15. The Commentary of Verse 35 of Chapter 24 the Light [al-Nur]

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1 - حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن العباس بن هلال، قال: سألت الرضا عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: (الله نور السماوات والأرض) فقال: هاد لأهل السماء وهاد لأهل الأرض. وفي رواية البرقي: هدى من في السماوات وهدى من في الأرض. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: إن المشبهة تفسر هذه الآية على أنه ضياء السماوات والأرض، ولو كان كذلك لما جاز أن توجد الأرض مظلمة في وقت من الأوقات لا بالليل ولا بالنهار لأن الله هو نورها وضياؤها على تأويلهم وهو موجود غير معدوم، فوجودنا الأرض مظلمة بالليل ووجودنا داخلها أيضا مظلما بالنهار يدل على أن تأويل قوله: (الله نور السماوات والأرض) هو ما قاله الرضا عليه السلام دون تأويله المشبهة، فإنه عز وجل هاد لأهل السماوات والأرض، المبين لأهل السماوات والأرض أمور دينهم ومصالحهم، فلما كان بالله وبهداه يهتدي أهل السماوات والأرض إلى صلاحهم وأمور دينهم كما يهتدون بالنور الذي خلق الله لهم في السماوات والأرض إلى صلاح دنياهم قال: إنه نور السماوات والأرض على هذا المعنى، وأجرى على نفسه هذا الاسم توسعا ومجازا، لأن العقول دالة على أن الله عز وجل لا يجوز أن يكون نورا ولا ضياء ولا من جنس الأنوار والضياء، لأنه خالق الأنوار وخالق جميع أجناس الأشياء، وقد دل على ذلك أيضا قوله: (مثل نوره) وإنما أراد به صفة نوره، وهذا النور هو غيره، لأنه شبهه بالمصباح وضوئه الذي ذكره ووصفه في هذه الآية، ولا يجوز أن يشبه نفسه بالمصباح، لأن الله لا شبه له ولا نظير، فصح أن نوره الذي شبهه بالمصباح إنما هو دلالته أهل السماوات و الأرض على مصالح دينهم وعلى توحيد ربهم وحكمته وعدله، ثم بين وضوح دلالته هذه وسماها نورا من حيث يهتدي بها عبادة إلى دينهم وصلاحهم، فقال: مثله كمثل كوة وهي المشكاة فيها المصباح والمصباح هو السراج في زجاجة صافية شبيهة بالكوكب الدري في صفائه، والكوكب الدري، هو الكوكب المشبه بالدر في لونه، وهذا المصباح الذي في هذه الزجاجة الصافية يتوقد من زيت زيتونة مباركة، وأراد به زيتون الشام لأنه يقال: إنه بورك فيه لأهله وعنى عز وجل بقوله: (لا شرقية ولا غربية) أن هذه الزيتونة ليست بشرقية فلا تسقط الشمس عليها في وقت الغروب، ولا غربية فلا تسقط الشمس عليها في وقت الطلوع، بل هي في أعلى شجرها والشمس تسقط عليها في طول نهارها فهو أجود لها وأضوء لزيتها، ثم أكد وصفه لصفاء زيتها فقال: (يكاد زيتها يضئ ولو لم تمسسه نار) لما فيها من الصفاء فبين أن دلالات الله التي بها دل عباده في السماوات والأرض على مصالحهم وعلى أمور دينهم هي في الوضوح والبيان بمنزلة هذا المصباح الذي في هذه الزجاجة الصافية ويتوقد بها الزيت الصافي الذي وصفه، فيجتمع فيه ضوء النار مع ضوء الزجاجة وضوء الزيت وهو معنى قوله: (نور على نور) وعنى بقوله عز وجل: (يهدي الله لنوره من يشاء) يعني من عباده وهم المكلفون ليعرفوا بذلك ويهتدوا به ويستدلوا به على توحيد ربهم وسائر أمور دينهم، وقد دل الله عز وجل بهذه الآية وبما ذكره من وضوح دلالاته وآياته التي دل بها عباده على دينهم أن أحد منهم لم يؤت فيما صار إليه من الجهل ومن تضييع الدين لشبهة ولبس دخلا عليه في ذلك من قبل الله عز وجل، إذ كان الله عز وجل قد بين لهم دلالاته وآياته على سبيل ما وصف، وإنهم إنما أتوا في ذلك من قبل أنفسهم بتركهم النظر في دلالات الله واستدلال بها على الله عز وجل وعلى صلاحهم في دينهم، وبين أنه بكل شئ من مصالح عباده ومن غير ذلك عليم.


