Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara > Divine Unity and Negation of any Partnership in Essence, Creation, Worship and Regulation of the Universe
Hadith #1

[298/1] التوحيد: ابن إدريس، عن أبيه، عن ابن هاشم، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم قال: سئل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام فقيل له: بم عرفت ربك؟ قال: بفسخ العزم ونقض الهم، عزمت ففسخ عزمي، وهممت فنقض همي

1. [1/298] al-Tawhid: Ibn Idris – his father – Ibn Hashim – Ibn Abi Umayr – Hisham b. Salim who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام was asked: By what (thing) did you know your Lord? He said: By the dissolution of resolutions and the invalidation of plans. I resolved but He dissolved my resolution and I planned but He invalidated my plan.



Hadith #2

[299/2] التوحيد ومعاني الاخبار: أبي، عن محمد العطار، عن ابن عيسى، عن أبي هاشم الجعفري قال: سألت أبا جعفر الثاني عليه السلام: ما معنى الواحد؟ قال: المجتمع عليه بجميع الالسن بالوحدانية

2. [2/299] al-Tawhid and Ma’ani al-Akhbar: My father – Muhammad al-Attar – Ibn Isa – Abi Hashim al-Ja’fari who said: I asked Aba Ja’far the Second عليه السلام - what is the meaning of ‘the One’? He said: (One) whose Oneness is united upon in all tongues (languages).



Hadith #3

[300/3] العلل: أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن عيسى، عن محمد البرقي، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن حريز، عن جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام في قول الله عزوجل: وَقَالُوا لا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلا سُوَاعًا وَلا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا ، قال: كانوا يعبدون الله عزوجل فماتوا فضج قومهم وشق ذلك عليهم، فجاءهم إبليس لعنه الله فقال لهم: أتخذ لكم أصناما على صورهم فتنظرون إليهم وتأنسون بهم وتعبدون الله، فأعد لهم أصناما على مثالهم فكانوا يعبدون الله عزوجل، وينظرون إلى تلك الاصنام، فلما جاءهم الشتاء والامطار أدخلوا الاصنام البيوت فلم يزالوا يعبدون الله عزوجل حتى هلك ذلك القرن ونشأ أولادهم، فقالوا: إن آباءنا كانوا يعبدون هؤلاء، فعبدوهم من دون الله عزوجل، فذلك قول الله تبارك و تعالى: وَلا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلا سُوَاعًا

3. [3/300] al-Ilal: My father from Sa’d from Ibn Isa from Muhammad al-Barqi from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz from Ja’far b. Muhammad عليهما السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “They said: do not abandon your gods. Do not abandon Wadd, Suwa’, Yaghuth, Ya’uq and Nasr” (71:23) - He said: They (the people named in the verse) used to worship Allah Mighty and Majestic then they died. Their people cried out (because of that) and it weighed heavily on them. Iblis - curse of Allah be upon him - came to them and said: ‘I will make idols for you in their image, you will look at them and obtain comfort while continuing to worship Allah’. He made for them idols in their likeness. They used to worship Allah Mighty and Majestic and look upon those idols. When winter and the rains came they transferred the idols inside their houses. They continued worshipping Allah Mighty and Majestic until that generation died out and their sons grew up. They (the second generation) said: ‘Our fathers used to worship these (idols)’ so they began worshipping them instead of Allah Mighty and Majestic. This then is the interpretation of the words of Allah Blessed and Elevated: “Do not abandon Wadd nor Suwa’a …”



Hadith #4

[301/4] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن فضال، عن الحلبي وزرارة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى أحد صمد، ليس له جوف، وإنما الروح خلق من خلقه نصر وتأييد وقوة يجعله الله في قلوب الرسل والمؤمنين

4. [4/301] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ibn Isa from Ibn Fadhal from al-Halabi and Zurara from Abi Abdillahعليه السلام who said: Allah Blessed and Elevated is One, Compact, He does not have any hollowness, while the spirit (al-Ruh) is a creation from among His creations and is an aid, support and power which Allah places in the hearts of the messengers and believers.



