7. ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd and al-Mu’taziliy Groups’ Visiting abu ‘Abd Allah ‘Alayhi al-Salam

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ عُتْبَةَ الْهَاشِمِيِّ قَالَ كُنْتُ قَاعِداً عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَكَّةَ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ أُنَاسٌ مِنَ الْمُعْتَزِلَةِ فِيهِمْ عَمْرُو بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ وَوَاصِلُ بْنُ عَطَاءٍ وَحَفْصُ بْنُ سَالِمٍ مَوْلَى ابْنِ هُبَيْرَةَ وَنَاسٌ مِنْ رُؤَسَائِهِمْ وَذَلِكَ حِدْثَانُ قَتْلِ الْوَلِيدِ وَاخْتِلافِ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ بَيْنَهُمْ فَتَكَلَّمُوا وَأَكْثَرُوا وَخَطَبُوا فَأَطَالُوا فَقَالَ لَهُمْ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّكُمْ قَدْ أَكْثَرْتُمْ عَلَيَّ فَأَسْنِدُوا أَمْرَكُمْ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْكُمْ وَلْيَتَكَلَّمْ بِحُجَجِكُمْ وَيُوجِزُ فَأَسْنَدُوا أَمْرَهُمْ إِلَى عَمْرِو بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ فَتَكَلَّمَ فَأَبْلَغَ وَأَطَالَ فَكَانَ فِيمَا قَالَ أَنْ قَالَ قَدْ قَتَلَ أَهْلُ الشَّامِ خَلِيفَتَهُمْ وَضَرَبَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَشَتَّتَ اللهُ أَمْرَهُمْ فَنَظَرْنَا فَوَجَدْنَا رَجُلا لَهُ دِينٌ وَعَقْلٌ وَمُرُوَّةٌ وَمَوْضِعٌ وَمَعْدِنٌ لِلْخِلافَةِ وَهُوَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ فَأَرَدْنَا أَنْ نَجْتَمِعَ عَلَيْهِ فَنُبَايِعَهُ ثُمَّ نَظْهَرَ مَعَهُ فَمَنْ كَانَ بَايَعَنَا فَهُوَ مِنَّا وَكُنَّا مِنْهُ وَمَنِ اعْتَزَلَنَا كَفَفْنَا عَنْهُ وَمَنْ نَصَبَ لَنَا جَاهَدْنَاهُ وَنَصَبْنَا لَهُ عَلَى بَغْيِهِ وَرَدِّهِ إِلَى الْحَقِّ وَأَهْلِهِ وَقَدْ أَحْبَبْنَا أَنْ نَعْرِضَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْكَ فَتَدْخُلَ مَعَنَا فَإِنَّهُ لا غِنًى بِنَا عَنْ مِثْلِكَ لِمَوْضِعِكَ وَكَثْرَةِ شِيعَتِكَ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَكُلُّكُمْ عَلَى مِثْلِ مَا قَالَ عَمْرٌو قَالُوا نَعَمْ فَحَمِدَ اللهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وَصَلَّى عَلَى النَّبِيِّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّمَا نَسْخَطُ إِذَا عُصِيَ اللهُ فَأَمَّا إِذَا أُطِيعَ رَضِينَا أَخْبِرْنِي يَا عَمْرُو لَوْ أَنَّ الأمَّةَ قَلَّدَتْكَ أَمْرَهَا وَوَلَّتْكَ بِغَيْرِ قِتَالٍ وَلا مَئُونَةٍ وَقِيلَ لَكَ وَلِّهَا مَنْ شِئْتَ مَنْ كُنْتَ تُوَلِّيهَا قَالَ كُنْتُ أَجْعَلُهَا شُورَى بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالَ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كُلِّهِمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ بَيْنَ فُقَهَائِهِمْ وَخِيَارِهِمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ قُرَيْشٍ وَغَيْرِهِمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ وَالْعَرَبِ وَالْعَجَمِ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ أَخْبِرْنِي يَا عَمْرُو أَتَتَوَلَّى أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ أَوْ تَتَبَرَّأُ مِنْهُمَا قَالَ أَتَوَلاهُمَا فَقَالَ فَقَدْ خَالَفْتَهُمَا مَا تَقُولُونَ أَنْتُمْ تَتَوَلَّوْنَهُمَا أَوْ تَتَبَرَّءُونَ مِنْهُمَا قَالُوا نَتَوَلاهُمَا قَالَ يَا عَمْرُو إِنْ كُنْتَ رَجُلا تَتَبَرَّأُ مِنْهُمَا فَإِنَّهُ يَجُوزُ لَكَ الْخِلافُ عَلَيْهِمَا وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَتَوَلاهُمَا فَقَدْ خَالَفْتَهُمَا قَدْ عَهِدَ عُمَرُ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَبَايَعَهُ وَلَمْ يُشَاوِرْ فِيهِ أَحَداً ثُمَّ رَدَّهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَلَيْهِ وَلَمْ يُشَاوِرْ فِيهِ أَحَداً ثُمَّ جَعَلَهَا عُمَرُ شُورَى بَيْنَ سِتَّةٍ وَأَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا جَمِيعَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأنْصَارِ غَيْرَ أُولَئِكَ السِّتَّةِ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ وَأَوْصَى فِيهِمْ شَيْئاً لا أَرَاكَ تَرْضَى بِهِ أَنْتَ وَلا أَصْحَابُكَ إِذْ جَعَلْتَهَا شُورَى بَيْنَ جَمِيعِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالَ وَمَا صَنَعَ قَالَ أَمَرَ صُهَيْباً أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ بِالنَّاسِ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَأَنْ يُشَاوِرَ أُولَئِكَ السِّتَّةَ لَيْسَ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ إِلا ابْنُ عُمَرَ يُشَاوِرُونَهُ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ مِنَ الأمْرِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَأَوْصَى مَنْ بِحَضْرَتِهِ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالأنْصَارِ إِنْ مَضَتْ ثَلاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَفْرُغُوا أَوْ يُبَايِعُوا رَجُلا أَنْ يَضْرِبُوا أَعْنَاقَ أُولَئِكَ السِّتَّةِ جَمِيعاً فَإِنِ اجْتَمَعَ أَرْبَعَةٌ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَمْضِيَ ثَلاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ وَخَالَفَ اثْنَانِ أَنْ يَضْرِبُوا أَعْنَاقَ الاثْنَيْنِ أَفَتَرْضَوْنَ بِهَذَا أَنْتُمْ فِيمَا تَجْعَلُونَ مِنَ الشُّورَى فِي جَمَاعَةٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالُوا لا ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا عَمْرُو دَعْ ذَا أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ بَايَعْتُ صَاحِبَكَ الَّذِي تَدْعُونِي إِلَى بَيْعَتِهِ ثُمَّ اجْتَمَعَتْ لَكُمُ الأمَّةُ فَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ عَلَيْكُمْ رَجُلانِ فِيهَا فَأَفَضْتُمْ إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ لا يُسْلِمُونَ وَلا يُؤَدُّونَ الْجِزْيَةَ أَكَانَ عِنْدَكُمْ وَعِنْدَ صَاحِبِكُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا تَسِيرُونَ بِسِيرَةِ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي الْمُشْرِكِينَ فِي حُرُوبِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَتَصْنَعُ مَا ذَا قَالَ نَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الإسْلامِ فَإِنْ أَبَوْا دَعَوْنَاهُمْ إِلَى الْجِزْيَةِ قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانُوا مَجُوساً لَيْسُوا بِأَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ قَالَ سَوَاءٌ قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانُوا مُشْرِكِي الْعَرَبِ وَعَبَدَةَ الأوْثَانِ قَالَ سَوَاءٌ قَالَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْقُرْآنِ تَقْرَؤُهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ اقْرَأْ قاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللهِ وَلا بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلا يُحَرِّمُونَ ما حَرَّمَ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صاغِرُونَ فَاسْتِثْنَاءُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَاشْتِرَاطُهُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ فَهُمْ وَالَّذِينَ لَمْ يُؤْتَوُا الْكِتَابَ سَوَاءٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ عَمَّنْ أَخَذْتَ ذَا قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ قَالَ فَدَعْ ذَا فَإِنْ هُمْ أَبَوُا. الْجِزْيَةَ فَقَاتَلْتَهُمْ فَظَهَرْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ كَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِالْغَنِيمَةِ قَالَ أُخْرِجُ الْخُمُسَ وَأَقْسِمُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَخْمَاسٍ بَيْنَ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْخُمُسِ مَنْ تُعْطِيهِ قَالَ حَيْثُمَا سَمَّى اللهُ قَالَ فَقَرَأَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ للهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبى‏ وَالْيَتامى‏ وَالْمَساكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ قَالَ الَّذِي لِلرَّسُولِ مَنْ تُعْطِيهِ وَمَنْ ذُو الْقُرْبَى قَالَ قَدِ اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ الْفُقَهَاءُ فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ قَرَابَةُ النَّبِيِّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَهْلُ بَيْتِهِ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الْخَلِيفَةُ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ قَرَابَةُ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالَ فَأَيَّ ذَلِكَ تَقُولُ أَنْتَ قَالَ لا أَدْرِي قَالَ فَأَرَاكَ لا تَدْرِي فَدَعْ ذَا ثُمَّ قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ الأرْبَعَةَ أَخْمَاسٍ تَقْسِمُهَا بَيْنَ جَمِيعِ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَقَدْ خَالَفْتَ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي سِيرَتِهِ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ فُقَهَاءُ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَشِيخَتُهُمْ فَاسْأَلْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ لا يَخْتَلِفُونَ وَلا يَتَنَازَعُونَ فِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّمَا صَالَحَ الأعْرَابَ عَلَى أَنْ يَدَعَهُمْ فِي دِيَارِهِمْ وَلا يُهَاجِرُوا عَلَى إِنْ دَهِمَهُ مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ دَهْمٌ أَنْ يَسْتَنْفِرَهُمْ فَيُقَاتِلَ بِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ نَصِيبٌ وَأَنْتَ تَقُولُ بَيْنَ جَمِيعِهِمْ فَقَدْ خَالَفْتَ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي كُلِّ مَا قُلْتَ فِي سِيرَتِهِ فِي الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَمَعَ هَذَا مَا تَقُولُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ فَقَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ الآيَةَ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقاتُ لِلْفُقَراءِ وَالْمَساكِينِ وَالْعامِلِينَ عَلَيْها إِلَى آخِرِ الآيَةِ قَالَ نَعَمْ فَكَيْفَ تَقْسِمُهَا قَالَ أَقْسِمُهَا عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةِ أَجْزَاءٍ فَأُعْطِي كُلَّ جُزْءٍ مِنَ الثَّمَانِيَةِ جُزْءاً قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَ صِنْفٌ مِنْهُمْ عَشَرَةَ آلافٍ وَصِنْفٌ مِنْهُمْ رَجُلا وَاحِداً أَوْ رَجُلَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاثَةً جَعَلْتَ لِهَذَا الْوَاحِدِ مِثْلَ مَا جَعَلْتَ لِلْعَشَرَةِ آلافٍ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ وَتَجْمَعُ صَدَقَاتِ أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ وَأَهْلِ الْبَوَادِي فَتَجْعَلُهُمْ فِيهَا سَوَاءً قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَقَدْ خَالَفْتَ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي كُلِّ مَا قُلْتَ فِي سِيرَتِهِ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقْسِمُ صَدَقَةَ أَهْلِ الْبَوَادِي فِي أَهْلِ الْبَوَادِي وَصَدَقَةَ أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ فِي أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ وَلا يَقْسِمُهُ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَإِنَّمَا يَقْسِمُهُ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَحْضُرُهُ مِنْهُمْ وَمَا يَرَى وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مُوَقَّتٌ مُوَظَّفٌ وَإِنَّمَا يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ بِمَا يَرَى عَلَى قَدْرِ مَنْ يَحْضُرُهُ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي نَفْسِكَ مِمَّا قُلْتُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَالْقَ فُقَهَاءَ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ فَإِنَّهُمْ لا يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَذَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى عَمْرِو بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللهَ وَأَنْتُمْ أَيُّهَا الرَّهْطُ فَاتَّقُوا اللهَ فَإِنَّ أَبِي حَدَّثَنِي وَكَانَ خَيْرَ أَهْلِ الأرْضِ وَأَعْلَمَهُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَسُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ مَنْ ضَرَبَ النَّاسَ بِسَيْفِهِ وَدَعَاهُمْ إِلَى نَفْسِهِ وَفِي الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَنْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ ضَالٌّ مُتَكَلِّفٌ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Zurarah from ‘Abd al-Karim ibn ‘Utbah al-Hashimiy who has said the following: “I was sitting in the presence of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, in Makkah when a group of people of al-Mu‘tazilah among whom ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd was present as well as Wasil ibn ‘Ata’, Hafs ibn Salim Mawla’ ibn Hubayrah and people of their leaders came to visit. This happened during the time when al-Walid was killed and people of al-Sham had differences among them. They spoke (about the situation) a great deal with confusion and made it very lengthy. Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said to them, ‘You have spoken a great deal and it is excessive for me. Appoint someone from among yourselves to speak in favor of your arguments and make it short.’ They then appointed ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd for this task. He spoke assiduously and made it lengthy. Among other things he said, ‘People of al-Sham have killed their Caliph, and Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has struck one group against the other and has scattered their affairs. We have deliberated and found a man who has religion, reason, kindness, position and resource for Caliphate and he is Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Hassan. We then decided to gather around him to pledge allegiance, then come with him in public. Those who pledge allegiance with us will be of us and we will be for him. Those who stay away from us we will keep away from him. Those who plan against us we will do Jihad and plan against them because of their rebellion and their rejection to return them to the truth and the people of truth. We like to present this plan before you so you will also join us; we need a person like you. It is because of your position and the great number of your followers.’ When he finished, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asked, ‘Are you all of the same opinion as ‘Amr is?’ They replied, ‘Yes, we are of the same opinion.’ He (the Imam) then praised Allah and glorified Him; then asked Him to grant salawat (favors and compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to His cause). He then said, ‘We become angry when Allah is disobeyed but when He is obeyed we become happy.’ ‘O ‘Amr, tell me if the nation will make you the person in charge of their affairs and give you authority without fighting and expenses and said to you, “Whomever you choose to be their ruler with authority is accepted by the nation.” Whom then would you choose for the nation?’ He replied, ‘I will make it Shura’ (to be decided by the Muslims). He (the Imam) asked, ‘To be decided by all Muslims?’ He replied, ‘Yes, by all Muslims.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Will it be decided by their scholars of law and good ones?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Will such people be of Quraysh and others?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Will they be of Arab and non-Arab?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘O ‘Amr tell me, do you love abu Bakr and ‘Umar or denounce them?’ He replied, ‘I love them.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘But you just opposed them. What do you all say?’ They replied, ‘We love them.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘O ‘Amr, were you to be a man who denounced the two of them, then it would have been permissible for him to oppose them. How can you love the two of them when you just opposed them? ‘Umar had made a covenant with abu Bakr on the basis of which he pledged allegiance to him and he did not counsel anyone else on the issue. Thereafter abu Bakr returned it to him (‘Umar) and did not counsel anyone in the issue. ‘Umar then formed a council of six members. He kept all of al-Muhajirun and al-Ansar out of this council except those six people from Quraysh. He made a will about the council to which, I think, neither you nor your friends agree because you make a Shura’ of all Muslims.’ He asked, ‘What did he do?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘He commanded Suhayb to lead Salat (prayer) for the people for three days and to consult the six people and no one else except the son of ‘Umar who consulted them but would have had have no say in their decision. He made a will and advised those of al-Muhajirun and al- Ansar in his presence to do this: “If three days pass before the council finish the task or pledge allegiance to a man, you must cut off the necks of all the members of the council. If four of them agree on a plan before three days pass but two of them oppose, you must cut off the necks of the two opposing members of the council.” Do you accept such a plan about the council that you like all Muslims to form?’ They replied, ‘No.’ “He (the Imam) said, ‘O ‘Amr, leave this aside. Suppose, I pledged allegiance to your friend to whom you call me and then the nation gathered around you and no two people disagreed with you about your plan. Then you marched against the pagans who reject al-Islam and do not pay taxes. Will there be enough knowledge with your friend or with you with which you can deal according to the traditions of the Messenger of Allah in the matters of the pagans and the war against them?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What will you do?’ He replied, ‘We call them to al-Islam. If they refused we tell them to pay taxes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What you will do if they will be Majus and not of the people of the book?’ He replied, ‘They are the same.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Are you telling me from al-Quran?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What will you do if they were pagans of Arab people and of idol worshippers?’ He replied, ‘They are the same.’ He (the Imam) asked, ’Are you telling me from al-Quran?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked read this, ‘Fight against those people of the Book who have no faith in Allah or the Day of Judgment, who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful, and who do not believe in the true religion, until they humbly pay tax with their own hands.” (9:29)’ “He (the Imam) asked, ‘Is the exception and the stipulation of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, about the people of the book and those not of the people of the book the same?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘From whom have you learned this answer?’ He replied, ‘I have heard people say so.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Leave this aside. Suppose they refuse to pay taxes and you fight them, and defeat them, then how will you deal with the properties captured from them?’ He replied, ‘I will deduct one-fifth from it and divide the remainder among those who have fought the war.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Tell me about the one-fifth. To whom will you give it?’ He replied, ‘I will give it to whomever Allah has told to give.’ The narrator has said that ‘Amr then recited: ‘You must take notice that whatever you gain one-fifth of it belongs to Allah, the Messenger, the relatives, the orphans, the destitute and those who deplete their expenses on a journey.’ (8:41) He (the Imam) asked, ‘To who will you give that which is for the Messenger?’ Who are relatives?’ He replied, ‘The scholars of the law have different opinions about it. Certain ones among them say, “They are the relatives of the Holy Prophet and his family.” Certain others say, “It is the caliph.” Still others say, “They are the relatives of those who have taken part in the fighting.’” He (the Imam) asked, ‘Which one do you think is it?’ He replied, ‘I do not know.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘I can see that you do not know. Leave this aside.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Consider the remainder after taking one-fifth. Will you distribute it among all the fighters?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In doing so you oppose the Messenger of Allah. The decisive factor between you and I is the scholars of the law of al-Madinah and the elders. Ask them. They have no differences on this issue. They do not dispute that the Messenger of Allah made a truce with the Arabs. It said that they can live in their locations and must not migrate. If the enemy will attack him they must rise and fight his enemy but they will have no share in the properties captured from the enemy. You, however, say you will distribute it among all the fighters. In so doing you oppose the Messenger of Allah in his dealings in everything that you have said about the pagans. Despite this what do you say about charity?’ He (the Imam) then recited the verse to him. ‘Charity is for the poor, the destitute, the charity collectors. . . .’ (9:60) He said, ‘That is right.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘How will you distribute it?’ He replied, ‘I will divide it into eight portions and give to each category one portion thereof.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Will you do so even if members of one category will be ten thousand and of the members of another category there will be only one or two or three individuals present?’ Will you give to one individual an amount equal to what will you give to ten thousand people?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Will you collect the charities of the towns and the city in one place and divide among them in equal portions?’ He replied, ‘Yes.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In doing so you oppose the Messenger of Allah in all of his dealings I have mentioned. The Messenger of Allah would give the charities of the people of the towns to the people of the towns and the charities of the people of the city to the people of the city. He would not distribute it among them in equal portions. He distributed it among them according to the number of people present and according to his discretion. He did not set about it a particular time or portion. He, according to the needs of the people present, distributed the charities. If you have doubts about what I said you can meet the scholars of the law of al-Madinah. They have no differences on the issue that the Messenger of Allah would do as I said he did.’ He (the Imam) then turned to ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd and said, ‘You in this group must maintain piety before Allah. You must maintain piety before Allah. My father was the best of the people on earth. He was more knowledgeable than all of the people on earth about the book of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah. He has said, “The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘Whoever strikes people with his sword and calls them to himself while among the Muslims there is someone more knowledgeable than he is, such person is lost and he is a pretender.”””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/348)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ سُوَيْدٍ الْقَلانِسِيِّ عَنْ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي قُلْتُ لَكَ إِنَّ الْقِتَالَ مَعَ غَيْرِ الإمَامِ الْمُفْتَرَضِ طَاعَتُهُ حَرَامٌ مِثْلُ الْمَيْتَةِ وَالدَّمِ وَلَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ فَقُلْتَ لِي نَعَمْ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هُوَ كَذَلِكَ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn, from Ali ibn al-Nu’man from Suwayd al-Qalanisiy from Bashir who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I saw a dream in which I said to you, “Fighting alongside an Imam to whom obedience is not obligatory is unlawful like consuming dead animals, blood and pork for food”, and you said to me, “Yes, that is how it is.’” Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, then said, ‘That is how it is. That is how it is.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/352)