1. My father, may Allah have mercy on him, said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah on the authority of Ya`qub ibn Yazid on the authority of al-`Abbas ibn Hilal that I asked al-Rida (AS) about the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: “Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth.” So he replied (AS): “He is the Guide of the Inhabitants of Heaven and the Guide of the Inhabitants of the Earth.” While the narration of al-Barqi states: “He guides whatever is in the Heavens, and He guides whatever is in the Earth.” The Compiler of this book says: The anthropomorphist interpret this verse as He is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. If that were correct, how is it possible to find darkness on the Earth at any time, be it day or night? If Allah was the Light of the Heavens, and the Earth, according to their interpretation, He would have to be perpetually present, and could not be non-existent at times. Therefore, when we find the Earth dark at night, and when we find the inside of the Earth dark (even) during the day, then this indicates that the interpretation of : “Allah is the Light of heaves, and the Earth,” is what al-Rida (AS) has said and not that the anthropomorphist have given. So, verily, He, the Mighty and High, is the Guide of the Inhabitants in the Heavens and the Earth, and the Indicator [Mubayyin] for the Inhabitants of the Heavens and the Earth in their religious and worldly affairs. In the same way that the inhabitants of the Heavens and the Earth are guided by Allah in their religious affairs, they are guided by the Light that Allah has created for them in the Heavens and the Earth in their worldly affairs. This is what He meant when He said that He was the Light of the Heaves and the Earth. The attribute He applied to Himself is metaphorical since, intellectually – speaking, it is not logical for Allah, the Mighty and High, to be light or to glow, or to belong to the realm of lights, for the simple fact that He is the Creator of Light. His Statement also applies to the verse: “A likeness of His Light.” Verily, He intended by it the description of His Light. Evidently, this Light is other than Him since He anthropomorphized it with the lamp and its glow, as He mentioned and described in this verse. It is not permissible to anthropomorphize His Being with the lamp, because there is no likeness and no equivalent to Allah. Therefore, it is correct to say that His Light, which He anthropomorphized with a lamp, refers to His Guidance. It refers to the fact that He guides the inhabitants of the Heaves and the Earth towards His Religion, towards divine Unity, toward His Wisdom, and towards His Justice. After explaining the Clearness of His Guidance and naming it “Light,” as He guides with it His Servants to His Religion and what is in their best interests, He said: A likeness of it is a niche in which is a lamp, the lamp is in a clear glass that resembles a brightly shining star in its clearness. The brightly shining star is a star that resembles a pearl in its color. This lamp, which is in a clear glass, light from a blessed olive oil. He has intended by this Syrian oil, because it is said: It is blessed for its inhabitants. By “Neither eastern nor western,” the Mighty and High means that this oil is neither eastern, so that he sun does not shine on it at the time of sunset, nor western so that the sun does not shine on it at the time of sunrise. Rather, it is from the upper part of the tree and the sun shines on it throughout the day. This is what makes it the best, and makes its oil light. He then emphasized the clearness of its oil; that “the oil whereof almost gives light through fire touches it not” to describe its clarity. He explains that the religious guidance that Allah gives His Servants in the Heavens and the Earth, is clear, and its explanation, which is the clear glass, is equally clear. The fire ignites the clear oil as He described. The glow of the fire combines with the glow of glass and the glow of oil in it. This is the meaning of His Word: “light upon light,” and this is what He, the Mighty and High, meant: “Allah guides to His light whom He pleases.” That is, from His Servants who have reached the age of maturity so that they may recognize by that and be guided through it, and reason with it, regarding the unity of their Lord, and all religious matters. Allah, the Mighty and High, has indicated by this verse what He has mentioned of His Clear Indications and Signs with which He guides His Servants in their religion. In other words, none of them have been left in ignorance. If any of them neglect their religion, it is not due to vagueness or ambiguity on behalf of Allah, the Mighty and High, since Allah, the Mighty and High, has explained to them His Indications and Signs. Verily, they come to make mistake, due to forgetting about Allah’s sings and failing to derive through these signs the existence of Allah, the Mighty and High, and what is in their best religious interest. He has also explained that He Is All-Knowing when it comes to the interest of His Servants.




2 - وقد روي عن الصادق عليه السلام أنه سئل عن قول الله عز وجل: (الله نور السماوات والأرض مثل نوره كمشكاة فيها مصباح) فقال: هو مثل ضربه الله لنا، فالنبي صلى الله عليه وآله والأئمة صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين من دلالات الله وآياته التي يهتدى بها إلى التوحيد ومصالح الدين وشرائع الإسلام والفرائض والسنن، ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم.


2. It had been related on the authority of al-Sadiq (AS) that he (AS) was asked about the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: “Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth; a likeness of His Light is as a niche in which is a lamp.” So he (AS) replied: Allah has given an example for us. The Prophet (SA) and the Imams, may Allah bless them all, are the Signs of Allah through which He guides people towards Divine Unity, towards His Religion, towards Islamic law, and towards (religious) obligations and recommendations. There is no power except Allah, the Most High and Most Great.




