33. The Explanation of the Letters of the Alphabet According to Their Numerical Value

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1 - حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الهمداني مولى بني هاشم، قال: حدثنا جعفر بن عبد الله بن جعفر بن عبد الله بن جعفر بن محمد بن علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، قال: حدثنا كثير بن عياش القطان، عن أبي الجارود زياد بن المنذر، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر عليهم السلام، قال: لما ولد عيسى بن مريم عليه السلام كان ابن يوم كأنه ابن شهرين، فلما كان ابن سبعة أشهر أخذت والدته بيده وجاءت به إلى الكتاب وأقعدته بين يدي المؤدب فقال له المؤدب: قل بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم، فقال عيسى عليه السلام: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم، فقال له المؤدب: قل: أبجد، فرفع عيسى عليه السلام رأسه فقال: هل تدري ما أبجد؟ فعلاه بالدرة ليضربه، فقال: يا مؤدب لا تضربني، إن كنت تدري وإلا فاسألني حتى أفسر لك، قال: فسره لي، فقال عيسى عليه السلام: الألف آلاء الله، والباء بهجة الله، والجيم جمال الله، والدال دين الله. (هوز) الهاء هول جهنم، والواو ويل لأهل النار، والزاي زفير جنهم. (حطي) حطت الخطايا عن المستغفرين. (كلمن) كلام الله لا مبدل لكلماته. (سعفص) صاع بصاع والجزاء بالجزاء. (قرشت) قرشهم فحشرهم، فقال المؤدب: أيتها المرأة خذي بيد ابنك فقد علم ولا حاجة له في المؤدب.


1. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Hamdani, the freed slave of the Hashimites, said: Ja`far ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib said: Kathir ibn `Ayyash al-Qittan said, on the authority of Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn al-Mundhir that Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn al-Baqir (AS) said: When Jesus son of Mary [`Isa ibn Maryam] (AS) was born, he was a day old; however, he looked to be two months old. When he turned seven months old, his mother took him to the teachers of script. She placed him before the teacher, so the teacher said to him: “Say: In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.” Thus, `Isa (AS) said: “In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.” Then the teacher said to him: “Say: Abjad (the alphabet).” So `Isa (AS) lifted his head and asked, “Do you know what abjad is?” Hence, the teacher picked up a lash to hit him. Therefore, `Isa (AS) responded, “O teacher, do not hit me. If you do not know the maning, ask me, and I shall it explain it to you.” Thus, the teacher replied, “Explain it to me.” `Isa (AS) explained: The letter [alif] “a” stands for Allah’s Blessings; the letter [ba] “b” stands for Allah’s Joy; the letter [jim] “j” stands for Allah’s Exaltation; the letter [dal] “d” stands for Allah’s Religion. In hawwaz, the letter [ha] “h” stands for the terror of Hell; the letter [wa’u] “w” stands for the affliction for the ones in the Fire; and the letter [za`i] “z” stands for the moaning of Hell. Hutti is for diminishing the mistakes from the seekers of forgiveness. Kaliman is the Word of Allah, there is none that can alter His words. Sa`fas is tit for tat and recompense for recompense. Qarashat is that He assembles them then resurrects them. The teacher then said: “Lady! Take you son away. He is already learned, and is not in need of a teacher.”




