32. The Explanation of‬‬ the Letters of the Alphabet.

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1 - حدثنا محمد بن بكران النقاش رحمه الله، بالكوفة، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الهمداني، قال: حدثنا علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن أبيه، عن أبي الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السلام، قال: إن أول ما خلق الله عز وجل ليعرف به خلقه الكتابة حروف المعجم وإن الرجل إذا ضرب على رأسه بعصا فزعم أنه لا يفصح ببعض الكلام فالحكم فيه أن يعرض عليه حروف المعجم، ثم يعطي الدية بقدر ما لم يفصح منها. ولقد حدثني أبي، عن أبيه، عن جده، عن أمير المؤمنين عليهم السلام في (ا ب ت ث) أنه قال: الألف آلاء الله، والباء بهجة الله (والباقي وبديع السماوات والأرض). والتاء تمام الأمر بقائم آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم والثاء ثواب المؤمنين على أعمالهم الصالحة. (ج ح خ) فالجيم جمال الله وجلال الله، والحاء حلم الله، (حي حق حليم) عن المذنبين، والخاء خمول ذكر أهل المعاصي عند الله عز وجل. (د ذ) فالدال دين الله (الذي ارتضاه لعباده)، والذال من ذي الجلال والاكرام. (ر ز) فالراء من الرؤوف الرحيم، والزاي زلازل يوم القيامة. (س ش) فالسين سناء الله (وسرمديته)، والشين شاء الله ما شاء، وأراد ما أراد (وما تشاؤن إلا أن يشاء الله). (ص ض) فالصاد من صادق الوعد في حمل الناس على الصراط، وحبس الظالمين عند المرصاد، والضاد ضل من خالف محمد وآل محمد. (ط ظ) فالطاء طوبى للمؤمنين، وحسن مآب، والظاء ظن المؤمنين بالله خير وظن الكافرين به سواء . (ع غ) فالعين من العالم، والغين من الغني الذي لا يجوز عليه الحاجة على الاطلاق. (ف ق) فالفاء (فالق الحب والنوى، و) وفوج من أفواج النار، والقاف قرآن على الله جمعه وقرآنه. (ك ل) فالكاف من الكافي، واللام لغو الكافرين في افترائهم على الله الكذب. (م ن) فالميم ملك الله يوم الدين يوم لا مالك غيره ويقول الله عز وجل (لمن الملك اليوم) ثم تنطق أرواح أنبيائه ورسله وحججه فيقولون: (لله الواحد القهار) فيقول جل جلاله: (اليوم تجزى كل نفس بما كسبت لا ظلم اليوم إن الله سريع الحساب) (١). والنون نوال الله للمؤمنين، ونكاله للكافرين (وه) فالواو ويل لمن عصى الله من عذاب يوم عظيم، والهاء هان على الله من عصاه. (لا) فلام ألف لا إله إلا الله وهي كلمة الاخلاص. ما من عبد قالها مخلصا إلا وجبت له الجنة. (ى) يد الله فوق خلقه باسطة بالرزق، سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون (٢). ثم قال عليه السلام: إن الله تبارك وتعالى أنزل هذا القرآن بهذه الحروف التي يتداولها جميع العرب ثم قال: ﴿قل لئن اجتمعت الإنس والجن على أن يأتوا بمثل هذا القرآن لا يأتون بمثله ولو كان بعضهم لبعض ظهيرا﴾ .


