19. Chapter on Innovations, Personal Opinions and Analogies

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1ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الاشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ وَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ ابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ خَطَبَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) النَّاسَ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا بَدْءُ وُقُوعِ الْفِتَنِ أَهْوَاءٌ تُتَّبَعُ وَأَحْكَامٌ تُبْتَدَعُ يُخَالَفُ فِيهَا كِتَابُ الله يَتَوَلَّى فِيهَا رِجَالٌ رِجَالاً فَلَوْ أَنَّ الْبَاطِلَ خَلَصَ لَمْ يَخْفَ عَلَى ذِي حِجًى وَلَوْ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ خَلَصَ لَمْ يَكُنِ اخْتِلافٌ وَلَكِنْ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ وَمِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ فَيُمْزَجَانِ فَيَجِيئَانِ مَعاً فَهُنَالِكَ اسْتَحْوَذَ الشَّيْطَانُ عَلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِ وَنَجَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ مِنَ الله الْحُسْنَى.


1. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ash’ari has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ and a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal all from ‘Asim ibn Hamid from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following. “Imam Ali said in one of his sermons to people, ‘O people, mischief begins with following certain desires and obeying certain invented rules that are different from the rules and laws of the book of Allah. In such case people yield to other people as high authority if falsehood would have been clear they would have no fear for the people of Intelligence. If truth would have been clearly distinct there would have been no differences. But (practical life) people mix certain parts of truth and with a few things from falsehood and present them together and in such Satan overwhelms his friends and only those who has previously received protection from Allah remain safe.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/185)



2ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ الْعَمِّيِّ يَرْفَعُهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِذَا ظَهَرَتِ الْبِدَعُ فِي أُمَّتِي فَلْيُظْهِرِ الْعَالِمُ عِلْمَهُ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ فَعَلَيْهِ لَعْنَةُ الله.


2. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Jumhur al-‘Ammi in a marfu‘ manner (rafa ’ahu), from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following. “When innovations emerge it will be obligatory for the scholars to make their knowledge public, otherwise, Allah will condemn them.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (186/ 1)



3ـ وَبِهَذَا الاسْنَادِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ مَنْ أَتَى ذَا بِدْعَةٍ فَعَظَّمَهُ فَإِنَّمَا يَسْعَى فِي هَدْمِ الاسْلامِ.


3. It is narrated through the same chain of narrators from Muhammad ibn Jumhur in a marfu’ manner from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following. “If one would meet an innovator and considers him great such person has, in fact, the destruction of Islam.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (186/ 1)



4ـ وَبِهَذَا الاسْنَادِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَبَى الله لِصَاحِبِ الْبِدْعَةِ بِالتَّوْبَةِ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ الله وَكَيْفَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ إِنَّهُ قَدْ أُشْرِبَ قَلْبُهُ حُبَّهَا.


4. It is narrated through the same chain of narrators from Muhammad ibn Jumhur in a marfu’ manner from the Messenger of Allah who has said the following. “Allah has rejected repentance of an innovator (in religion).” People asked the holy Prophet as to why is this. The holy Prophet replied, “He (Allah) has quenched his heart with the love of his innovation.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/186)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّ عِنْدَ كُلِّ بِدْعَةٍ تَكُونُ مِنْ بَعْدِي يُكَادُ بِهَا الايمَانُ وَلِيّاً مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي مُوَكَّلاً بِهِ يَذُبُّ عَنْهُ يَنْطِقُ بِإِلْهَامٍ مِنَ الله وَيُعْلِنُ الْحَقَّ وَيُنَوِّرُهُ وَيَرُدُّ كَيْدَ الْكَائِدِينَ يُعَبِّرُ عَنِ الضُّعَفَاءِ فَاعْتَبِرُوا يَا أُولِي الابْصَارِ وَتَوَكَّلُوا عَلَى الله.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Mu‘awiya ibn Wahab who has said the following. “Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) said that the holy Prophet has said, ‘It is certain that against every innovation with plots to destroy faith there will be an (religious) authority from my family as guardian of faith and as its defender. (Such) authority will speak on inspiration from Allah to declare the truth and bring it to light, repulse and foil the evil plots of the agents of wickedness and speak for the weak. O people of Intelligence, take a lesson from it and trust Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/186)



