59. The Expiation and Ransom for Missed Fasting

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ عَنْ إِدْرِيسَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ وَعَلِيِّ بْنِ إِدْرِيسَ قَالا سَأَلْنَا الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ رَجُلٍ نَذَرَ نَذْراً إِنْ هُوَ تَخَلَّصَ مِنَ الْحَبْسِ أَنْ يَصُومَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي تَخَلَّصَ فِيهِ فَيَعْجِزُ عَنِ الصَّوْمِ لِعِلَّةٍ أَصَابَتْهُ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ فَمُدَّ لِلرَّجُلِ فِي عُمُرِهِ وَقَدِ اجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمٌ كَثِيرٌ مَا كَفَّارَةُ ذَلِكَ الصَّوْمِ قَالَ يُكَفِّرُ عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ بِمُدِّ حِنْطَةٍ أَوْ شَعِيرٍ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, from ibn Khalid from Muhammad ibn Sahl from Idris ibn Zayd and Ali ibn Idris who has said the following: “Once we asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who makes a vow that if he is released from jail, he will fast the same day but he is unable to do so because of illness or other reasons, and during his life time he becomes indebted to carry out many days of fasting. What is the expiation for such fast? He (the Imam) said, ‘He can expiate it with one mud (a certain measurement) of wheat or barley for every day.”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/355)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَنْصُورٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ رَجُلٍ نَذَرَ نَذْراً فِي صِيَامٍ فَعَجَزَ فَقَالَ كَانَ أَبِي يَقُولُ عَلَيْهِ مَكَانَ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مُدٌّ.


2. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn Ahmad from Musa ibn Bakr from Muhammad ibn Mansur who has said the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who makes a vow and then fails to fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘My father, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would say that he is required to pay one mud (a certain measurement) for every day.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/355)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي رَجُلٍ نَذَرَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ إِنْ هُوَ سَلِمَ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَوْ تَخَلَّصَ مِنْ حَبْسٍ أَنْ يَصُومَ كُلَّ يَوْمِ أَرْبِعَاءَ وَهُوَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي تَخَلَّصَ فِيهِ فَعَجَزَ عَنِ الصَّوْمِ لِعِلَّةٍ أَصَابَتْهُ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ فَمُدَّ لِلرَّجُلِ فِي عُمُرِهِ وَاجْتَمَعَ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمٌ كَثِيرٌ مَا كَفَّارَةُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ تَصَدَّقَ لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ بِمُدٍّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ أَوْ ثَمَنِ مُدٍّ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who vows to fast, if he is released from jail, every Wednesday. It is the day when he was released but he fails to do so due to illness or other reasons; and during his lifetime a large number of days of such fast become due upon him. What is the expiation for such fast? He (the Imam) said, ‘He must pay charity of one mud (a certain measurement) of wheat or its price for every day of fast.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/356)



4ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عِيصِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّنْ لَمْ يَصُمِ الثَّلاثَةَ الأَيَّامِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَهُوَ يَشُدُّ عَلَيْهِ الصِّيَامُ هَلْ فِيهِ فِدَاءٌ قَالَ مُدٌّ مِنْ طَعَامٍ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ.


4. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Is ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who does not fast three days every month because fasting is difficult for him: if there is a ransom for it. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is one mud (a certain measurement) of food for everyday.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/356)



5ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنَّ الصَّوْمَ يَشُدُّ عَلَيَّ فَقَالَ لِي لَدِرْهَمٌ تَصَدَّقُ بِهِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ صِيَامِ يَوْمٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَمَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَدَعَهُ.


5. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman from ‘Umar ibn Yazid who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, fasting is difficult for me. He (the Imam) said, ‘One dirham given as charity is better than fasting for one day. He (the Imam) then said, ‘I do not like if you neglect it.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/356)



6ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ خَلِيفَةَ قَالَ شَكَوْتُ إِلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي أُصَدَّعُ إِذَا صُمْتُ هَذِهِ الثَّلاثَةَ الأَيَّامِ وَيَشُقُّ عَلَيَّ قَالَ فَاصْنَعْ كَمَا أَصْنَعُ إِذَا سَافَرْتُ فَإِنِّي إِذَا سَافَرْتُ تَصَدَّقْتُ عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ بِمُدٍّ مِنْ قُوتِ أَهْلِي الَّذِي أَقُوتُهُمْ بِهِ.


6. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Yazid ibn Khalifah who has said the following: “I once complained before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I get a headache if I fast the three days (recommended for every month) and it is difficult for me. He (the Imam) said, ‘You must do as I do when I travel. When traveling I pay charity for every day of one mud (a certain measurement) of the kind of food which is used in my family.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/356)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ عَنْ عُقْبَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي قَدْ كَبِرْتُ وَضَعُفْتُ عَنِ الصِّيَامِ فَكَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ بِهَذِهِ الثَّلاثَةِ الأَيَّامِ فِي كُلِّ شَهْرٍ فَقَالَ يَا عُقْبَةُ تَصَدَّقْ بِدِرْهَمٍ عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ دِرْهَمٌ وَاحِدٌ قَالَ لَعَلَّهَا كَبُرَتْ عِنْدَكَ وَأَنْتَ تَسْتَقِلُّ الدِّرْهَمَ قَالَ قُلْتُ إِنَّ نِعَمَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيَّ لَسَابِغَةٌ فَقَالَ يَا عُقْبَةُ لإِطْعَامُ مُسْلِمٍ خَيْرٌ مِنْ صِيَامِ شَهْرٍ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il ibn Bazi’ from Salih ibn ‘Uqbah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that I have become old and weak to fast the three days every month. He (the Imam) said, ‘O ‘Uqbah, give one dirham as charity for every day.’ I then said, ‘Just one dirham!’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Perhaps it seems greatly strange to you and you think one dirham is small.’ I said, ‘The bounties of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, are plentiful with me.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘O ‘Uqbah, feeding one Muslim is better than fasting for one month.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/357)