Hadith #5

[302/5] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن إبراهيم بن هاشم، ويعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سمعته وهو يقول في قوله عزوجل: وَلَهُ أَسْلَمَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا قال: هو توحيدهم لله عزوجل

5. [5/302] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ibrahim b. Hashim from Ya’qub b. Yazid from Ibn Fadhal from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام. He (Zurara) said: I heard him (the Imam) saying about His words Mighty and Majestic: “and to Him have submitted whomsoever is in the heavens and the earth whether willingly or unwillingly” (3:83) - this is their acknowledgment of Oneness to Allah Mighty and Majestic.



Hadith #6

[303/6] الكافي: أحمد بن إدريس، عن محمد بن عبدالجبار، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن أبي أيوب، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إن اليهود سألوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقالوا: انسب لنا ربك فلبث ثلاثا لا يجيبهم ثم نزل قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ إلى آخرها

6. [6/303] al-Kafi: Ahmad b. Idris from Muhammad b. Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan b. Yahya from Abi Ayyub from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Abdillahعليه السلام who said: The Jews asked the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله saying: Relate for us the genealogy of your Lord. He (the prophet) remained three days not answering them then it was revealed “Say: He is Allah the One” to its end (112:1-4).



Hadith #7

[304/7] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن ابن رئاب وعن غير واحد، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: من عبدالله بالتوهم فقد كفر ومن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك، ومن عبد المعنى بإيقاع الاسماء عليه بصفاته التي وصف بها نفسه فعقد عليه قلبه ونطق به لسانه في سرائره وعلانيته فأولئك أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام حقا. وفي حديث آخر: اولئك هم المؤمنون حقا

7. [7/304] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Ibn Riab and more than one from Abi Abdillahعليه السلام who said: Whoever worships Allah by imagining him then he has disbelieved. Whoever worships the name and not the meaning (essence behind the name) then he has disbelieved. Whoever worships both the name and the meaning then he has associated (God with another). Whoever worships the meaning (only) while applying the names to Him, which are His attributes which He described Himself by, setting his heart upon that, expressing it by his tongue, both in public and secret, then such are the true companions of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام. And in another report: those are the true believers.



Hadith #8

[305/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن العباس بن معروف، عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي نجران قال: كتبت إلى أبي جعفر عليه السلام أو قلت له: جعلني الله فداك نعبد الرحمن الرحيم الواحد الاحد الصمد؟ قال: فقال: إن من عبد الاسم دون المسمى بالاسماء أشرك وكفر و جحد ولم يعبد شيئا بل اعبدالله الواحد الاحد الصمد المسمى بهذه الاسماء دون الاسماء إن الاسماء صفات وصف بها نفسه

8. [8/305] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from al-Abbas b. Ma’ruf from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran who said: I wrote to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام or I said to him: May Allah make me your ransom - Do we worship The Beneficent, The Merciful, The Unique, The One, The Eternal? He said: Whoever worships the name and not the one named has polythesized, disbelieved, denied and has not worshipped anything. Rather worship Allah the Unique, The One, The Eternal who is called by these names and not the names (themselves). The names are attributes which He has described Himself by.



Hadith #9

[306/9] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن عبدالله بن مسكان عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام في قول الله عزوجل: حَنِيفًا مُسْلِمًا قال: خالصا مخلصا ليس فيه شئ من عبادة الاوثان

9. [9/306] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Abdallah b. Muskan from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “(Ibrahim was) a Hanif, a Muslim” (3:67). He said: sincere and devoted, not having in it (his faith) anything whatsoever of the worship of idols.



Hadith #10

[307/10] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها: الله مما هو مشتق؟ قال: فقال لي: يا هشام الله مشتق من إله والاله يقتضي مألوها والاسم غير المسمى، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد كفر وعبد اثنين، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد أفهمت يا هشام؟ قال: فقلت: زدني قال: إن لله تسعة وتسعين اسما فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الاسماء وكلها غيره، يا هشام الخبز اسم للمأكول والماء اسم للمشروب والثوب اسم للملبوس والنار اسم للمحرق أفهمت يا هشام فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداء نا والمتخذين مع الله عزوجل غيره؟ قلت: نعم، قال: فقال: نفعك الله به وثبتك يا هشام، قال هشام فوالله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى قمت مقامي هذا