‫‪1. Muhammad ibn Bakran al-Naqqash (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Kufah that‬‬ ‫‪Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Hamdani said: `Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Fuddal, on the authority‬‬ ‫‪of his father that‬‬ Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) said: Verily, the first thing that Allah, the Mighty and High, created, in order to teach His Creation, was the alphabet. When someone is hit over the head so hard that he loses the ability to speak properly, the law decrees that he must be presented the letters of the alphabet. The extent of the compensation the culprit must pay is based on the number of letters of the alphabet which the victim of the assault cannot pronounce. My father related to me, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, on the authority of the Commander of the Faithful (AS) that he said about the alphabet: The Letter * [alif] “a” * stands for Allah’s Blessings [ala]; the letter * [ba] “b” stands for Allah’s Joy [bahjat] (also for the Ever-Remaining and the Originator of the Heavens and the Earth); the letter * [ta] “t” stands for the completion of the affairs through the Rise from the Progeny of Muhammad (SA); the letter * [tha] “th” stands for the reward [thawab] for the good deeds of the believers. The letter * [jim] “j” stands for Allah’s Exaltation [jamal] and Glory [jalal]; the letter * [ha] “h” stands for Allah’s Forbearance [hilm] towards sinners (it also stands for the EverLiving, the Truth, and the Forbearing); the letter * [kha] “kh” stands for the sluggishness of the disobedient ones in the presence of Allah, the Mighty and High. The letter * [dal] “d” stands for Allah’s Religion [din] (which He has approved for His servants); and the letter * [dhal] “dh” stands for the Lord of Glory and Honor [dhil jalal wa-al-ikram]. The letter * [ra] “r” stands for the Affectionate [al-Ra’uf] and the Most Merciful [alRahim]; and the letter * [za] “z” stands for Shaking on the Day of Judgment. The Letter * [sin] “s” stands for Allah’s Luminance [sana] (and His Eternity); and the letter * [shin] “sh” stands for Allah’s Wish, whatever He wished and Intention, whatever He intended. And you do not wish except that Allah wishes. The letter * [sad] “s” stands for the One whose Promise is True [Sadiq al-Wa`d] in carrying the people over the Bridge [Sirat], and imprisoning the oppressors in the Hell; and the letter * [dad] “d” stands for the loss [dil] of whoever opposes Muhammad (SA) and his Progeny (AS). The letter * [ta] “t” stands for the Prosperity [tuba] and Good Ending for the Believes; and the letter * [za] `z’ stands for the optimism of the Believers about Allah and the pessimism of the unbelievers in Allah. The letter * [`ayn] “`a” stands for the Omniscient [`Alim]; and the letter * [ghayn] “gh” stands for the Self-Sufficient [al-Ghani], who is absolutely never in need. The letter * [fa] “f” stands for the (the Splitter [al-Faliq] of the seeds and fruit kernels, and for) flame from the flames of the Fire; and the letter * [qaf] “q” stands for the Qur’an whose compilation and recitation depends upon Allah. Ther letter * [kaf] “k” stands for the Sufficient [al-Kafi]; and the letter * [lam] “l” stands for the absurdity [laghw] of the unbelievers in the lies which they ascribe to Allah. The letter * [mim] “m” stands for the Sovereignty of Allah on the Day of Judgment, on the Day on which there will be no other sovereignty. Allah, the Mighty and High, says: To whom belongs the Kingdom this Day? At that time the spirits of His Prophets, Messengers and Proofs (AS) will speak and say: To Allah, the One, the Subduer (of All). Thus, Great be His Glory will respond: This Day every soul shall be rewarded for what it has earned; no injustice (shall be done) this day; surely Allah is quick in reckoning. And the letter * [nun] “n” stands for Allah’s favour [nawal] for the believes and His Punishment [nakal] for the unbelievers. The letter * [wa’u] “w” stands for the affliction [wayl] with the punishment of the Day of Judgment for the ones who disobey Allah; and the letter * [ha’] “h” stands for the insignificance of those who disobey Allah. The letter * [la] “la” as in [la ilaha illa Allah] “there is no god but Allah,” is the expression of sincere devotion. There is no servant who says it sincerely except Paradise becomes incumbent upon him. Finally the letter * [ya] “y” stands for Allah’s hand which is expanded over all His creatures for sustenance. Glorified and Exalted is He from what the polytheists profess. He (AS) then said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, revealed this Qur’an with these letters, which all the Arabs use, and then challenged: Say: if men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Qur’an, they could not bring the like of it, thought some of them were aiders of others.




