20. Payment of Debts

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِبَاطٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ مَنْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَيَنْوِي قَضَاءَهُ كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَافِظَانِ يُعِينَانِهِ عَلَى الأدَاءِ عَنْ أَمَانَتِهِ فَإِنْ قَصَرَتْ نِيَّتُهُ عَنِ الأدَاءِ قَصَرَا عَنْهُ مِنَ الْمَعُونَةِ بِقَدْرِ مَا قَصَرَ مِنْ نِيَّتِهِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Najran from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Ribat who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘If one is indebted and he intends to pay it back, from the side of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, there will be two guards to help him to keep his trust; but if his intention falls short they also fall behind in their help proportionate to the degree of the fall of his intention.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/47)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الرَّجُلُ مِنَّا يَكُونُ عِنْدَهُ الشَّيْ‏ءُ يَتَبَلَّغُ بِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ أَيُطْعِمُهُ عِيَالَهُ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِمَيْسَرَةٍ فَيَقْضِيَ دَيْنَهُ أَوْ يَسْتَقْرِضُ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ فِي خُبْثِ الزَّمَانِ وَشِدَّةِ الْمَكَاسِبِ أَوْ يَقْبَلُ الصَّدَقَةَ قَالَ يَقْضِي بِمَا عِنْدَهُ دَيْنَهُ وَلا يَأْكُلْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ إِلا وَعِنْدَهُ مَا يُؤَدِّي إِلَيْهِمْ حُقُوقَهُمْ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ لا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْباطِلِ إِلا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجارَةً عَنْ تَراضٍ مِنْكُمْ وَلا يَسْتَقْرِضْ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ إِلا وَعِنْدَهُ وَفَاءٌ وَلَوْ طَافَ عَلَى أَبْوَابِ النَّاسِ فَرَدُّوهُ بِاللُّقْمَةِ وَاللُّقْمَتَيْنِ وَالتَّمْرَةِ وَالتَّمْرَتَيْنِ إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلِيٌّ يَقْضِي دَيْنَهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لَيْسَ مِنَّا مِنْ مَيِّتٍ إِلا جَعَلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ وَلِيّاً يَقُومُ فِي عِدَتِهِ وَدَيْنِهِ فَيَقْضِي عِدَتَهُ وَدَيْنَهُ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from Sanaa ‘ah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if one of us has a few things in his possession with which he meets his expenses and he also is indebted. Should he feed his family with that which he owns and wait until Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, grants him ease then pay his debts, or should he borrow on his back in difficult times for earning, or should he accept charity?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He has to pay the debt with what he owns, so he does not consume people’s belongings, except if he has something with which he can pay off their rights. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “You must not consume your belongings among yourselves in false manners unless it is a trading by mutual consent among you.” (4:29) He must not borrow on his back unless he has something with which he can make payment, he may also go door to door and they may send him back with a morsel or two or one piece of date or two, unless he has a heir (guardian) who pays off after him; no one of us dies for whom Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, does not make a heir (guardian) who takes charge of his means and his debts to make payments by his means.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/47)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا تُبَاعُ الدَّارُ وَلا الْجَارِيَةُ فِي الدَّيْنِ وَذَلِكَ لأنَّهُ لا بُدَّ لِلرَّجُلِ مِنْ ظِلٍّ يَسْكُنُهُ وَخَادِمٍ يَخْدُمُهُ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that a servant and a house must not be sold; it is necessary for a man to have a shelter and a servant.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/47)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ بُرَيْدٍ الْعِجْلِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ عَلَيَّ دَيْناً وَأَظُنُّهُ قَالَ لأيْتَامٍ وَأَخَافُ إِنْ بِعْتُ ضَيْعَتِي بَقِيتُ وَمَا لِي شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ لا تَبِعْ ضَيْعَتَكَ وَلَكِنْ أَعْطِهِ بَعْضاً وَأَمْسِكْ بَعْضاً.


4. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from Burayd al- ‘ Ij liy who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I am indebted’ - I think he said, ‘to the orphans’ and I am afraid if I sell my property I will be left without any assets.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must not sell your property; however, you should pay a certain part and keep certain other parts.’” (Fatwa best explains this Hadith)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/48)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ الأحْمَرِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ أَتَى رَجُلٌ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقْتَضِيهِ وَأَنَا حَاضِرٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ لَيْسَ عِنْدَنَا الْيَوْمَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلَكِنَّهُ يَأْتِينَا خِطْرٌ وَوَسِمَةٌ فَتُبَاعُ وَنُعْطِيكَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ عِدْنِي فَقَالَ كَيْفَ أَعِدُكَ وَأَنَا لِمَا لا أَرْجُو أَرْجَى مِنِّي لِمَا أَرْجُو.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Ahmar from ‘Abd Allah ibn Hammad from ‘Umar ibn Yazid who has said the following: “Once, when I was present, a man came to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asking to pay his debts. He (the Imam) said, ‘There is nothing with us today; however, tomorrow we will receive Khitr and wasma (henna) which will be sold and Allah willing, we will help you.’ The man then said, ‘Promise me.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘How can I promise you if I am more hopeful for what I do not expect than for what I do expect to happen?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/48)



6- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ السُّخْتِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عِيسَى قَالَ ضَاقَ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) ضِيقَةٌ فَأَتَى مَوْلًى لَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَقْرِضْنِي عَشَرَةَ آلافِ دِرْهَمٍ إِلَى مَيْسَرَةٍ فَقَالَ لا لأنَّهُ لَيْسَ عِنْدِي وَلَكِنْ أُرِيدُ وَثِيقَةً قَالَ فَشَقَّ لَهُ مِنْ رِدَائِهِ هُدْبَةً فَقَالَ لَهُ هَذِهِ الْوَثِيقَةُ قَالَ فَكَانَ مَوْلاهُ كَرِهَ ذَلِكَ فَغَضِبَ وَقَالَ أَنَا أَوْلَى بِالْوَفَاءِ أَمْ حَاجِبُ بْنُ زُرَارَةَ فَقَالَ أَنْتَ أَوْلَى بِذَلِكَ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ فَكَيْفَ صَارَ حَاجِبٌ يَرْهَنُ قَوْساً وَإِنَّمَا هِيَ خَشَبَةٌ عَلَى مِائَةِ حَمَالَةٍ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَيَفِي وَأَنَا لا أَفِي بِهُدْبَةِ رِدَائِي قَالَ فَأَخَذَهَا الرَّجُلُ مِنْهُ وَأَعْطَاهُ الدَّرَاهِمَ وَجَعَلَ الْهُدْبَةَ فِي حُقٍّ فَسَهَّلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ الْمَالَ فَحَمَلَهُ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ قَدْ أَحْضَرْتُ مَالَكَ فَهَاتِ وَثِيقَتِي فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ ضَيَّعْتُهَا فَقَالَ إِذَنْ لا تَأْخُذُ مَالَكَ مِنِّي لَيْسَ مِثْلِي مَنْ يَسْتَخِفُّ بِذِمَّتِهِ قَالَ فَأَخْرَجَ الرَّجُلُ الْحُقَّ فَإِذَا فِيهِ الْهُدْبَةُ فَأَعْطَاهَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) الدَّرَاهِمَ وَأَخَذَ الْهُدْبَةَ فَرَمَى بِهَا وَانْصَرَفَ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Yusuf ibn al-Sukht from Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman from al-Fadl ibn Sulayman from al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Isa who has said the following: “Once, Ali ibn Al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was placed under pressure. He went to one of his Mawla’ (friend or follower) and asked him to lend him ten thousand dirham up to the time he is able to pay back. He (his friend) said, ‘No, because it is not with me; however, I want a promissory note.’ He (the narrator) has said, ‘He (the Imam) tore a piece from his gown and said this is the promissory note.’ His Mawla’ did not like it and became angry. He (the Imam) said, ‘Am I more trustworthy or Hajib ibn Zurarah?’ He (his Mawla’) replied, ‘You are more trustworthy than Hajib ibn Zurarah.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘How is it that Hajib by depositing his bow, only a piece of wood, as a guarantee to bail out one hundred, also being a non-Muslim, kept up to his words and I will not keep up my word despite depositing a piece of my gown? 5 He (the narrator) said that his Mawla’ took the piece of his gown and lent him the dirhams and placed the piece of fabric in a container. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, granted him ease and he (the Imam) took the dirhams to return to the man and said, ‘Here is the dirhams. Where is the promissory note (the piece of my gown)? He replied, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I have lost it.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You then cannot have your dirhams from me. One like me is not treated lightly in matters of trust.’ He (the narrator) has said, ‘He then brought the container and the piece of fabric was in it. Ali ibn Al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, gave the dirhams to him and took the piece of fabric and threw it away and left.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/48)



