58. The Case of One Who Vows to Fast a Certain Day or for Thanksgiving

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ كَرَّامٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنِّي جَعَلْتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي أَنْ أَصُومَ حَتَّى يَقُومَ الْقَائِمُ (عجَّلَ الله تَعالى فَرَجَه) فَقَالَ صُمْ وَلا تَصُمْ فِي السَّفَرِ وَلا الْعِيدَيْنِ وَلا أَيَّامَ التَّشْرِيقِ وَلا الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي يُشَكُّ فِيهِ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Karram who has said the following: “Once, I said to abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that I have placed upon myself to fast until the rise of al-Qa”im, (the one who rises with Divine Authority). He (the Imam) said, ’Fast but do not fast on a journey, or the two ‘Id, the days of tashriq (11, 12 and 13) and the day which is doubtful about its being of the month of Ramadan.”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن أو موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/350)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَشْيَمَ قَالَ كَتَبَ الْحُسَيْنُ إِلَى الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ رَجُلٌ نَذَرَ أَنْ يَصُومَ أَيَّاماً مَعْلُومَةً فَصَامَ بَعْضَهَا ثُمَّ اعْتَلَّ فَأَفْطَرَ أَ يَبْتَدِئُ فِي صَوْمِهِ أَمْ يَحْتَسِبُ بِمَا مَضَى فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ يَحْتَسِبُ مَا مَضَى.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Ushaym who has said the following: “Al-Husayn once wrote to al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, a man had vowed to fast for certain days and fasted a few days, then he became ill and stopped fasting. Is he required to start fasting all over again or are the days that he had fasted are counted?’ He (the Imam) wrote the answer that said, ‘The days that he had fasted are also counted.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/350)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ عَلَيَّ صِيَامُ شَهْرٍ إِنْ خَرَجَ عَمِّي مِنَ الْحَبْسِ فَخَرَجَ فَأُصْبِحُ وَأَنَا أُرِيدُ الصِّيَامَ فَيَجِيئُنِي بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا فَأَدْعُو بِالْغَدَاءِ وَأَتَغَدَّى مَعَهُ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Salih ibn ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, it is upon me to fast for one month if my uncle is released from jail. He came out from jail and I decided to fast the next day, but then a certain person of our people came and I invited him for lunch. I joined him for lunch. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not harmful.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/350)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ جَعَلَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ صَوْمَ شَهْرٍ بِالْكُوفَةِ وَشَهْرٍ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَشَهْرٍ بِمَكَّةَ مِنْ بَلاءٍ ابْتُلِيَ بِهِ فَقُضِيَ أَنَّهُ صَامَ بِالْكُوفَةِ شَهْراً وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَصَامَ بِهَا ثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً وَلَمْ يُقِمْ عَلَيْهِ الْجَمَّالُ قَالَ يَصُومُ مَا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ إِذَا انْتَهَى إِلَى بَلَدِهِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has made obligatory upon himself to fast one month in al-Kufah, one month in al-Madinah and one month in Makkah because of an affliction whereby he suffered. He fasted one month in al-Kufah, then he entered al-Madinah and fasted for eighteen days, but then the camel man did not stay any longer. He (the Imam) said, ‘He can fast the remaining days at home when he comes back.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/350)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلاَم) أَنَّ عَلِيّاً صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ نَذَرَ أَنْ يَصُومَ زَمَاناً قَالَ الزَّمَانُ خَمْسَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَالْحِينُ سِتَّةُ أَشْهُرٍ لأَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ تُؤْتِي أُكُلَها كُلَّ حِينٍ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّها.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has narrated from his ancestors who have narrated this Hadith: ‘Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said about a man, who had vowed to fast for a Zamanan (a certain amount of time), that Zaman is five months, al-Hin is six months; Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘It gives its fruits kulla Hin (every time) by the permission of its Lord.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/352)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ قَالَ لله عَلَيَّ أَنْ أَصُومَ حِيناً وَذَلِكَ فِي شُكْرٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَدْ أُتِيَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي مِثْلِ هَذَا فَقَالَ صُمْ سِتَّةَ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ تُؤْتِي أُكُلَها كُلَّ حِينٍ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّها يَعْنِي سِتَّةَ أَشْهُرٍ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Khalid ibn Jarir from abu al-Rabi’ who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has said, ‘It is from Allah upon me to fast a Hin (a certain amount of time) for thanksgiving.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘A similar case came to Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and he said, ‘Fast for six months; Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘It gives its fruits kulla Hin by the permission of its Lord’, that is six months.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/352)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ آبَائِهِ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلاَم) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَجْعَلُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَيَّاماً مَعْدُودَةً مُسَمَّاةً فِي كُلِّ شَهْرٍ ثُمَّ يُسَافِرُ فَتَمُرُّ بِهِ الشُّهُورُ أَنَّهُ لا يَصُومُ فِي السَّفَرِ وَلا يَقْضِيهَا إِذَا شَهِدَ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas’adah ibn Sadaqah who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has narrated from his ancestors, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, who have stated this Hadith. ’If a man places upon himself fasting of certain known days of every month, then he goes on a journey and many months pass, such person is not required to fast on a journey as well as at home when he comes back.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/353)



8ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَصُومُ صَوْماً قَدْ وَقَّتَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَوْ يَصُومُ مِنْ أَشْهُرِ الْحُرُمِ فَيَمُرُّ بِهِ الشَّهْرُ وَالشَّهْرَانِ لا يَقْضِيهِ فَقَالَ لا يَصُومُ فِي السَّفَرِ وَلا يَقْضِي شَيْئاً مِنْ صَوْمِ التَّطَوُّعِ إِلاَّ الثَّلاثَةَ الأَيَّامِ الَّتِي كَانَ يَصُومُهَا مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَلا يَجْعَلُهَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْوَاجِبِ إِلاَّ أَنِّي أُحِبُّ لَكَ أَنْ تَدُومَ عَلَى الْعَمَلِ الصَّالِحِ قَالَ وَصَاحِبُ الْحُرُمِ الَّذِي كَانَ يَصُومُهَا وَيُجْزِئُهُ أَنْ يَصُومَ مَكَانَ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ مِنْ أَشْهُرِ الْحُرُمِ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who fasts because of what he has timed upon himself or to fast of the sacred months and then one or two months pass during which he does not fast at all. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is not required to fast on a journey and there is not anything of Qada’ (compensatory fast) for optional fast except the three days that he would fast every month. He must not take it as obligatory except that I like you to continue with a good deed.’ He (the Imam) said, ’For the one committing himself to fast in the sacred months, fasting of three days, instead of fasting the whole of sacred month, is sufficient.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/353)



9ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَجْعَلُ لله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمَ يَوْمٍ مُسَمًّى قَالَ يَصُومُهُ أَبَداً فِي السَّفَرِ وَالْحَضَرِ.


9. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who places upon himself for Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, fasting of a definite day. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to fast definitely, regardless of being on a journey or at home.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالموثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/353)



10ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ إِنَّ أُمِّي كَانَتْ جَعَلَتْ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا لله عَلَيْهَا نَذْراً إِنْ كَانَ الله رَدَّ عَلَيْهَا بَعْضَ وُلْدِهَا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ كَانَتْ تَخَافُ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ تَصُومَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي يَقْدَمُ فِيهِ مَا بَقِيَتْ فَخَرَجَتْ مَعَنَا مُسَافِرَةً إِلَى مَكَّةَ فَأَشْكَلَ عَلَيْنَا لَمْ نَدْرِ أَ تَصُومُ أَمْ تُفْطِرُ فَسَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ ذَلِكَ وَأَخْبَرْتُهُ بِمَا جَعَلَتْ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا فَقَالَ لا تَصُومُ فِي السَّفَرِ قَدْ وَضَعَ الله عَنْهَا حَقَّهُ وَتَصُومُ هِيَ مَا جَعَلَتْ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا قَالَ قُلْتُ مَا تَرَى إِذَا هِيَ قَدِمَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ تَرَى فِي الَّذِي نَذَرَتْ مَا تَكْرَهُ.


10. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal ibn Bukayr from Zurarah who has said the following: “My mother had placed upon herself from Allah to fast a certain day if Allah returned one of her children safely from the danger of which she was afraid, and she would then fast the day her child came back. She did not stay; instead came out with us for Makkah and it became difficult for us because we did not know whether she was required to fast or not. I then asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about it and explained to him (the Imam) what she had done. He (the Imam) said, ’She is not required to fast on a journey. Allah has exempted her of His rights: why then must she fast because of what she has placed from Allah upon herself?’ I then asked him (the Imam), ‘What will happen if she did not do it at all?’ He (the Imam) said, ’If so, I fear for her to experience in the matter for which she had vowed to see what she may dislike.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق في قوة الصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/354)