3 - وتصديق ذلك ما حدثنا به إبراهيم بن هارون الهيتي بمدينة السلام، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن أبي الثلج، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن أيوب، عن محمد بن غالب عن علي بن الحسين، عن الحسن بن أيوب، عن الحسين بن سليمان، عن محمد بن مروان الذهلي عن الفضيل بن يسار، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله الصادق عليه السلام: (الله نور السماوات والأرض)؟ قال: كذلك الله عز وجل، قال: قلت: (مثل نوره)؟ قال: محمد صلى الله عليه وآله، قلت (كمشكاة)؟ قال: صدر محمد صلى الله عليه وآله، قال: قلت: (فيها مصباح)؟ قال: فيه نور العلم يعني النبوة، قلت: (المصباح في زجاجة)؟ قال: علم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله صدر إلى قلب علي عليه السلام، قلت: (كأنها)؟ قال: لأي شئ تقرأ كأنها، فقلت: فكيف جعلت فداك؟ قال: كأنها كوكب دري قلت: (يوقد من شجرة زيتونة مباركة لا شرقية ولا غربية)؟ قال: ذلك أمير المؤمنين علي ابن أبي طالب عليه السلام لا يهودي ولا نصراني، قلت: (يكاد زيتها يضئ ولو لم تمسسه نار)؟ قال: يكاد العلم يخرج من فم العالم من آل محمد من قبل أن ينطق به ، قلت: (نور على نور)؟ قال: الإمام في إثر الإمام عليه السلام.


3. The confirmation of that is what Ibrahim ibn Harun al-Hiti said in the city of Al-Salam that Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu al-Thalj said: al-Husayn ibn Ayyub said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ghalib, on the authority of `Ali ibn al-Husayn, on the authority ibn Ayyub, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Sulayman, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Marwan alDhahali, on the authority of al-Fudayl ibn Yasar that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): “Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth?” He answered: “Such is Allah, the Mighty and High.” He says: I asked: “A likeness of His Light?” He answered: “Muhammad (SA).” I enquired: “As a niche?” He replied: “Muhammad (SA) chest.” I then asked: “In which is a lamp?” He said: “That of Prophethood, which contains the Light of Knowledge.” I asked: “The lamp is in a glass?” He answered: “The knowledge of the Messenger of Allah (SA) is preserved in `Ali’s heart.” I asked: “As if she were?” He asked: “Where did you get `As if she were?” So I said: “May I be your ransom! How should I read it?” He said: “As if it were a brightly shining star.” I then asked: “Lit fro a blessed olive-tree, neither eastern nor western?” He replied: “That is the Commander of the Faithful `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS), who was neither Jewish nor Christian.” I asked: “The oil whereof almost gives light though fire touches it not?” He answered: “The knowledge more or less comes out of the mouth of the learned from the Progeny of Muhammad (AS) before they even speak.” I asked: “Light upon light?” He said: “An Imam (AS), one after another.”




4 - حدثنا إبراهيم بن هارون الهيتي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن أبي - الثلج، قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن الحسين الزهري، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن صبيح قال: حدثنا ظريف بن ناصح، عن عيسى بن راشد، عن محمد بن علي بن الحسين عليهم السلام في قوله عز وجل: (كمشكاة فيها مصباح)، قال: المشكاة نور العلم في صدر النبي صلى الله عليه وآله (المصباح في زجاجة) الزجاجة صدر علي عليه السلام، صار علم النبي صلى الله عليه وآله إلى صدر علي عليه السلام (الزجاجة كأنها كوكب دري يوقد من شجرة مباركة) قال: نور، (لا شرقية ولا غربية) قال: لا يهودية ولا نصرانية (يكاد زيتها يضئ ولو لم تمسسه نار) قال: يكاد العالم من آل محمد عليهم السلام يتكلم بالعلم قبل أن يسأل، (نور على نور) يعني: إماما مؤيدا بنور العلم والحكمة في إثر إمام من آل محمد عليهم السلام، وذلك من لدن آدم إلى أن تقوم الساعة. فهؤلاء الأوصياء الذين جعلهم الله عز وجل خلفاءه في أرضه وحججه على خلقه لا تخلو ا الأرض في كل عصر من واحد منهم عليهم السلام، يدل على صحة ذلك قول أبي طالب في رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أنت الأمين محمد قرم أغر مسود * لمسودين أطائب كرموا وطاب المولد أنت السعيد من السعود تكنفتك الأسعد * من لدن آدم لم يزل فينا وصي مرشد فلقد عرفتك صادقا بالقول لا تتفند * ما زلت تنطق بالصواب وأنت طفل أمرد يقول: ما زلت تتكلم بالعلم قبل أن يوحى إليك وأنت طفل كما قال إبراهيم عليه السلام وهو صغير لقومه: ﴿إني برئ مما تشركون﴾ (١) وكما تكلم عيسى عليه السلام في المهد فقال: ﴿إني عبد الله آتاني الكتاب وجعلني نبيا وجعلني مباركا أينما كنت - الآية﴾ (٢). ولأبي طالب في رسول الله صلى الله على وآله وسلم مثل ذلك في قصيدته اللامية حين يقول: وما مثله في الناس سيد معشر * إذا قايسوه عند وقت التحاصل فأيده رب العباد بنوره * وأظهر دينا حقه غير زائل ويقول فيها: وأبيض يستسقي الغمام بوجهه * ربيع اليتامى عصمة للأرامل تطيف به الهلاك من آل هاشم * فهم عنده في نعمة وفواضل وميزان صدق لا يخيس شعيرة * وميزان عدل وزنه غير عائل