7- عَنْهُ عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ السُّخْتِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عِيسَى بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ احْتُضِرَ عَبْدُ اللهِ فَاجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ غُرَمَاؤُهُ فَطَالَبُوهُ بِدَيْنٍ لَهُمْ فَقَالَ لا مَالَ عِنْدِي فَأُعْطِيَكُمْ وَلَكِنِ ارْضَوْا بِمَا شِئْتُمْ مِنِ ابْنَيْ عَمِّي عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) وَعَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ فَقَالَ الْغُرَمَاءُ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ مَلِيٌّ مَطُولٌ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) [رَجُلٌ] لا مَالَ لَهُ صَدُوقٌ وَهُوَ أَحَبُّهُمَا إِلَيْنَا فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ فَأَخْبَرَهُ الْخَبَرَ فَقَالَ أَضْمَنُ لَكُمُ الْمَالَ إِلَى غَلَّةٍ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ غَلَّةٌ تَجَمُّلا فَقَالَ الْقَوْمُ قَدْ رَضِينَا وَضَمِنَهُ فَلَمَّا أَتَتِ الْغَلَّةُ أَتَاحَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ الْمَالَ فَأَدَّاهُ.


7. It is narrated from him (narrator of previous Hadith) from Yusuf ibn al-Sukht from Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman from his father from ‘Isa ibn ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “‘Abd Allah was about to die and his creditors gathered around him demanding payment. He said to them, ‘I do not have any property to pay you but you may choose one of the sons of my uncle, Ali ibn Al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and ‘Abd Allah ibn Ja’far who will assume responsibility to pay you.’ They said, “Abd Allah ibn Ja’far is a procrastinator and slow to respond. Ali ibn Al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, does not have any properties but is a truthful person and more beloved one of the two to us.’ He then sent someone to inform him of the case, and he said, ‘I assume responsibility to pay you by the time of harvest,’ although he did not have any harvest but he said so to show kindness. The people said, ‘We accept your offer.’ He assumed the responsibility and when time for harvest came Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, made it possible for him to pay and he did so.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/49)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ زِيَادٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ لِي عَلَى رَجُلٍ دَيْناً وَقَدْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبِيعَ دَارَهُ فَيَقْضِيَنِي قَالَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أُعِيذُكَ بِاللهِ أَنْ تُخْرِجَهُ مِنْ ظِلِّ رَأْسِهِ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan all ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-Flamid from ‘Uthman ibn Ziyad who has said the following: “Once I said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that a man owes me a certain amount and wants to sell his house to pay me. Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘I seek protection for you with Allah against taking him out of the shadow on his head.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/50)



9- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ خَلَفِ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ مُحْرِزٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الدَّيْنُ ثَلاثَةٌ رَجُلٌ كَانَ لَهُ فَأَنْظَرَ وَإِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَعْطَى وَلَمْ يَمْطُلْ فَذَاكَ لَهُ وَلا عَلَيْهِ وَرَجُلٌ إِذَا كَانَ لَهُ اسْتَوْفَى وَإِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ أَوْفَى فَذَاكَ لا لَهُ وَلا عَلَيْهِ وَرَجُلٌ إِذَا كَانَ لَهُ اسْتَوْفَى وَإِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مَطَلَ فَذَاكَ عَلَيْهِ وَلا لَهُ.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from his father from Khalaf ibn Flammad from Muhriz from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘Debts are three. One man is he who when a lender gives the borrower respite and the borrower pays it off without delay. In his case it is all for him and it is not against him. There also is a man who as lender asks for payment and as a borrower he pays in time. In his case there is nothing for or against him. There is a man who as a lender demands payment and he as a borrower delays payment. In his case it is against him but not for him.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/50)