjustly, they only consume fire in their bellies and will feel the heat of the fire.” (4:12)’ He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said without my asking, ‘Whoever provides an orphan until his condition as an orphan is over and becomes self-sufficient Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, makes paradise certain for him as He makes the fire definite for those who consume the properties of orphans.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/95)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ فِي يَدِهِ مَالٌ لأيْتَامٍ فَيَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَمُدُّ يَدَهُ فَيَأْخُذُهُ وَيَنْوِي أَنْ يَرُدَّهُ فَقَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ إِلا الْقَصْدَ لا يُسْرِفُ فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ نِيَّتِهِ أَنْ لا يَرُدَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَهُوَ بِالْمَنْزِلِ الَّذِي قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوالَ الْيَتامى‏ ظُلْماً.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who in his hand has properties of orphans and is needy. He extends his hand to take a certain amount with the intention to return. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not proper for him to consume it, except with moderation and without excess; but if his intention is not to return, he then is like the one about whom Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “Those who consume the properties of orphans unjustly. . . .” (4:12)’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/95)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ يَحْيَى الْكَاهِلِيِّ قَالَ قِيلَ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّا نَدْخُلُ عَلَى أَخٍ لَنَا فِي بَيْتِ أَيْتَامٍ وَمَعَهُمْ خَادِمٌ لَهُمْ فَنَقْعُدُ عَلَى بِسَاطِهِمْ وَنَشْرَبُ مِنْ مَائِهِمْ وَيَخْدُمُنَا خَادِمُهُمْ وَرُبَّمَا طَعِمْنَا فِيهِ الطَّعَامَ مِنْ عِنْدِ صَاحِبِنَا وَفِيهِ مِنْ طَعَامِهِمْ فَمَا تَرَى فِي ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ فِي دُخُولِكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ مَنْفَعَةٌ لَهُمْ فَلا بَأْسَ وَإِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ ضَرَرٌ فَلا وَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بَلِ الإنْسانُ عَلى‏ نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ فَأَنْتُمْ لا يَخْفَى عَلَيْكُمْ وَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِنْ تُخالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَاللهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Abd Allah ibn Yahya al-Kahily who has said the following: “Once it was said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘We visit a brother in belief in the house of orphans with their servant. We sit on their furnishings, drink from their water and their servant serves us and perhaps eat of the food of our friend in which there is the orphans’ food also. What do you say about it? He (the Imam) said, ‘If your visit is beneficial for them, it is not harmful and if it is harmful it is not permissible.’ He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘Man is well aware of his own-self. It is not hidden from you that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “If you mix with them they are your brothers in belief and Allah knows who is corrupt and who is improving and a peacemaker.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/96)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ ذُبْيَانَ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ الأوْدِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ لِيَ ابْنَةَ أَخٍ يَتِيمَةً فَرُبَّمَا أُهْدِيَ لَهَا الشَّيْ‏ءُ فَ‏آكُلُ مِنْهُ ثُمَّ أُطْعِمُهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ الشَّيْ‏ءَ مِنْ مَالِي فَأَقُولُ يَا رَبِّ هَذَا بِهَذَا فَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لا بَأْسَ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Dhubyan ibn Hakim al-Awdiy from Ali ibn al-Mughirah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I have an orphan girl of my brother. At certain times gifts are given to her and I eat a certain amount thereof. Thereafter I feed her a certain amount from my properties and I say, “O Lord, this is for what I have used.” He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘It is not harmful.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/96)