10. [10/307] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Hisham b. al-Hakam - that he asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the Names of Allah and their derivation saying: What is Allah derived from? He (Hisham) said: so he (the Imam) said to me: O Hisham, ‘Allah’ is derived from ‘ilah’ and ‘al-ilah’ connotes the one who is worshipped. The name is other than the named. Whoever worships the name without the meaning then he has disbelieved and has not worshipped anything. Whoever worships the name and the meaning then he has disbelieved and worshipped two (distinct things). Whoever worships the meaning without the name then that is true monotheism. Have you understood O Hisham? He (Hisham) said: I said: increase for me. He said: Allah has ninety nine names, if the name was identical to what is named then every name among these (ninety-nine) would be a god, rather Allah is a meaning to which these names point to, and each one of them is other than him. O Hisham, ‘bread’ is a name for what is eaten, ‘water’ is a name for what is drunk, ‘clothes’ is a name for what is worn, ‘fire’ is a name for what burns, have you understood Hisham? an understanding through which you can repel and defeat our enemies and those who betake others apart from Allah Mighty and Majestic. I said: Yes. He said: May Allah benefit you by it and make you firm O Hisham. Hisham said: by Allah no one has defeated me on the subject of Tawhid to this day when I stand in the position I do.



Hadith #11

[308/11] التوحيد: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام ما الدليل على أن الله واحد؟ قال: اتصال التدبير وتمام الصنع، كما قال عزوجل: لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آَلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا

11. [11/308] al-Tawhid: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ibn Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: What is the proof that Allah is one? He said: the continuing regulation (of the universe) and the perfection in creation, as the Mighty and Majestic said: “if there were in them other gods apart from Allah then they (the heavens and the earth) would have fallen apart” (21:22)



Hadith #12

[309/12] قصص الانبياء: بالاسناد عن الصدوق رحمه الله، عن ابن المتوكل، عن الحميري، عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن محبوب، عن الاحول، عن بريد بن معاوية قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول في مسجد النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: إن إبليس اللعين هو أول من صور صورة على مثال آدم عليه السلام ليفتن به الناس، ويضلهم من عبادة الله تعالى، وكان ود في ولد قابيل وكان خليفة قابيل على ولده وعلى من بحضرتهم في سفح الجبل يعظمونه ويسودونه، فلما أن مات ود جزع عليه إخوته وخلف عليهم إبنا يقال له: " سواع " فلم يغن غناء أبيه منهم فأتاهم ابليس في صورة شيخ فقال: قد بلغني ما أصبتم به من موت ود عظيمكم، فهل لكم في أن اصور لكم على مثال ود صورة تستريحون إليها وتأنسون بها ؟ قالوا: افعل. فعمد الخبيث إلى الآنك فأذابه حتى صار مثل الماء، ثم صور لهم صورة مثال ود في بيته فتدافعوا على الصورة يلثمونها ويضعون خدودهم عليها ويسجدون لها، وأحب سواع أن يكون التعظيم والسجود له، فوثب على صورة ود فحكها حتى لم يدع منها شيئا، وهموا بقتل سواع، فوعظهم وقال: أنا أقوم لكم بما كان يقوم به ود، وأنا ابنه، فإن قتلتموني لم يكن لكم رئيس، فمالوا إلى سواع بالطاعة والتعظيم فلم يلبث سواع أن مات، وخلف إبنا يقال له: " يغوث " فجزعوا على سواع فأتاهم إبليس وقال: أنا الذي صورت لكم صورة ود، فهل لكم أن أجعل لكم مثال سواع على وجه لا يستطيع أحد أن يغيره؟ قالوا: فافعل، فعمد إلى عود فنجره ونصبه لهم في منزل سواع، وإنا سمي ذلك العود خلافا، لان إبليس عمل صورة سواع على خلاف صورة ود، قال: فسجدوا له وعظموه، وقالوا ليغوث: ما نأمنك على هذا الصنم أن تكيده كما كاد أبوك مثال ود، فوضعوا على البيت حراسا وحجابا، ثم كانوا يأتون الصنم في يوم واحد، ويعظمونه أشد ما كانوا يعظمون سواعا، فلما رأي ذلك يغوث قتل الحرسة والحجاب ليلا، وجعل الصنم رميما، فلما بلغهم ذلك أقبلوا ليقتلوه فتوارى منهم إلى أن طلبوه ورأسوه وعظموه ثم مات وخلف إبنا يقال له: يعوق فأتاهم إبليس فقال: قد بلغني موت يغوث، وأنا جاعل لكم مثاله في شئ لا يقدر أحد أن يغيره قالوا: فافعل، فعمد الخبيث إلى حجر أبيض فنقره بالحديد حتى صور لهم مثال يغوث فعظموه أشد مما مضى، وبنوا عليه بيتا من حجر، وتبايعوا أن لا يفتحوا باب ذلك البيت إلا في رأس كل سنة، وسميت البيعة يومئذ لانهم تبايعوا وتعاقدوا عليه، فاشتد ذلك على يعوق فعمد إلى ريطة وخلق فألقاها في الحائر، ثم رماها بالنار ليلا فأصبح القوم وقد احترق البيت والصنم والحرس وأرفض الصنم ملقى فجزعوا وهموا بقتل يعوق فقال لهم: إن قتلتم رئيسكم فسدت اموركم، فكفوا فلم يلبث أن مات يعوق وخلف إبنا يقال له: نسر، فأتاهم إبليس فقال: بلغني موت عظيمكم فأنا جاعل لكم مثال يعوق في شئ لا يبلى فقالوا: افعل فعمد إلى الذهب وأوقد عليه النار حتى صار كالماء، وعمل مثالا من الطين على صورة يعوق ثم أفرغ الذهب فيه، ثم نصبه لهم في ديرهم واشتد ذلك على نسر، ولم يقدر على دخول تلك الدير فانحاز عنهم في فرقة قليلة من إخوته يعبدون نسرا، والآخرون يعبدون الصنم حتى مات نسر، وظهرت نبوة إدريس فبلغه حال القوم وأنهم يعبدون جسما على مثال يعوق، وأن نسرا كان يعبد من دون الله، فسار إليهم بمن معه حتى نزل مدينة نسروهم فيها فهزمهم، وقتل من قتل، وهرب من هرب فتفرقوا في البلاد، وأمر بالصنم فحمل وألقى في البحر، فاتخذت كل فرقة منهم صنما، وسموها بأسمائها فلم يزالوا بعد ذلك قرنا بعد قرن لا يعرفون إلا تلك الاسماء ثم ظهرت نبوة نوح عليه السلام فدعاهم إلى عبادة الله وحده، وترك ما كانوا يعبدون من الاصنام، فقال بعضهم: لا تذرن آلهتكم ولا تذرن ودا ولا سواعا ولا يغوث ويعوق ونسرا