2 - حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الرحمن المقرئ الحاكم، قال: حدثنا أبو - عمرو محمد بن جعفر المقرئ الجرجاني، قال: حدثنا أبو بكر محمد بن الحسن الموصلي ببغداد، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عاصم الطريفي، قال: حدثنا أبو زيد عياش بن يزيد ابن الحسن بن علي الكحال مولى زيد بن علي، قال: أخبرني أبي يزيد بن الحسن قال: حدثني موسى بن جعفر، عن أبيه جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه محمد بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن الحسين، عن أبيه الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام، قال: جاء يهودي إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وعنده أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام فقال له: ما الفائدة في حروف الهجاء فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لعلي عليه السلام: أجبه، وقال: اللهم وفقه وسدده، فقال علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام: ما من حرف إلا وهو اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل، ثم قال: أما الألف فالله لا إله إلا هو الحي القيوم ، وأما الباء فالباقي بعد فناء خلقه، وأما التاء فالتواب يقبل التوبة عن عباده، وأما الثاء فالثابت الكائن (يثبت الله الذين آمنوا بالقول الثابت في الحياة الدنيا - الآية) وأما الجيم فجل ثناؤه وتقدست أسماؤه، وأما الحاء فحق حي، حليم، وأما الخاء فخبير بما يعمل العباد، وأما الدال فديان يوم الدين، وأما الذال فذو الجلال و الاكرام، وأما الراء فرؤوف بعباده، وأما الزاي فزين المعبودين، وأما السين فالسميع البصير، وأما الشين فالشاكر لعباده المؤمنين، وأما الصاد فصادق في وعده و وعيده، وأما الضاد فالضار، النافع، وأما الطاء فالطاهر المطهر، وأما الظاء فالظاهر المظهر لآياته، وأما العين فعالم بعباده، وأما الغين فغياث المستغيثين من جميع خلقه، و أما الفاء ففالق الحب والنوى، وأما القاف فقادر على جميع خلقه، وأما الكاف فالكافي الذي لم يكن له كفوا أحد ولم يلد ولم يولد، وأما اللام فلطيف بعباده، وأما الميم فمالك الملك، وإما النون فنور السماوات من نور عرشه، وأما الواو فواحد أحد صمد لم يلد ولم يولد، وأما الهاء فهاد لخلقه، وأما اللام ألف فلا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له. وأما الياء فيد الله باسطة على خلقه، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: هذا هو القول الذي رضي الله عز وجل لنفسه من جميع خلقه، فأسلم اليهودي. باب تفسير حروف الجمل


2. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Muqri al-Hakim said: Abu `Amr Muhammad ibn Ja`far al-Muqri al-Jurjani said: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Musili said in Baghdad that Muhammad ibn `Asim al-Tarifi said: Abu Zayd `Ayyash ibn Yazid ibn al-Hasan ibn `Ali al-Kahhal, the freed slave of Zayd ibn `Ali, said: Abu Yazid ibn al-Hasan related to me that Musa ibn Ja`far related to me, on the authority of his father that Al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) said: A Jewish person came to the Prophet (SA) while the Commander of the Faithful `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) was with him and asked: “What is the meaning of the letters of the alphabet? Thus, the Messenger of Allah (SA) said to `Ali (AS), “Answer him, and prayed: `O Allah, grant him success and show him the right way.” Therefore, Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) explained, “There is not a letter of the alphabet that does not stand for a name of Allah, the Mighty and High.” He then added, The letter * [alif] “a” stand for “Allah, besides whom there is no god, the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsisting;” The letter * [ba] “b” stands for “the Ever-Remaining even after the end of the creation;” The letter * [ta] “t” stands for “the Oft-Returning (in mercy) who accepts the repentance from His Servants;” The letter * [tha] “th” stands for “the Firm Creator,” Allah confirms those who believe with the sure word in this world’s life. The letter * [jim] “j” stands for “high is His praise, and sacred are His Names;” The letter * [ha] “h” stands for “the Truth [haqq], the Ever-Living [hai], and he Forbearing [halim];” The letter * [kha] “kh” stands for “the All-Informed of what the servants to;” The letter * [dal] “d” stands for “the Rewarder of the Day of Judgment.” And the letter * [dhal] “dh” stands for “the Lord of glory and Honor” [dhul jalal wa-alikram]. The letter * [ra] “r” stands for “the Affectionate towards His Servants;” And the letter * [za] “z” stands for “the Beauty of the worshipped.” The letter * [sin] “s” stands for “the All-Hearing and All-Seeing;” The letter * [shin] “sh” stands for “the Thankful to His Believing Servants;” The letter * [sad] “s” stands for “the Most Truthful in His Promise [wa`d] and threat [wa`id];” And the letter * [dhad] “d” stands for “the Punisher [dar] and the Beneficial.” The letter * [ta] “t” stands for “the Pune [Tahir] and the One who Purifies;” The letter * [za] “z” stands for “the Manifested and the One that Manifests His Signs;” The letter * [`ayn] “`” stands for “the All-Knowing of His Servants;” And the letter * [ghayn] “gh” stands for “the Aid of all those from His Creation who seek help.” The letter * [fa] “f” stands for “the Splitter of the seeds and fruit kernels;” The letter * [qaf] “q” stands for “the All-Powerful over all of His Creation;” The letter * [kaf] “k” stands for “the Sufficient who there is non like unto Him and He begets not, nor is He begotten;” The letter * [lam] “l” stand for “the Kind over His servants;” The letter * [mim] “m” stands for “the Master of sovereignty;” The letter * [nun] “n” stands for “the light of heavens from the Light of His Throne;” The letter * [wa’u] “w” stands for “the One [Wahid], the Uique and the Needless, who begets not, nor is He begotten;” The letter * [ha] “h” stands for “the guide for His Creation;” The letter * [la] “la” stands for “there is no god but Allah;” And finally the letter * [ya] stands for `Allah’s Hand which Extends over all His Creatures.” Then the Messenger of Allah (SA) responded, “Allah, the Mighty and High, is pleased with this answer.” Consequently, the Jewish man accepted Islam.