4. Ibrahim ibn Harun al-Hiti said: Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu al-Thalj said: Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Zuhri said: Ahmad ibn Sabih said: Zarif ibn Nasib said, on the authority of `Isa ibn Rashid, That Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn (AS) was asked to interpret the Word of the Mighty and High: As a niche in which is a lamp.” He explained: The niche is the Light of Knowledge contained in the Chest of the Prophet (SA). The lamp is in a glass; the glass is the chest of `Ali (AS). The knowledge of the Prophet (SA) was transferred to `Ali’s Chest. The glass is as if it were a brightly shining star, lit from a blessed olive-tree. He added: Light, neither eastern nor western. He said: “Neither Jewish nor Christian.’ The oil whereof almost gives light though fire touches it not. He said: “The learned from the Progeny of Muhammad (SA) more or less give knowledge before they are even asked. Light upon light, meaning an Imam (AS), endorsed through the light of knowledge and wisdom, one after another, from the Progeny of Muhammad (SA), and that is from Adam (AS) to the Day of Judgement. These successors were appointed by Allah, the Mighty and High, as His Caliphs on Earth and His Proofs for His Creation. The Earth is not free at any time from at least one of them (AS). The proof of this statement can be found in the words of Abu Talib (AS) regarding the Messenger of Allah (SA): Muhammad! You are the Trustworthy, the Lord, and the Magnanimous Master, For the noble, the best, the generous, and the pure in lineage. You are the Most Auspicious of the fortunate surrounded by the luckiest. Since the time of Adam there has always been amongst us a divinely-guided successor. I have recognized you as the truthful in words that is not refuted. You spoke the truth when you were but a beardless child. He (Abu Talib) says: “You spoke with knowledge as a child, even before anything was revealed to you. You were like Abraham (AS) who told his people as a youth: Surely I am clear of what you set up (with Allah); and like Jesus (AS) when he spoke from his cradle that Surely I am a servant of Allah; He has given me the Book and made me a prophet; and He has made me blessed wherever I may be. In a similar poem, Abu Talib (AS) said the following regarding the Messenger of Allah (SA): There is no one like him among men, master of kinsfolk. If they compare him at the time when he becomes manifested, Then the Lord of the servants endorsed him by His Light, And made apparent the righteousness of the religion which will not be short-lived. He (AS) says in it: The fair faced one for the sake of whom one prays for rain. He is a spring for the orphans, and a safeguard for the helpless. The perishing children of Hashim circumambulate around him (to be his ransom), Hence, they are in ease, and excess with him. He is the Balance of Truth which does not break a promise, even for a grain of barley. And he is a Balance of Justice whose measurement does not go astray.




5 - حدثنا علي بن عبد الله الوراق، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، عن محمد بن أسلم الجبلي، عن الخطاب بن عمر (٣) ومصعب بن عبد الله الكوفيين، عن جابر بن يزيد، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل: (الله نور السماوات والأرض مثل نوره كمشكاة) فالمشكاة صدر نبي الله صلى الله عليه وآله فيه المصباح، والمصباح هو العلم في الزجاجة والزجاجة أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام وعلم النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عنده. باب تفسير قول الله عز وجل: ﴿نسوا الله فنسيهم﴾


5. `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Warraq said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Abu al-Khattab said: on the authority of Muhammad ibn Aslam al-Jabali, on the authority of al-Khattb ibn `Umar and Mus`ab ibn `Abd Allah al-Kufiyyin, on the authority of Jabir ibn Yazid, that Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) was asked to interpret the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: `Allah is the light of heavens and the Earth; a likeness of His Light is as a niche.’ He replied: “The niche is the Chest of the Prophet of Allah (SA) in which is the lamp. The lamp is the knowledge in the glass. The glass is the Commander of the Faithful (AS) and the knowledge of the Prophet (SA) is with him (AS).”