Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara > God’s Timelesness and Spacelessness
Hadith #1

[312/1] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر قال: جاء رجل إلى أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام من وراء نهر بلخ فقال: إني أسألك عن مسألة فإن أجبتني فيها بما عندي قلت بإمامتك، فقال أبوالحسن عليه السلام: سل عما شئت فقال: أخبرني عن ربك متى كان؟ وكيف كان؟ وعلى أي شئ كان اعتماده؟ فقال أبوالحسن عليه السلام: إن الله تبارك وتعالى أين الاين بلا أين وكيف الكيف بلا كيف وكان اعتماده على قدرته، فقام إليه الرجل فقبل رأسه وقال: أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وأن عليا وصي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله والقيم بعده بما قام به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وأنكم الائمة الصادقون وأنك الخلف من بعدهم

1. [1/312] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr who said: A man came to Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام from behind the Balkh river and said: I will ask you a question - if you answer it in accordance to what I have (consider correct) then I will believe in your Imama. Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام said: Ask whatever you like. He said: Inform me about your Lord - when was He? How was He? Upon what thing was His reliance? Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام said: Allah Blessed and Elevated defined the ‘where’ when there was no ‘where’ and defined the ‘how’ when there was no ‘how’ and His reliance was on his Power. The man stood up, kissed his forehead and said: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, that Ali is the vicegerent of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله and the one who took charge of what the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله was taking charge of after him, that you all are the truthful leaders and that you are the successor after them.



Hadith #2

[-/2] علل الشرائع: الهمداني والمكتب والوراق جميعا، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن الفضل بن يونس قال: كان ابن أبي العوجاء من تلامذة الحسن البصري فانحرف عن التوحيد فقيل له: تركت مذهب صاحبك ودخلت فيما لا أصل له ولا حقيقة، قال: إن صاحبي كان مخلطا يقول طورا بالقدر وطورا بالجبر فما أعلمه اعتقد مذهبا دام عليه، فقدم مكة تمردا وإنكارا على من يحج، وكان يكره العلماء مجالسته ومساءلته لخبث لسانه وفساد ضميره، فأتى أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فجلس إليه في جماعة من نظرائه فقال: يا أبا عبد الله إن المجالس بالامانات، ولابد لكل من به سعال أن يسعل أفتأذن لي في الكلام؟ فقال الصادق عليه السلام: تكلم بما شئت ... فقال ابن أبي العوجاء: ذكرت الله فأحلت على غائب. فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ويلك كيف يكون غائبا من هو مع خلقه شاهد، وإليه أقرب من حبل الوريد، يسمع كلامهم ويرى أشخاصهم، ويعلم أسرارهم. فقال ابن أبي العوجاء: فهو في كل مكان أليس إذا كان في السماء كيف يكون في الارض؟ وإذا كان في الارض كيف يكون في السماء؟ فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إنما وصفت المخلوق الذي إذا انتقل من مكان اشتغل به مكان وخلا منه مكان، فلا يدري في المكان الذي صار إليه ما حدث في المكان الذي كان فيه، فأما الله العظيم الشأن الملك الديان فلا يخلو منه مكان ولا يشتغل به مكان ولا يكون إلى مكان أقرب منه إلى مكان

