34. The Explanation of the Words of the Calls to Prayer

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1 - حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الرحمن المروزي الحاكم المقرئ، قال: حدثنا أبو عمرو محمد بن المقرئ الجرجاني، قال: حدثنا أبو بكر محمد بن الحسن الموصلي ببغداد، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عاصم الطريفي، قال: حدثنا أبو زيد عياش ابن يزيد بن الحسن بن علي الكحال مولى زيد بن علي، قال: أخبرني أبي يزيد بن الحسن، قال: حدثني موسى بن جعفر، عن أبيه جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه محمد بن علي عن أبيه علي بن الحسين، عن أبيه الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام، قال: كنا جلوسا في المسجد إذا صعد المؤذن المنارة فقال: الله أكبر الله أكبر، فبكى أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام وبكينا ببكائه، فلما فرغ المؤذن قال: أتدرون ما يقول المؤذن؟! قلنا: الله ورسوله ووصيه أعلم، فقال: لو تعلمون ما يقول لضحكتم قليلا ولبكيتم كثيرا، فلقوله: (الله أكبر) معان كثيرة: منها أن قول المؤذن: (الله أكبر) يقع على قدمه وأزليته وأبديته وعلمه وقوته وقدرته وحلمه وكرمه وجوده وعطائه وكبريائه، فإذا قال المؤذن (الله أكبر) فإنه يقول: الله الذي له الخلق والأمر، و بمشيته كان الخلق، ومنه كان كل شئ للخلق، وإليه يرجع الخلق، وهو الأول قبل كل شئ لم يزل، والآخر بعد كل شئ لا يزال، والظاهر فوق كل شئ لا يدرك، والباطن دون كل شئ لا يحد، فهو الباقي وكل شئ دونه فان، والمعنى الثاني (الله أكبر) أي العليم الخبير علم ما كان وما يكون قبل أن يكون، والثالث (الله أكبر) أي القادر على كل شئ، يقدر على ما يشاء، القوي لقدرته، المقتدر على خلقه، القوي لذاته، قدرته قائمة على الأشياء كلها، إذا قضى أمرا فإنما يقول له كن فيكون، والرابع (الله أكبر) على معنى حلمه وكرمه يحلم كأنه لا يعلم ويصفح كأنه لا يرى ويستر كأنه لا يعصى، لا يعجل بالعقوبة كرما وصفحا وحلما، والوجه الآخر في معنى (الله أكبر) أي الجواد جزيل العطاء كريم الفعال، والوجه الآخر (الله أكبر) فيه نفي كيفيته كأنه يقول: الله أجل من أن يدرك الواصفون قدر صفته التي هو موصوف بها وإنما يصفه الواصفون على قدرهم لا على قدر عظمته وجلاله، تعالى الله عن أن يدرك الواصفون صفته علوا كبيرا، والوجه الآخر (الله أكبر) كأنه يقول: الله أعلى وأجل وهو الغني عن عباده لا حاجة به إلى أعمال خلقه، وأما قوله: (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله) فإعلام بأن الشهادة لا تجوز إلا بمعرفة من القلب، كأنه يقول: اعلم أنه لا معبود إلا الله عز وجل وأن كل معبود باطل سوى الله عز وجل وأقر بلساني بما في قلبي من العلم بأنه لا إله إلا الله، وأشهد أنه لا ملجأ من الله إلا إليه ولا منجى من شر كل ذي شر وفتنة كل ذي فتنة إلا بالله، وفي المرة الثانية (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله) معناه أشهد أن لا هادي إلا الله، ولا دليل لي إلا الله، وأشهد الله بأني أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، وأشهد سكان السماوات وسكان الأرضين وما فيهن من الملائكة والناس أجمعين، وما فيهن من الجبال والأشجار والدواب والوحوش وكل رطب ويابس بأني أشهد أن لا خالق إلا الله، ولا رازق ولا معبود ولا ضار ولا نافع ولا قابض ولا باسط ولا معطي ولا مانع ولا دافع ولا ناصح ولا كافي ولا شافي ولا مقدم ولا مؤخر إلا الله، له الخلق والأمر