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، وأحمد بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن علي بن أسباط، عن الحسن بن زيد قال: حدثني محمد بن سالم، عن الأصبغ بن نباتة، قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: سأل عثمان بن عفاف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عن تفسير أبجد، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: تعلموا تفسير أبجد فإن فيه الأعاجيب كلها، ويل لعالم جهل تفسيره، فقيل: يا رسول الله: ما تفسير أبجد؟ فقال صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: أما الألف فآلاء الله حرف من حروف أسمائه . وأما الباء فبهجة الله، وأما الجيم فجنة الله وجلال الله وجماله، وأما الدال فدين الله، وأما (هوز) فالهاء هاء الهاوية فويل لمن هوى في النار، وأما الواو فويل لأهل النار، وأما الزاي فزاوية في النار فنعوذ بالله مما في الزاوية يعني زوايا جهنم، وأما (حطي) فالحاء حطوط الخطايا عن المستغفرين في ليلة القدر وما نزل به جبرئيل مع الملائكة إلى مطلع الفجر، وأما الطاء فطوبى لهم وحسن مآب وهي شجرة غرسها الله عز وجل ونفخ فيها من روحه وإن أغصانها لترى من وراء سور الجنة تنبت بالحلي والحلل متدلية على أفواهم، وأما الياء فيد الله فوق خلقه سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون، وأما (كلمن) فالكاف كلام الله لا مبدل لكلمات الله ولن تجد من دونه ملتحدا، وأما اللام فإلمام أهل الجنة بينهم في الزيارة والتحية والسلام، وتلاوم أهل النار فيما بينهم، وأما الميم فملك الله الذي لا يزول ودوام الله الذي لا يفنى، وأما النون فنون والقلم وما يسطرون، فالقلم قلم من نور وكتاب من نور في لوح محفوظ يشهده المقربون وكفى بالله شهيدا، وأما (سعفص) فالصاد صاع بصاع وفص بفص يعني الجزاء بالجزاء، وكما تدين تدان، إن الله لا يريد ظلما للعباد، وأما (قرشت) يعني قرشهم الله فحشرهم ونشرهم إلى يوم القيامة فقضى بينهم بالحق وهم لا يظلمون.


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSafar said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Abu al-Khattab; and Ahmad ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Fuddal said, on the authority of `Ali ibn Asbat, on the authority of al-Hasan ibn Zayd that Muhammad ibn Salim related to me, on the authority of Asbagh ibn Nubatah that The Commander of the Faithful said: `Uthman ibn `Affan asked the Messenger of Allah (SA) about the explanation of the alphabet according to their numerical value. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (SA) responded, “Learn the explanation of the alphabet according to its numerical value, for verily, it contains wonders. Shame on the learned who ignore its meaning.” Hence, it was asked: “What is the explanation of the alphabet?” Then he (SA) explained, As for the letter [alif], it stands for the Blessings of Allah. It is a letter from the letters of His Names. The letter [ba] stands for Allah’s Joy; The letter [jim] stands for Allah’s Paradise, His Glory and Exaltation; The letter [dal] sands for Allah’s Religion. As for hawwaz, then the letter [ha] stands for the burning abyss, so affliction is for the ones who are cast in Hell; The letter [wa’u] stands for the affliction for the ones in the Fire; And the letter [za`i] stands for a corner of Hell, thus, we seek refuge in Allah from what is in the corner. As for Hutti, then the letter [ha] is for the diminishing of the mistakes from the seekers of forgiveness in the Night of Power [laylat al-qadr], and what Jibra’il brings down with the angels till the break of the morning; The letter [ta] stands for the Prosperity [tuba], the good End for the believers. It [tuba] is a tree which Allah, the Mighty and High, has planted, and in which He has breathed His Spirit. Verily, its branches are noticeable from behind the enclosure of Paradise. It brings forth pieces of jewellery and drinks ready to fall down unto their mouths; The letter [ya] stands for Allah’s Hand which is expanded over all His Creatures. Glorified and Exalted is He, opposed to what the polytheists profess. As for Kaliman, then the letter [kaf] stands for Allah’s Word, “there is none who can alter His Words; and you shall not find any refuge besides Him.” The letter [lam] stands for the acquaintance [ilmam] of the ones in Paradise with each other in meeting, greeting and salutations, and gathering [talawum] of the ones in Hell with what they have between themselves. The letter [mim] stands for the Sovereignty of Allah, which never declines and the Endlessness of Allah, which never perishes. The letter [nun] stands for “Nun. I swear by the Pen and what they (the Angels) write.” Hence, the pen is from light and the book is from light in the guarded tablet, which the close ones witness and Allah suffices as a witness. As for Sa`fas, then it is tit for tat and precious stone for a precious stone, i.e. recompense for recompense and as you sow so shall you reap. Verily, Allah does not intend oppression for the servants. As for Qarashat, it means that Allah assembles them, then resurrects them, and revives them on the Day of Judgment. He then judges them with righteousness, and they shall not be oppressed in the least.