12. [12/309] Qasas al-Anbiya: Via his chain to al-Saduq from Ibn al-Mutawakkil from al-Himyari from Ibn Isa from Ibn Mahbub from al-Ahwal from Burayd b. Muawiya who said: I heard Aba Ja’far عليه السلام saying in the Masjid of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله: Iblis the accursed was the first to fashion an image in the likeness of Adam so that he could tempt the humans and divert them from the worship of Allah the Elevated. Wadd was one of the sons of Qabil and his (Qabil’s) successor over the rest of his siblings and all those living nearby at the foot of the mountain. They would all revere and follow him. When Wadd died his brothers mourned him greatly. He had placed over them a son called Suwa’ as his successor. But he (Suwa’) could not reach the stature of his father in their estimation. Iblis came to them in the form of an old man and said: ‘I have come to know of your suffering because of the death of Wadd your great one. What would you say if I were to fashion an image in the likeness of Wadd from which you could seek comfort and ease?’ They said: ‘Do it’. The Repulsive One directed himself to lead and melted it until it became liquid. Then he fashioned for them an image in the likeness of Wadd in his house. They turned to the image and began kissing it, and placing their cheeks upon it, and prostrating to it. However, Suwa’ wished that the veneration and prostration be for him, so he sprang upon the image and started scraping it until he had left nothing of it. They (the people) were driven to kill Suwa’ but he admonished them saying: ‘I take the place that was taken by Wadd, I am his son, if you kill me then you will have no chief!’ They inclined to Suwa’ in obeying and showing reverence to him. Suwa’ did not stay long and died. He left behind a son called Yaghuth. They grieved over Suwa’ and Iblis came to them and said: ‘I am the one who fashioned for you an image of Wadd. What do you say to me making for you (an image) in the likeness of Suwa’ in a way that no one will be able to change it?’ They said: ‘Do it’. He directed himself to wood and hewed it then fixed it in the house of Suwa’. That wood was called Khilaf (‘opposite’) because Iblis fashioned the image in an opposite way to (how he had done with) the image of Wadd. He (the Imam) said: they prostrated to him and venerated him. They said to Yaghuth: ‘We do not trust you over this idol, you might scheme against it the way your father schemed against the likeness of Wadd!’. They decided to appoint guards and attendants (to protect the idol). They used to come to the idol on a single day, venerating it more excessively than they used to venerate Suwa’. When Yaghuth saw that he came and killed the guards and attendants one night and crushed the idol to pulp. When news reached them they attempted to kill him but he concealed himself from them until they searched for him and eventually made him their leader and venerated him. Then he died and left behind a son called Ya’uq. Iblis came to them and said: ‘I have come to know of the death of Yaghuth. I am going to make an image of his using something that no one will be able to distort’. They said: ‘Do it’. The Reviled One turned to white stone and hammered it using iron until he had fashioned for them an image of Yaghuth. They venerated it more excessively than all the previous ones. They built for it a room made of stone. They made an oath among themselves that they would not open the door of that room except at the beginning of every new year. What they did was called ‘Bay’a’ on that day (for the first time) for they made a pledge (‘Tabaya’u’) and a pact upon that. This became unbearable for Ya’uq so he took soft sheets and other shabby clothes set them on fire and threw them one night (into that house). The people woke up to find the house, the idol, the guards all burnt down and the remains of the idol discarded. They grieved because of that and desired to kill Ya’uq but he said to them: ‘if you kill your leader then your affairs will disintegrate’ so they decided to hold back. It was not long before Ya’uq died and left a son called Nasr as his successor.Iblis came to them and said: ‘I have come to know of the death of your great one. I will make for you (an image) in the likeness of Ya’uq using something which can never perish’. They said: ‘Do it’. He directed himself towards gold and heated it by fire until it became liquid. Then he sculpted a statue in the likeness of Ya’uq using clay and poured the molten gold into it. He set it up for them in their houses. This became unbearable for Nasr but he could not enter into those houses. He decided to separate himself from them together with a small group of his brothers who worshipped him (Nasr), and the rest kept worshipping the idol (Ya’uq). Then Nasr died and the prophethood of Idris began. He came to know the state of the people. That some worship a body in the likeness of Ya’uq and that Nasr was worshipped by others instead of Allah. He marched to them with those who were with him and decamped in a town whose people supported them (Idris and his followers). They defeated them (the idol-worshippers). Some were killed while others ran away. They (the idol-worshippers) became scattered in the lands. He (Idris) ordered that the idol be brought and it was cast into the sea. Every group (of the scattered remaining idol-worshippers) took for itself an idol and gave them names. They remained like that generation after generation not knowing anything except those names. Then came the prophethood of Nuh. He called them to the worship of Allah alone and abandoning what they used to worship of idols, whereupon some of them said: “do not abandon your gods, do not abandon Wadd, nor Suwa’ nor Yaghuth, nor Ya’uq nor Nasr”.



Hadith #13

[310/13] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن منصور ابن حازم قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: إني ناظرت قوما فقلت لهم: إن الله جل جلاله أجل وأعز وأكرم من أن يعرف بخلقه بل العباد يعرفون بالله، فقال: رحمك الله

13. [13/310] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Safwan b. Yahya from Mansur b. Hazm who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I debated a group and said to them: Verily Allah Majestic is His Majesty is more Majestic, Strong and Gracious that He be known through His creatures, rather the slaves are known through Allah. He said: May Allah have mercy on you.



Hadith #14

[311/14] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن الحسين عن الحسن بن علي بن يوسف بن بقاح عن سيف بن عميرة، عن إبراهيم بن عمر قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إن أمر الله كله عجيب الا انه قد احتج عليكم بما قد عرفكم من نفسه

14. [14/311] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Ali b. Yusuf b. Baqah from Sayf b. Umayra from Ibrahim b. Umar who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: The affair of Allah is totally strange (unknowable), however, He only holds you to account over that part which He has given you knowledge of about Himself.