6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّ مِنْ أَبْغَضِ الْخَلْقِ إِلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَرَجُلَيْنِ رَجُلٌ وَكَلَهُ الله إِلَى نَفْسِهِ فَهُوَ جَائِرٌ عَنْ قَصْدِ السَّبِيلِ مَشْعُوفٌ بِكَلامِ بِدْعَةٍ قَدْ لَهِجَ بِالصَّوْمِ وَالصَّلاةِ فَهُوَ فِتْنَةٌ لِمَنِ افْتَتَنَ بِهِ ضَالٌّ عَنْ هَدْيِ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ مُضِلٌّ لِمَنِ اقْتَدَى بِهِ فِي حَيَاتِهِ وَبَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ حَمَّالٌ خَطَايَا غَيْرِهِ رَهْنٌ بِخَطِيئَتِهِ وَرَجُلٌ قَمَشَ جَهْلاً فِي جُهَّالِ النَّاسِ عَانٍ بِأَغْبَاشِ الْفِتْنَةِ قَدْ سَمَّاهُ أَشْبَاهُ النَّاسِ عَالِماً وَلَمْ يَغْنَ فِيهِ يَوْماً سَالِماً بَكَّرَ فَاسْتَكْثَرَ مَا قَلَّ مِنْهُ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا كَثُرَ حَتَّى إِذَا ارْتَوَى مِنْ آجِنٍ وَاكْتَنَزَ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَائِلٍ جَلَسَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ قَاضِياً ضَامِناً لِتَخْلِيصِ مَا الْتَبَسَ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ وَإِنْ خَالَفَ قَاضِياً سَبَقَهُ لَمْ يَأْمَنْ أَنْ يَنْقُضَ حُكْمَهُ مَنْ يَأْتِي بَعْدَهُ كَفِعْلِهِ بِمَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ وَإِنْ نَزَلَتْ بِهِ إِحْدَى الْمُبْهَمَاتِ الْمُعْضِلاتِ هَيَّأَ لَهَا حَشْواً مِنْ رَأْيِهِ ثُمَّ قَطَعَ بِهِ فَهُوَ مِنْ لَبْسِ الشُّبُهَاتِ فِي مِثْلِ غَزْلِ الْعَنْكَبُوتِ لا يَدْرِي أَصَابَ أَمْ أَخْطَأَ لا يَحْسَبُ الْعِلْمَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا أَنْكَرَ وَلا يَرَى أَنَّ وَرَاءَ مَا بَلَغَ فِيهِ مَذْهَباً إِنْ قَاسَ شَيْئاً بِشَيْ‏ءٍ لَمْ يُكَذِّبْ نَظَرَهُ وَإِنْ أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرٌ اكْتَتَمَ بِهِ لِمَا يَعْلَمُ مِنْ جَهْلِ نَفْسِهِ لِكَيْلا يُقَالَ لَهُ لا يَعْلَمُ ثُمَّ جَسَرَ فَقَضَى فَهُوَ مِفْتَاحُ عَشَوَاتٍ رَكَّابُ شُبُهَاتٍ خَبَّاطُ جَهَالاتٍ لا يَعْتَذِرُ مِمَّا لا يَعْلَمُ فَيَسْلَمَ وَلا يَعَضُّ فِي الْعِلْمِ بِضِرْسٍ قَاطِعٍ فَيَغْنَمَ يَذْرِي الرِّوَايَاتِ ذَرْوَ الرِّيحِ الْهَشِيمَ تَبْكِي مِنْهُ الْمَوَارِيثُ وَتَصْرُخُ مِنْهُ الدِّمَاءُ يُسْتَحَلُّ بِقَضَائِهِ الْفَرْجُ الْحَرَامُ وَيُحَرَّمُ بِقَضَائِهِ الْفَرْجُ الْحَلالُ لا مَلِي‏ءٌ بِإِصْدَارِ مَا عَلَيْهِ وَرَدَ وَلا هُوَ أَهْلٌ لِمَا مِنْهُ فَرَطَ مِنِ ادِّعَائِهِ عِلْمَ الْحَقِّ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from certain persons of his people and Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas‘ada ibn Sadaqa from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) and Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father from ibn Mahbub in a marfu’ manner from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) who has said the following. “Of the most intensely disliked men before Allah, the Majestic, the Most Glorious, are two kinds of people: A man whom Allah has left all to his own soul and he deviates from the path of justice and is intensely attracted towards the words innovation. He seems a master in performing prayer and fasting but is a mischief to deceive people; he has strayed from guidance of the people before him and misleads those who may follow him in his lifetime and after his death. He carries the responsibility for others sins and is the hostage of his own sins. The other man is one who collects ignorance among the ignorant, himself a captive of darkness of the mischievous. The, humanoids, people who look like people, consider him a scholar but he has not been even for a complete day with scholars. He has made an early effort to accumulate some thing that its being of a smaller quantity is better than in larger quantities and in this way he has quenched himself with polluted water and has treasured what is of no use. He sits among the people as a judge to carry the responsibility of what is confusing and uncertain to others. He may even oppose the ruling of the judge before him. One can never tell whether his judgment will remain valid or a judge after him will over turn it just as he has done to the judgments of the judges before him. If he would face one of the complex and difficult issues he comes up with a heap of his personal opinions and then he shapes it up as a clear-cut judgment. In fact, he has dressed himself up with doubtful issue the way a spider waves his fragile web. He is not sure if he has done the right thing or the wrong one. He does not consider the fact that in an unknown case to have proper knowledge is necessary and does not see that beyond his opinion there is a school of law. He analogies one thing to the other but it does not matter to him if his opinion will turn out to be a lie. If an issue is dark (not known) to him he hides it to hide his own ignorance so that people will not say he does not know. He then boldly judges and thus he is the key to hazards, a rider of doubts, perplexed in ignorance and never regrets his lacking knowledge. The level of his knowledge never rises to clear-cut certainty so that he would benefit. He blows out Hadith like winds that blow away hay. The legacies weep from him, the bloods (judging the case of murder) shout against him. The lawful marital relations become unlawful because of his judgment and unlawful ones become lawful. He has no confidence in the judgments issues he can never be trusted for his judgments that he may make nor was he qualified for what he may have done in the matters that he claimed to have true knowledge.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: سنده الول ضعيف والثاني مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (187/ 1)



7ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ الْخُرَاسَانِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْمَقَايِيسِ طَلَبُوا الْعِلْمَ بِالْمَقَايِيسِ فَلَمْ تَزِدْهُمُ الْمَقَايِيسُ مِنَ الْحَقِّ إِلا بُعْداً وَإِنَّ دِينَ الله لا يُصَابُ بِالْمَقَايِيسِ.


7. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from abu Shaybah al-Khurasani who has said the following. “Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, ‘The people of analogy have sought knowledge through analogy and it has increased to their knowledge nothing but further remoteness. The religion of Allah is beyond the reach of analogy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/192)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالا كُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلالَةٌ وَكُلُّ ضَلالَةٍ سَبِيلُهَا إِلَى النَّارِ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan in a marfu‘ manner (rafa’ahu) from abu Ja’far and abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who have said the following. “All innovations are misguidance and all misguidance leads to Hell.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/193)



9ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فُقِّهْنَا فِي الدِّينِ وَأَغْنَانَا الله بِكُمْ عَنِ النَّاسِ حَتَّى إِنَّ الْجَمَاعَةَ مِنَّا لَتَكُونُ فِي الْمَجْلِسِ مَا يَسْأَلُ رَجُلٌ صَاحِبَهُ تَحْضُرُهُ الْمَسْأَلَةُ وَيَحْضُرُهُ جَوَابُهَا فِيمَا مَنَّ الله عَلَيْنَا بِكُمْ فَرُبَّمَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْنَا الشَّيْ‏ءُ لَمْ يَأْتِنَا فِيهِ عَنْكَ وَلا عَنْ آبَائِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَنَظَرْنَا إِلَى أَحْسَنِ مَا يَحْضُرُنَا وَأَوْفَقِ الاشْيَاءِ لِمَا جَاءَنَا عَنْكُمْ فَنَأْخُذُ بِهِ فَقَالَ هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ فِي ذَلِكَ وَالله هَلَكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ يَا ابْنَ حَكِيمٍ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَعَنَ الله أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ كَانَ يَقُولُ قَالَ عَلِيٌّ وَقُلْتُ قَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ حَكِيمٍ لِهِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ وَالله مَا أَرَدْتُ إِلا أَنْ يُرَخِّصَ لِي فِي الْقِيَاسِ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Muhammad ibn Hukaym who has said the following. “I asked (Imam) abul Hassan Musa (a.s.), ‘May Allah take my soul in your service, “Please make us Faqih, people of proper understanding in religion. Allah has granted us the blessing of your existence among us and has made us independent of other people. This blessing is so great that even if a whole group of us would come to one place no one would need to ask an other come up with a question so that the other would prepare and answer for it. Sometimes we come across an issue for which we have heard nothing from you or from your forefathers. We than look into the best of the resources with us and the closest that we have with us from you can we take such a finding as an authority? “Never, never, by Allah O ibn Hakim many people have been destroyed in it” Reply from the Imam (a.s.). Ibn Hakim has said that the Imam then said, “May Allah. Abu Hanifah who used to say, “Ali said so and so, therefore, I said so and so.” Muhammad ibn Hakim has said that he told Hisham ibn al-Hakam, “By Allah, I only wanted the Imam to give us permission to use analogy.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/193)



10ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله رَفَعَهُ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ الاوَّلِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَا أُوَحِّدُ الله فَقَالَ يَا يُونُسُ لا تَكُونَنَّ مُبْتَدِعاً مَنْ نَظَرَ بِرَأْيِهِ هَلَكَ وَمَنْ تَرَكَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) ضَلَّ وَمَنْ تَرَكَ كِتَابَ الله وَقَوْلَ نَبِيِّهِ كَفَرَ.


10. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated in a marfu’ manner from Yunus ibn ’Abd al-Rahman who has said the following. “I asked (Imam) abu al-Hassan the First, ‘How would I prove that Allah is one?’” The Imam replied, “O Yunus, do not be an innovator. One who depends on his personal opinion he is destroyed. One who abandons the members of the family of his prophet, goes stray. Whoever abandons the book of Allah and the words of His prophet he becomes an unbeliever.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/193)



11ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ مُثَنًّى الْحَنَّاطِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) تَرِدُ عَلَيْنَا أَشْيَاءُ لَيْسَ نَعْرِفُهَا فِي كِتَابِ الله وَلا سُنَّةٍ فَنَنْظُرُ فِيهَا فَقَالَ لا أَمَا إِنَّكَ إِنْ أَصَبْتَ لَمْ تُؤْجَرْ وَإِنْ أَخْطَأْتَ كَذَبْتَ عَلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


11. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Muthanna al-Hannat from abu Basir who has said the following. “I asked (Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘We face such issue about which there is nothing said in the book of Allah or in the Sunnah, tradition of the holy Prophet (s.a.). Can use our own opinion in such matters?’” The Imam replied, “No, you must not do so. If you would find the truth you will receive no rewards for it an if missed the truth you have forged lies against Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (195/ 1)



12ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أَبَانٍ الْكَلْبِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ الْقَصِيرِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كُلُّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلالَةٌ وَكُلُّ ضَلالَةٍ فِي النَّارِ.


12. A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Umar ibn Aban al-Kalbi from ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Qasir from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “The Holy Prophet said, ‘All innovations are misguidance and all misguidance is Hell.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (196/ 1)



13ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ الله إِنَّا نَجْتَمِعُ فَنَتَذَاكَرُ مَا عِنْدَنَا فَلا يَرِدُ عَلَيْنَا شَيْ‏ءٌ إِلا وَعِنْدَنَا فِيهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ مُسَطَّرٌ وَذَلِكَ مِمَّا أَنْعَمَ الله بِهِ عَلَيْنَا بِكُمْ ثُمَّ يَرِدُ عَلَيْنَا الشَّيْ‏ءُ الصَّغِيرُ لَيْسَ عِنْدَنَا فِيهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَيَنْظُرُ بَعْضُنَا إِلَى بَعْضٍ وَعِنْدَنَا مَا يُشْبِهُهُ فَنَقِيسُ عَلَى أَحْسَنِهِ فَقَالَ وَمَا لَكُمْ وَلِلْقِيَاسِ إِنَّمَا هَلَكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ بِالْقِيَاسِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِذَا جَاءَكُمْ مَا تَعْلَمُونَ فَقُولُوا بِهِ وَإِنْ جَاءَكُمْ مَا لا تَعْلَمُونَ فَهَا وَأَهْوَى بِيَدِهِ إِلَى فِيهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَعَنَ الله أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ كَانَ يَقُولُ قَالَ عَلِيٌّ وَقُلْتُ أَنَا وَقَالَتِ الصَّحَابَةُ وَقُلْتُ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ كُنْتَ تَجْلِسُ إِلَيْهِ فَقُلْتُ لا وَلَكِنْ هَذَا كَلامُهُ فَقُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ الله أَتَى رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) النَّاسَ بِمَا يَكْتَفُونَ بِهِ فِي عَهْدِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَمَا يَحْتَاجُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَقُلْتُ فَضَاعَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ لا هُوَ عِنْدَ أَهْلِهِ.


13. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Sum‘a ibn Mihran who has said the following. “I said to (Imam) abu al-Hassan (a.s.), ‘May Allah keep you well, in our meetings we discuss the issues and find out that for almost every thing there is something in writing with us and that is all because of the blessings of your existence among us. We only find few small things for which we do not find any thing in writing we look on each other and we find certain issues similar to it then we use analogy in its best form.” The Imam said, “What do you have to do with analogy? Many people before have been destroyed because of analogy.” The Imam then said, “When you face an issue and know he rule about it deal with accordingly and if you would have no knowledge about its rule then this. He pointed to his own mouth, meaning thereby; this will give you the answer.” The Imam then said, “May Allah…? Abu Hanifah who used to say, “Ali said so and so, therefore, I said so and so. The Sahabah said so and so, therefore, I said so and so.” The Imam then asked me, “Have you been sitting with him?” I then relied, “No, I have not sat with him but such are his statements.” I then said to the Imam (a.s.). “May Allah keep you well, did the holy Prophet bring in his everything that people needed?” The Imam said, “Yes, and all that they will need up to the Day of Judgment.” I then said, “Is any thing lost from it?” The Imam replied, “No, it all is with the people to who they belong.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/196)



14ـ عَنْهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ ضَلَّ عِلْمُ ابْنِ شُبْرُمَةَ عِنْدَ الْجَامِعَةِ إِمْلاءِ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَخَطِّ علي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِيَدِهِ إِنَّ الْجَامِعَةَ لَمْ تَدَعْ لاحَدٍ كَلاماً فِيهَا عِلْمُ الْحَلالِ وَالْحَرَامِ إِنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْقِيَاسِ طَلَبُوا الْعِلْمَ بِالْقِيَاسِ فَلَمْ يَزْدَادُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ إِلا بُعْداً إِنَّ دِينَ الله لا يُصَابُ بِالْقِيَاسِ.


14. It is narrated from him from Muhammad from Yunus from Aban from abu Shaybah who has said the following. “I heard (Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘Ibn Shabrama’s knowledge is lost and void before al-Jami‘ah. It is a large book that was dictated by the holy Prophet to Imam Ali (a.s.), who wrote it with his own hands. Al-Jami‘ah has left nothing for any one to say. In it is the knowledge of all lawful and unlawful matters. The people of analogy sought knowledge through analogy and it increased to their knowledge but taking them away from knowledge. The religion of Allah is not of matters to learn through analogy.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/197)



15ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ السُّنَّةَ لا تُقَاسُ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّ امْرَأَةً تَقْضِي صَوْمَهَا وَلا تَقْضِي صَلاتَهَا يَا أَبَانُ إِنَّ السُّنَّةَ إِذَا قِيسَتْ مُحِقَ الدِّينُ.


15. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan Yahya from ’Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj from Aban ibn Taghlib from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “The Sunnah, tradition of the holy Prophet (s.a.) can not be leaned through analogy. Consider a woman has to make up for her fast missed due to menses but she does not have to make up for the prayers that she would miss in such times. O Aban, the use of analogy destroys religion.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (197/ 1)



16ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْقِيَاسِ فَقَالَ مَا لَكُمْ وَالْقِيَاسَ إِنَّ الله لا يُسْأَلُ كَيْفَ أَحَلَّ وَكَيْفَ حَرَّمَ.


16. A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa who has said the following. “I asked (Imam) abu al-Hassan Musa (a.s.) about the use of analogy and the Imam said, ‘What do you have to do with analogy? Allah will not ask how it was made lawful or unlawful.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (198/ 1)



17ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي جَعْفَرٌ عَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ عَلِيّاً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ مَنْ نَصَبَ نَفْسَهُ لِلْقِيَاسِ لَمْ يَزَلْ دَهْرَهُ فِي الْتِبَاسٍ وَمَنْ دَانَ الله بِالرَّأْيِ لَمْ يَزَلْ دَهْرَهُ فِي ارْتِمَاسٍ قَالَ وَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَنْ أَفْتَى النَّاسَ بِرَأْيِهِ فَقَدْ دَانَ الله بِمَا لا يَعْلَمُ وَمَنْ دَانَ الله بِمَا لا يَعْلَمُ فَقَدْ ضَادَّ الله حَيْثُ أَحَلَّ وَحَرَّمَ فِيمَا لا يَعْلَمُ.


17. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas‘ada ibn Sadaqa who has said the following. “(Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who narrated from his father who said that Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Whoever sets out for analogy his whole life will get in confusion. Whoever would practice the religion of Allah by means of analogy his whole life will pass in a drowning condition.’” Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) then said, “Whoever gives Fatwa on the basis of his personal opinion he has practiced the religion of Allah by means of what is not knowledge. Whoever would practice the religion of Allah without knowledge he has opposed Him by making things as lawful and unlawful by means of what he has no knowledge of.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (198/ 1)



18ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَقْطِينٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مَيَّاحٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ إِبْلِيسَ قَاسَ نَفْسَهُ بِ‏آدَمَ فَقَالَ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ وَلَوْ قَاسَ الْجَوْهَرَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ الله مِنْهُ آدَمَ بِالنَّارِ كَانَ ذَلِكَ أَكْثَرَ نُوراً وَضِيَاءً مِنَ النَّارِ.


18. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Yaqtin from al-Husayn ibn Mayyah from his father from abu ’Abdullah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Satan analogized himself with Adam saying, “Lord, You have created me from fire and created him from clay. In an analogical explanation if the substance from which Adam was made would be compared with fire it would come to light that it has more light and value than fire.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/199)



19ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْحَلالِ وَالْحَرَامِ فَقَالَ حَلالُ مُحَمَّدٍ حَلالٌ أَبَداً إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَحَرَامُهُ حَرَامٌ أَبَداً إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لا يَكُونُ غَيْرُهُ وَلا يَجِي‏ءُ غَيْرُهُ وَقَالَ قَالَ علي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا أَحَدٌ ابْتَدَعَ بِدْعَةً إِلا تَرَكَ بِهَا سُنَّةً.


19. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus from Hariz from Zurara who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about lawful and u matters who has said, “Whatever Prophet (s.a.) has made lawful will remain lawful forever up to the Day of Judgment and whatever he has made unlawful will remain unlawful forever up to the Day of Judgment. There will be no one other than him and there will come no one other than him. He said that Imam Ali has said, ‘No one has established any innovations without abandoning an established noble tradition.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/200)



20ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله الْعَقِيلِيِّ عَنْ عِيسَى بْنِ عَبْدِ الله الْقُرَشِيِّ قَالَ دَخَلَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكَ تَقِيسُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ لا تَقِسْ فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَنْ قَاسَ إِبْلِيسُ حِينَ قَالَ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ فَقَاسَ مَا بَيْنَ النَّارِ وَالطِّينِ وَلَوْ قَاسَ نُورِيَّةَ آدَمَ بِنُورِيَّةِ النَّارِ عَرَفَ فَضْلَ مَا بَيْنَ النُّورَيْنِ وَصَفَاءَ أَحَدِهِمَا عَلَى الاخَرِ.


20. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah al-‘Aqili from ‘Isa ibn ‘Abdallah al-Qurashi who has said the following. “Once abu Hanifah came to see Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who said to abu Hanifah, “O abu Hanifah, do you practice analogy as I hear you do?” Abu Hanifah replied, “Yes, I do practice analogy.” The Imam then said to him, “Do not practice it because the first person who used analogy was Satan when he said, “Lord, you have created me from fire and created him from clay.” He analogized fire with clay. If he would have analogized the light in the clay and fire he would have learned about the difference between the two lights and the excellence of one over the other.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (201/ 1)



21ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ قُتَيْبَةَ قَالَ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ فَأَجَابَهُ فِيهَا فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ كَذَا وَكَذَا مَا يَكُونُ الْقَوْلُ فِيهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ مَهْ مَا أَجَبْتُكَ فِيهِ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَهُوَ عَنْ رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لَسْنَا مِنْ أَ رَأَيْتَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ.


21. Ali has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Qutayba who has said the following. “A man asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about an issue and the Imam replied him. The man then said, “Have you considered if it had been so and so it would have been the word in it.” The Imam then said, “Wait, whatever I said in answer was from the holy Prophet (s.a.). We are not of the people, “Have you considered” in anything.” ( The Imam that they did not need reasoning process and that all they said had come to them from the holy Prophet (s.a.)


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/201)



22ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ مُرْسَلاً قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِ الله وَلِيجَةً فَلا تَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ فَإِنَّ كُلَّ سَبَبٍ وَنَسَبٍ وَقَرَابَةٍ وَوَلِيجَةٍ وَبِدْعَةٍ وَشُبْهَةٍ مُنْقَطِعٌ إِلا مَا أَثْبَتَهُ الْقُرْآنُ.


22. A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father in mursal manner (Mursalan) from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following. “Do not take anyone closely and intimately between your selves and Allah lest you will not be believers. Every means, ancestral and relative relations and intimacy, innovations and doubts will be cut off except for what is established in the holy Quran.”