19. Debts and Borrowing

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ تَعَوَّذُوا بِاللهِ مِنْ غَلَبَةِ الدَّيْنِ وَغَلَبَةِ الرِّجَالِ وَبَوَارِ الأيِّمِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hajjaj from who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘You must seek protection with Allah against over- powering debts, dominating (increasing) number of men and single women.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/42)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّهُ ذُكِرَ لَنَا أَنَّ رَجُلا مِنَ الأنْصَارِ مَاتَ وَعَلَيْهِ دِينَارَانِ دَيْناً فَلَمْ يُصَلِّ عَلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَقَالَ صَلُّوا عَلَى صَاحِبِكُمْ حَتَّى ضَمِنَهُمَا [عَنْهُ] بَعْضُ قَرَابَتِهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) ذَلِكَ الْحَقُّ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّمَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ لِيَتَّعِظُوا وَلِيَرُدَّ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلِئَلا يَسْتَخِفُّوا بِالدَّيْنِ وَقَدْ مَاتَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ وَمَاتَ الْحَسَنُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ وَقُتِلَ الْحُسَيْنُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al- Halabiy for Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘We are told that a man from al-Ansar died while he owed two dinar to pay. The Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, did not perform Salat (prayer) on his dead body and said, “You must perform Salat (prayer) on the dead body of your companion.” (It was the case) until someone of his relatives guaranteed to pay the two dinars on his behalf.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘That is the right.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah did so to teach people a lesson to pay back the debts they owe to each other and must not take the issue of debts lightly. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, passed away while he owed payable debts, al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, died while he owed payable debts and Al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was murdered while he owed payable debts.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/43)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَنْ طَلَبَ هَذَا الرِّزْقَ مِنْ حِلِّهِ لِيَعُودَ بِهِ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَعِيَالِهِ كَانَ كَالْمُجَاهِدِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنْ غُلِبَ عَلَيْهِ فَلْيَسْتَدِنْ عَلَى اللهِ وَعَلَى رَسُولِهِ مَا يَقُوتُ بِهِ عِيَالَهُ فَإِنْ مَاتَ وَلَمْ يَقْضِهِ كَانَ عَلَى الإمَامِ قَضَاؤُهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَقْضِهِ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وِزْرُهُ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقاتُ لِلْفُقَراءِ وَالْمَساكِينِ وَالْعامِلِينَ عَلَيْها إِلَى قَوْلِهِ وَالْغارِمِينَ فَهُوَ فَقِيرٌ مِسْكِينٌ مُغْرَمٌ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr who has said the following: “Abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said to me, ‘Whoever works to provide sustenance for himself and his family is considered a Mujahid (fighter) for the cause of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. If poverty over-powers him, he then should borrow upon the responsibility of Allah and His Messenger for his sustenance and his family. If he dies and cannot pay back, it then becomes the responsibility of the Imam to pay it. If he did not do so, he will be held responsible. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, ‘Charities are for the poor, destitute and the charity (tax) collectors . . . ., and those suffering bankruptcy.’ (9:61) He is poor, destitute and bankrupt.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/44)



4- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ حَمْدَانَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْهَمْدَانِيِّ رَفَعَهُ إِلَى بَعْضِ الصَّادِقِينَ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) قَالَ إِنِّي لأحِبُّ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ يَنْوِي قَضَاءَهُ.


4. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from Hamdan ibn Ibrahim al- Hamadaniy in a in a marfu’ manner from the truthful ones who has narrated the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘I like for a man, who is indebted, to sincerely have the intention of paying it off.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/44)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَزِيرَةِ يُكَنَّى أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ سَأَلَ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) رَجُلٌ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ وَإِنْ كانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلى‏ مَيْسَرَةٍ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ هَذِهِ النَّظِرَةِ الَّتِي ذَكَرَهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ لَهَا حَدٌّ يُعْرَفُ إِذَا صَارَ هَذَا الْمُعْسِرُ إِلَيْهِ لا بُدَّ لَهُ مِنْ أَنْ يُنْتَظَرَ وَقَدْ أَخَذَ مَالَ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ وَأَنْفَقَهُ عَلَى عِيَالِهِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ غَلَّةٌ يُنْتَظَرُ إِدْرَاكُهَا وَلا دَيْنٌ يُنْتَظَرُ مَحِلُّهُ وَلا مَالٌ غَائِبٌ يُنْتَظَرُ قُدُومُهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ يُنْتَظَرُ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَنْتَهِي خَبَرُهُ إِلَى الإمَامِ فَيَقْضِي عَنْهُ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ سَهْمِ الْغَارِمِينَ إِذَا كَانَ أَنْفَقَهُ فِي طَاعَةِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ أَنْفَقَهُ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ اللهِ فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ لَهُ عَلَى الإمَامِ قُلْتُ فَمَا لِهَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي ائْتَمَنَهُ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ فِيمَا أَنْفَقَهُ فِي طَاعَةِ اللهِ أَمْ فِي مَعْصِيَتِهِ قَالَ يَسْعَى لَهُ فِي مَالِهِ فَيَرُدُّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَهُوَ صَاغِرٌ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn Sulayman from a man of the people of al- Jazirah called abu Muhammad who has said the following: “A man asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when I was listening, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, “If one has difficulty to pay his debts, he should be given respite until he is able to pay.” (2:281) Explain to me the limits of this “respite” of which Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has spoken in His book. When a person with such difficulties is required to pay back? He has taken from the properties of the lender to spend on his family. He does not have any farm to wait for the harvest season, has not lent money to anyone to wait for payment time or an amount of lost property that he hopes will be found.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is given respite until the Imam is informed about his condition who will pay on his behalf of the share of the bankrupt people, if he has spent what he has borrowed in obedience to Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. If he has spent in disobedience to Allah, then the Imam is not responsible for his debts.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘What happens if the lender who trusted him and did not know if he (borrower) spends it in obedience or disobedience to the command of Allah?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He can try to get back what he has lent from the properties of the borrowers who must yield.” (Fatwa best explains the last part of the above case.)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/44)



6- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ [عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ] عَنْ حَنَانِ بْنِ سَدِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كُلُّ ذَنْبٍ يُكَفِّرُهُ الْقَتْلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلا الدَّيْنَ لا كَفَّارَةَ لَهُ إِلا أَدَاؤُهُ أَوْ يَقْضِيَ صَاحِبُهُ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي لَهُ الْحَقُّ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from [ibn abu ‘Umayr] from Hanan ibn Sadir from his father who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Being killed for the cause of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, serves as expiation for all kinds of sins except debts, for which there is no expiation other than paying it back or those liable pay or the owner of the lending right waives it in favor of the borrower.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/45)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الإمَامُ يَقْضِي عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الدُّيُونَ مَا خَلا مُهُورَ النِّسَاءِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-‘ Abbas the one whom he has mentioned (in his book) who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The Imam pays off the debts of the believing people except Muhur (dowry) of women.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/45)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ صَبِيحٍ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَدَّعِي عَلَى الْمُعَلَّى بْنِ خُنَيْسٍ دَيْناً عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ ذَهَبَ بِحَقِّي فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) ذَهَبَ بِحَقِّكَ الَّذِي قَتَلَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِلْوَلِيدِ قُمْ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ فَاقْضِهِ مِنْ حَقِّهِ فَإِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُبَرِّدَ عَلَيْهِ جِلْدَهُ الَّذِي كَانَ بَارِداً.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Walid ibn Sabih who has said the following: “Once a man came to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying that al-Mu‘alla’ ibn Khunays owed him a certain amount and said, ‘He has destroyed my rights.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘Your rights are destroyed by the one who murdered him (al-Mu‘alla’).’ He (the Imam) then told al- Walid to pay back his rights, ‘I like to cool down his skin which was cool already.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/45)



9- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ مِنْ أَهْلِ هَمَدَانَ عَنْ أَبِي ثُمَامَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَلْزَمَ مَكَّةَ أَوِ الْمَدِينَةَ وَعَلَيَّ دَيْنٌ فَمَا تَقُولُ فَقَالَ ارْجِعْ فَأَدِّهِ إِلَى مُؤَدَّى دَيْنِكَ وَانْظُرْ أَنْ تَلْقَى اللهَ تَعَالَى وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ دَيْنٌ إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ لا يَخُونُ.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ‘Uthman ibn Sa‘id from ‘Abd al-karim, of the people of Hamadan from abu Thumamah who has said the following: “I once said to abu Ja‘far, al-Thaniy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I like to reside in Makkah or al-Madinah, but there is a certain amount of debt that I must pay. What do you advise me to do?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must return to pay off what you owe, and bear in mind that you must go before Allah, most High, when there is no debts due on you. A believing person does not commit treachery.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/45)



10- عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ النَّخَعِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ قَالَ مَا أُحْصِي مَا سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يُنْشِدُ. فَإِنْ يَكُ يَا أُمَيْمُ عَلَيَّ دَيْنٌ فَعِمْرَانُ بْنُ مُوسَى يَسْتَدِينُ‏.


10. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Nakha’iy from Muhammad ibn Jumhur from Fadalah from Musa ibn Bakr who has said the following: “I heard abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, read the following: ‘O mother, if I may become indebted (consider) that Moses son of ‘Imran would also borrow.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/46)



11- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الأشْعَرِيِّ عَنِ ابْنِ الْقَدَّاحِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِيَّاكُمْ وَالدَّيْنَ فَإِنَّهُ مَذَلَّةٌ بِالنَّهَارِ وَمَهَمَّةٌ بِاللَّيْلِ وَقَضَاءٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَقَضَاءٌ فِي الآخِرَةِ.


11. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Ash’ariy from ibn al-Qaddah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, from his ancestors from Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has stated this Hadith. ‘Beware of debts; it humiliates during the day and causes sadness during the night and it is payable both in this world and in the hereafter.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/46)