2. [2/-] Ilal al-Sharai: al-Hamdani, al-Mukatib and al-Warraq all together from Ali from his father from al-Fadhl b. Yunus who said: Ibn Abil Awja was among the students of al-Hasan al-Basri but then deviated from Tawhid. It was said to him: You have left the Madhhab of your fellow (Hasan al-Basri) and entered into that (belief) which has no authentic origin nor any reality. He said: My fellow was confused. Sometimes he would assert belief in free-will and sometimes predestination. I have not known him to hold on to a position and stick to it. He traveled to Makka and began showing arrogance and opposition to those making the pilgrimage. The scholars would dislike sitting and debating with him because of the vulgarity of his tongue and his corrupt heart (intentions). He came to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام and sat in his presence (circle) together with a number of his peers. He said: O Aba Abdillah, discussions are conducted with guarantee of protection (against persecution for what is said) and it is incumbent for every one who has a question to ask. Do you allow me to speak? Al-Sadiq عليه السلام said: Speak whatever you wish (freely) … Ibn Abil Awja said: You spoke of Allah and thus settled (put your hand) upon one who is Hidden. Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Woe be upon you! How can He be hidden one who is witnessed (evident) through His creatures, and is closer to him (his creature) than the jugular vein. He hears their speech, observes their forms and knows their secrets. Ibn Abil Awja said: That would mean He is everywhere. Is it not the case that if He were in heaven how can He also be on earth? And if He is on earth how can He be in heaven (at the same time)? Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: You have described a created thing which if it departs from a place then one place is occupied by him and another place becomes empty of him, and he cannot know what is happening in the place he used to be in from the place he has moved to. As for Allah The Great in Stature, the King and Judge, then no space is empty of Him, nor does He occupy space, nor is He closer to one point with respect to another.



Hadith #3

[313/3] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن أبي حمزة الثمالي قال: سأل نافع بن الأزرق أبا جعفر عليه السلام فقال: أخبرني عن الله متى كان؟ فقال له: ويلك، أخبرني أنت متى لم يكن حتى أخبرك متى كان، سبحان من لم يزل ولا يزال فردا صمدا لم يتخذ صاحبة ولا ولدا

3. [3/313] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Abi Hamza al-Thumali who said: Na’fi b. al-Azraq asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام saying: Inform me about Allah - when was He? He (the Imam) said to Him: Woe be upon you! You inform me when wasn’t He then I will inform you when He was. Glory be to the One who is and has always been Singular, Eternal, not betaking to Himself partner nor off-spring.



Hadith #4

[314/4] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن عبد الرحمن ابن الحجاج قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عزوجل: الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ فقال: استوى من كل شئ فليس شئ أقرب إليه من شئ، لم يبعد منه بعيد ولم يقرب منه قريب، استوى من كل شئ

4. [4/314] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Safwan b. Yahya from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic “The Beneficent Istawa over the throne” (20:5). He said: He has transcended over all things. Thus, nothing is closer to Him than another thing. The distant is not far from Him and the near is not close to Him. He has transcended over all things.



Hadith #5

[315/5] التوحيد: العطار، عن سعد، عن ابن يزيد، عن الحسن بن علي الخزاز، عن مثنى الحناط، عن أبي جعفر أظنه محمد بن النعمان قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عزوجل: وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ قال: كذلك هو في كل مكان. قلت: بذاته؟ قال: ويحك إن الاماكن أقدار، فإذا قلت: في مكان بذاته لزمك أن تقول في أقدار وغير ذلك، ولكن هو بائن من خلقه، محيط بما خلق علما وقدرة وإحاطة وسلطانا، وليس علمه بما في الارض باقل مما في السماء، لا يبعد منه شئ، والاشياء له سواء علما وقدرة وسلطانا وملكا وإحاطة

5. [5/315] al-Tawhid: al-Attar from Sa’d from Ibn Yazid from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Khazzaz from Muthanna al-Hannat from Abi Ja’far - I think him to be Muhammad b. al-Nu’man (al-Ahwal) - who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “and He is Allah in the heavens and in the earth” (6:3). He said: That is how He is - everywhere. I said: by His essence? He said: Woe be upon you! Physical spaces have limits, so if you were to believe that He is ‘in a place by His essence’ then it would be necessary for you to also assert that He has limits and other such (deficiencies). Rather He is distinct from his creation. Fully encompassing what He created in terms of (His) knowledge, power, awareness and authority. His knowledge of what is in the earth is not less than that of which is in heaven. Nothing can become distant from Him. All things are equal to Him in terms of (His) knowledge, power, authority, ownership and awareness (over them).



Hadith #6

[316/6] التوحيد: أبي، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم قال: قال أبو شاكر الديصاني: إن في القرآن آية هي قوة لنا. قلت: وما هي ؟ فقال: وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَٰهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَٰهٌ فلم أدر بما اجيبه، فحججت فخبرت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: هذا كلام زنديق خبيث، إذا رجعت إليه فقل له: ما اسمك بالكوفة؟ فإنه يقول: فلان، فقل: ما اسمك بالبصرة؟ فانه يقول: فلان، فقل كذلك الله ربنا في السماء إله وفي الارض إله، وفي البحار إله، وفي كل مكان إله. قال: فقدمت فأتيت أبا شاكر فأخبرته فقال: هذه نقلت من الحجاز

6. [6/316] al-Tawhid: My father from Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam who said: Abu Shakir al-Daysani said: There is a verse in the Qur’an which supports us (the Dualists who believe in two gods). I said: Which one is it? He said: “and He is the One who is god in Heaven and on Earth god” (43:84). I did not know how to answer him. I made the pilgrimage and informed Aba Abdillah عليه السلام (about this). He said: These are the words of a wretched heretic. When you go back say to him: ‘What is your name in Kufa?’ he will say ‘so and so’, then say: ‘What do they call you in Basra?’ he will say ‘so and so’ (the same name). Then say: In the same way is Allah our Lord – (He is Called) God in Heaven and God on Earth, and in the oceans God, and God in every place. He (Hisham) said: I returned and proceeded to Aba Shakir an/d informed him of this. He said: This has been relayed from the Hijaz (i.e. the Imam in Madina).



Hadith #7

[317/7] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد البرقي، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن يحيى الحلبي، عن ابن مسكان، عن زرارة بن أعين قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إن الله خلو من خلقه وخلقه خلو منه، وكل ما وقع عليه اسم شيء فهو مخلوق ما خلا الله والله خالق كل شئ، تبارك الذي ليس كمثله شئ وهو السميع البصير

7. [7/317] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Barqi from his father from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from Ibn Muskan from Zurara b. A’yan who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Allah is empty of His creations and His creations are empty of Him. Whatever can referred to by the name ‘thing’ apart from Allah then it is a creation, and Allah is the creator of all things. Blessed is the one whom there is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearing the All-Seeing.



Hadith #8

[318/8] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن النضر بن سويد، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن أبي بصير، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: من زعم أن الله من شئ أو في شئ أو على شئ فقد كفر، قلت: فسر لي؟ قال: أعني بالحواية من الشئ له أو بامساك له أو من شئ سبقه

8. [8/318] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Sa’id from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from A’sim b. Humayd from Abi Basir from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: Whoever asserts that Allah is from something, or in something, or on something, then he has disbelieved. I said: Explain this for me. He said: I mean (to assert) that He is contained by something (which encloses him), or that He is held up (resting on something), or He is (derived) from something which preceded Him.



Hadith #9

[319/9] التوحيد: حمزة العلوي، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قوله عزوجل: مَا يَكُونُ مِن نَّجْوَىٰ ثَلَاثَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ رَابِعُهُمْ وَلَا خَمْسَةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ سَادِسُهُمْ وَلَا أَدْنَىٰ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْثَرَ إِلَّا هُوَ مَعَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كَانُوا فقال: هو واحد أحدي الذات، بائن من خلقه، وبذاك وصف نفسه، وهو بكل شئ محيط بالاشراف والاحاطة والقدرة، لا يعزب عنه مثقال ذرة في السماوات ولا في الارض ولا أصغر من ذلك ولا أكبر بالاحاطة والعلم لا بالذات لان الاماكن محدودة تحويها حدود أربعة فإذا كان بالذات لزمه الحواية

9. [9/319] al-Tawhid: Hamza al-Alawi from Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام about His words Mighty and Majestic: “there is no private conversation of three except He is the fourth of them, nor of five except He is the sixth of them - and no less than that and no more except that He is with them wherever they are” (58:7). He said: He is One. Unique in Essence. Distinct from His creation. That is how He described Himself. He encompasses everything in terms of supervision, awareness and power. Nothing escapes Him even the weight of a particle in the Heavens and in the earth nor smaller than that or bigger - in terms of awareness and knowledge not by (His) essence, for locations are bounded, delimited by the four bounds (height, width, depth), so if it was by essence then that would necessarily imply containment.