وبيده الخير كله، تبارك الله رب العالمين، وأما قوله: (أشهد أن محمد رسول الله) يقول: أشهد الله أني أشهد أن لا إله إلا هو، وأن محمد عبده ورسوله ونبيه وصفيه ونجيه أرسله إلى كافة الناس أجمعين بالهدى ودين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون، وأشهد من في السماوات والأرض من النبيين والمرسلين والملائكة والناس أجمعين أني أشهد أن محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم سيد الأولين والآخرين، وفي المرة الثانية (أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله) يقول: أشهد أن لا حاجة لأحد إلى أحد إلا إلى الله الواحد القهار مفتقرة إليه سبحانه وأنه الغني عن عباده والخلائق أجمعين، وأنه أرسل محمدا إلى الناس بشيرا ونذيرا وداعيا إلى الله بإذنه وسراجا منيرا، فمن أنكره وجحده ولم يؤمن به أدخله الله عز وجل نار جهنم خالدا مخلدا لا ينفك عنها أبدا، وأما قوله: (حي على الصلاة) أي هلموا إلى خير أعمالكم ودعوة ربكم، وسارعوا إلى مغفرة من ربكم وإطفاء ناركم التي أوقدتموها على ظهوركم، وفكاك رقابكم التي رهنتموها بذنوبكم ليكفر الله عنكم سيئاتكم، ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم، ويبدل سيئاتكم حسنات، فإنه ملك كريم ذو الفضل العظيم، وقد أذن لنا معاشر المسلمين بالدخول في خدمته والتقدم إلى بين يديه، وفي المرة الثانية (حي على الصلاة) أي قوموا إلى مناجاة ربكم وعرض حاجاتكم على ربكم وتوسلوا إليه بكلامه وتشفعوا به وأكثروا الذكر والقنوت والركوع والسجود والخضوع والخشوع، وارفعوا إليه حوائجكم فقد أذن لنا في ذلك، وأما قوله: (حي على الفلاح) فإنه يقول: أقبلوا إلى بقاء لا فناء معه ونجاة لا هلاك معها، وتعالوا إلى حياة لا موت معها، وإلى نعيم لا نفاذ له، وإلى ملك لا زوال عنه، وإلى سرور لا حزن معه، وإلى أنس لا وحشة معه، وإلى نور لا ظلمة معه وإلى سعة لا ضيق معها، وإلى بهجة لا انقطاع لها، وإلى غنى لا فاقة معه، و إلى صحه لا سقم معها، وإلى عز لا ذل معه، وإلى قوة لا ضعف معها، وإلى كرامة يا لها من كرامة، وعجلوا إلى سرور الدنيا والعقبى ونجاة الآخرة والأولى، وفي المرة الثانية (حي على الفلاح) فإنه يقول: سابقوا إلى ما دعوتكم إليه، وإلى جزيل الكرامة وعظيم المنة وسني النعمة والفوز العظيم ونعيم الأبد في جوار محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في مقعد صدق عند مليك مقتدر. وأما قول: (الله أكبر) فإنه يقول: الله أعلى وأجل من أن يعلم أحد من خلقه ما عنده من الكرامة لعبد أجابه وأطاعه و أطاع ولاة أمره وعرفه وعبده واشتغل به وبذكره وأحبه وأنس به واطمأن إليه ووثق به وخافه ورجاه واشتقاق إليه ووافقه في حكمه وقضائه ورضي به، وفي المرة الثانية (الله أكبر) فإنه يقول: الله أكبر وأعلى وأجل من أن يعلم أحد مبلغ كرامته لأوليائه وعقوبته لأعدائه، ومبلغ عفوه وغفرانه ونعمته لمن أجابه و أجاب رسوله، ومبلغ عذابه ونكاله وهو أنه لمن أنكره وجحده، وأما قوله: (لا إله إلا الله) معناه: لله الحجة البالغة عليهم بالرسل والرسالة والبيان والدعوة وهو أجل من أن يكون لأحد منهم عليه حجة، فمن أجابه فله النور والكرامة ومن أنكره فإن الله غني عن العالمين، وهو أسرع الحاسبين، ومعنى (قد قامت الصلاة) في الإقامة أي حان وقت الزيارة والمناجاة وقضاء الحوائج ودرك المنى، والوصول إلى الله عز وجل، وإلى كرامته وغفرانه وعفوه ورضوانه. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: إنما ترك الراوي لهذا الحديث ذكر (حي على خير العمل) للتقية.


1. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Marwazi al-Hakim al-Muqri’ said: Abu `Amr Muhammad ibn ja`far al-Muqri’ al-Jurjani said: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Musili said in Baghdada that Muhammad ibn `Asim al-Tarifi said: Abu Zayd `Ayyash ibn Yazid ibn alHasan ibn `Ali al-Kahhal freed slave of Zayd ibn `Ali said: My father Yazid ibn al-Hasan related tome that Musa ibn Ja`far related to me on the authority of his father Ja`far ibn Muhammad, on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn `Ali, on the authority of his father `Ai ibn al-Husayn that his father ‫‪Al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) said:‬‬ ‫‪We were sitting in the Mosque when the muezzin [al-mu’dhdhin] went to the minaret‬‬ ‫‪and said: “Allah is the Greatest” [Allahu Akbar] twice. The Commander of the Faithful‬‬ ‫‪`Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) started to weep, which caused us to weep as well. Therefore,‬‬ ‫‪when the muezzin finished, `Ali (AS) asked, “Do you know the inner meaning of the call‬‬ ‫to prayer made by the muezzin‬‬?" ‫‪We all replied, “All, His Messenger (SA), and His Successor, know best.” So he (AS) explained, If you knew the meaning of the words of the call to prayer, you would laugh little and weep much. The statement “Allah is the Greatest” has many meanings. When the muezzin says “Allah is Greatest” it refers to His Eternity, His Sempiternity, His Infinity, His Knowledge, His Power, His Omnipotence, His Forbearance, His Munificence, His Generosity, His Bounty, and His Pride. When the muezzin says “Allah is the Greatest” he proclaims that the Creation and the Command belong to Allah. He proclaims that creation came about as a result of His Will. He proclaims that creation comes from Him, and will return to Him. He proclaims that He is the First of the First as He has always existed, and that He is the Last of the Last as He will always exit. He proclaims that He is the Manifest, who cannot be perceived, and that He is the Hidden, who is not subject to limitations of any sort. He proclaims that He is the Ever-Lasting, and that everything but Him will perish. The second meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” refers to the fact that He is All-Knowing, the All-Informed, who knows everything that has occurred and everything that will occur, even before it occurs. The third meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is that He is All-Powerful over everything. His Power extends over everything. He is Powerful due to His Power, and the Potent One over His Creation. He is Powerful in Essence. His Power embraces all things. When He decrees a thing, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is. The fourth “Allah is the Greatest” refers to His Forbearance and Generosity. He forbears as if He were unaware of the sin, pardons as if He did no see the sin, and covers with mercy as if He had not been disobeyed. He does not hasten punishment out of His Generosity, Forgiveness, and Forbearance. Another meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is that He is Generous, Ample-Giving, and the Most Munificent. The other meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” is to negate His Shape, and that Allah is Greater than any of His Attributes. Verily, those who describe Allah describe him on the basis of their own ability and not according to His Might and Majesty. Exalted is Allah, the Elevated, the Great, from what the attributers perceive as His Attributes. Another meaning of “Allah is the Greatest” refers to the fact that Allah is the Most High and Exalted. He is Self-Sufficient from His Servants. He is not in need of the deeds of His Creation. As for his statement: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah” [ashhadu an la ilaha illa Allah], it declares that no profession of faith is permissible unless it comes sincerely from the heart. A sincere profession of faith is recognition that there is no one worthy of service but Allah, the Mighty and High, and refusing to serve other than Allah, the Mighty and High. My tongue confesses to my heart’s belief that there is no god but Allah. And I bear witness that there is no refuge from Allah except through Allah. And that there is no security from the evil of all evil doers and from the mischief of all mischief mongers, except with Allah. The second time that “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah” is proclaimed, it means: I bear witness there is no guide except Allah, and that there is no Guide but Allah. I bear witness to Allah that there is no god but Allah. And I call upon all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, and whatever is between them, including angels and human beings; and I call upon the mountains, the trees, the animals that are mounted, and the animals which are wild, and all that is wet and dry, that there is no Creator but Allah, and that there is no Sustainer, no One served, no Punisher, no Helper, no Seizer of Souls, no Extender, no Provider, no Preventer, no Defender, no Admonisher, no Sufficient, n o Cure, no Preceder, and no Final Destination except Allah. To Him belongs the Creation and the Command. In His Hand is all goodness. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds! As for his statement: “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” [ashhadu anna Muhammadan Rasul Allah], it proclaims that: I bear witness to Allah that there is no god but Him, and that Muhammad (SA) is His Servant, Messenger, and Prophet, as well as the Sincere Bearer of His Secret. He sent him to all mankind with guidance, with the Religion of Truth and He might make it prevail over all other religions, no matter how much the polytheists may detest it. I bear witness to whoever is in the heaves and the earth, to the Prophets, Messengers, angels, and all mankind, that Muhammad (SA) is the Master of the First and the Last. The second time “I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” is proclaimed, it means: I bear witness no one is in need of anyone but Allah, the One, the Dominant. Everything is in need of Him. Glory be to Him! He is Self-Sufficient from His Servants and all of creation. And I bear witness that He sent Muhammad (SA) to all people as a Bearer of Glad Tidings, as a Warner who invites to Allah by His Permission, and as a Light-Giving Torch. Therefore, whoever denies him, rejects him, and does not believe in him. Allah, the Mighty and High, will cast him in the Hell-fire forever and ever, and he shall never leave it. As for the statement: ”Hasten to the prayer” [hayya `ala al-salah], i.e. come to the best of your deeds, and the invitation of your Lord it means: Hasten to the forgiveness of your Lord, who will free you from the burden of the Fire which you bear on your backs. Hasten to free yourselves from enslavement to sin, so that Allah may pardon you your wrongdoings, forgive you your sins, and replace your bad deeds with good deeds, since He is the Sovereign, the Generous, the Possessor of Excellence, and the Most Great. He has granted us, the Muslims, permission to enter into His service, and granted us precedence in entering into His Presence. The second time “hasten to the prayer” is said, i.e. rise up to communicate your needs to your Lord, it means: Seek access to Him through His Words, intercede with Him, and increase the mention of His Name, supplication, bowing down, prostration, submission, and humbleness. Elevate your needs before Him, for He has permitted us to do so. As for his statement ‘Hasten to the success” [hayya `al al-falah] it means: Come to eternity where there is no death, come to salvation from disaster; come to life without death, to comfort without exhaustion, to sovereignty that does not decline, to joy without grief, to sociability without loneliness, to light without darkness, to affluence without tightness, to joy without end, to gratification without desire, to health without illness, to dignity without humility, to strength without weakness, and to the greatest of honor. Hasten to the joy of this world and the Hereafter by attaining salvation in this world for the Hereafter. The second time that “hasten to the success” is said it means: Compete in what I have called you to; vie for ample generosity, great kindness, splendid bounty, great success, and everlasting comfort in the proximity of Muhammad (SA) in a seat of truth before a Powerful King. As for his statement: “Allah is the Greatest” [Allahu Akbar] it means: Allah’s Kindness towards His Creation is grater than anyone can possibly conceive. It refers to His Kindness towards His Servants through answering their prayers; His Kindness towards His Servants who obey Him, and who obey His Legal guardians; His Kindness towards His Servant who serves Him, who preoccupies himself with Him and His Remembrance, who loves Him, and who befriends Him; His Kindness towards Hi servant who find tranquility in Him, who trust Him, who fears Him, who puts his hope in Him, who yearns for Him, who accepts His Commands and decrees, and who is please with Him. The second time that “Allah is the Greatest” is said it means: Allah’s Kindness towards His Creation is so great that it cannot possibly be conceived. It refers to His Kindness towards His Friends, His Punishment of His Enemies, the extent of His Pardoning, His Forgiveness, and His Bounty towards those who answer His Call, and the Call of His Messenger. It also refers to the extent of His Punishment and His Humiliation of those who deny Him and who reject Him. As for the statement: “There is no got but Allah” [la ilaha illa Allah] it means: Allah is the conclusive argument over humankind via His Messengers, His Message, His Clarification, and His Invitation. He is far above any argument against Him. Therefore, whosoever answers His Call, then for him is both light and kindness. And whosoever denies Him, then verily, Allah is Self-Sufficient from the Worlds, and He is the Swiftest in Taking Account. The meaning of “the prayer has begun” [qad qamat al-salah] in the Call to Prayer [iqamah] is: Now is the time for visiting, supplication, fulfilling needs, achieving wishes, and seeking Allah, the Mighty and High, as well as His Kindness, His Forgiveness, His Pardon, and His Pleasure.” The Compiler of this book says: Verily, the narrator of this tradition avoided mentioning “Hasten to the best of deeds” [hayya `ala khayr al-`Amal] due to dissimulation [taqiyyah].




2 - وقد روي في خبر آخر أن الصادق عليه السلام سئل عن معنى (حي على خير العمل) فقال: خير العمل الولاية. وفي خبر آخر خير العمل بر فاطمة وولدها عليهم السلام (١). باب تفسير الهدى والضلالة والتوفيق والخذلان من الله تعالى


2. It has been narrated in another tradition that Al-Sadiq (AS) was asked about the meaning of `hasten to the best of deeds;’ Hence he replied: “The best of the deeds is the Guardianship [al-wilayah].” In another tradition the best of deeds is said to be kindness towards Fatimah and her children (AS).