16. Kaffarah (expiation) for Swearing

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1- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ يُطْعِمُ عَشَرَةَ مَسَاكِينَ لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ مُدٌّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ أَوْ مُدٌّ مِنْ دَقِيقٍ وَحَفْنَةٌ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ لِكُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ ثَوْبَانِ أَوْ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ وَهُوَ فِي ذَلِكَ بِالْخِيَارِ أَيَّ الثَّلاثَةِ صَنَعَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى وَاحِدَةٍ مِنَ الثَّلاثَةِ فَالصِّيَامُ عَلَيْهِ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ.


1. Abu Ali al-Ash ‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘if has narrated from al-Fadf ibn Shadhan from all from Safwan ibn Yahya from ibn Muskan from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “About the case of Kaffarah (expiation) because of oath abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It (expiation) is to feed ten destitute people each with one mud (a certain measurement) or a handful of wheat or flour, or clothe them with two pieces of clothes to each person, or free a slave. He has the choice for any one of the three that he may choose and if he cannot do anyone of them then he must fast for three days.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/336)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مَا حَدُّ مَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ يَسْأَلُ فِي كَفِّهِ وَهُوَ يَجِدُ فَقَالَ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ فَضْلٌ عَنْ قُوتِ عِيَالِهِ فَهُوَ مِمَّنْ لا يَجِدُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Safwan ibn Yahya from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the expiation for oath mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . if one cannot find then it is three days fasting.’ (5:91) and about the limit of ‘if one cannot find’ and that a man asks for help (beggar) but he is not of ‘if one cannot find’. He (the Imam) said, ‘If one does not have more than what his dependents need, then “if one does not find” applies to him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن أو موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/336)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ فَقَالَ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ أَوْ كِسْوَةٌ وَالْكِسْوَةُ ثَوْبَانِ أَوْ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ أَيَّ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَ أَجْزَأَ عَنْهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مُتَوَالِيَاتٍ وَإِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مُدّاً مُدّاً.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the expiation because of oath. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is to set free a slave or clothing with two clothes or feeding ten destitute persons. Whichever of the three he chooses is sufficient, and if he cannot find any of them, then it is three consecutive days of fasting and in feeding ten destitute persons: it is one mud (a certain measurement) for everyone.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/337)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِنَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ ما أَحَلَّ اللهُ لَكَ قَدْ فَرَضَ اللهُ لَكُمْ تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمانِكُمْ فَجَعَلَهَا يَمِيناً وَكَفَّرَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قُلْتُ بِمَا كَفَّرَ قَالَ أَطْعَمَ عَشَرَةَ مَسَاكِينَ لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ مُدٌّ قُلْنَا فَمَا حَدُّ الْكِسْوَةِ قَالَ ثَوْبٌ يُوَارِي بِهِ عَوْرَتَهُ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asem ibn Humayd from Muhammad ibn Qays who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said to His Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, ‘O Prophet, why do you make unlawful what Allah has made lawful for you.’ ‘Allah has shown you how to absolve yourselves of your oaths.’ (66:1-2) He made it an oath and the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, then paid expiation for it.’ I then asked, ‘By what means did he pay the expiation thereof?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He fed ten destitute people one mud (a certain measurement) to each person.’ We then asked about the limit of clothing. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is such clothing which provides cover for his privacy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/337)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ أَوْ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ وَالْوَسَطُ الْخَلُّ وَالزَّيْتُ وَأَرْفَعُهُ الْخُبْزُ وَاللَّحْمُ وَالصَّدَقَةُ مُدٌّ مُدٌّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ وَالْكِسْوَةُ ثَوْبَانِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَعَلَيْهِ الصِّيَامُ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from abu Jamilah who has narrated the following: “About the case of expiation due to an oath which is freeing a slave, or feeding ten destitute person of the average kind of food for your family or clothing them, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The average kind of food is vinegar and oil, and a high quality is bread and meat. Charity is one mud (a certain measurement) of wheat for each destitute person and clothes are two pieces. If one cannot find any of these, then he must fast for three consecutive days as Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, . . if one cannot find then he must fast for three days.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/337)



6- عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ وَالْحَجَّالِ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ مَعْمَرِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَمَّنْ وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْكِسْوَةُ فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ قَالَ ثَوْبٌ يُوَارِي بِهِ عَوْرَتَهُ.


6. Ali has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr and ai-Hajjai from Tha‘labah ibn Maymun from Mu’ammar ibn ‘Umar who has narrated the foliowing: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who must clothe the needy because of expiation due to oath. He (the Imam) said, ‘ It is a kind of clothing which can cover his privacy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/338)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ ما تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ قَالَ هُوَ كَمَا يَكُونُ إِنَّهُ يَكُونُ فِي الْبَيْتِ مَنْ يَأْكُلُ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الْمُدِّ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَأْكُلُ أَقَلَّ مِنَ الْمُدِّ فَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ شِئْتَ جَعَلْتَ لَهُمْ أُدْماً وَالأدْمُ أَدْنَاهُ الْمِلْحُ وَأَوْسَطُهُ الْخَلُّ وَالزَّيْتُ وَأَرْفَعُهُ اللَّحْمُ.


7. Aii ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from af-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “This is about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. ‘. . . it is of the average kind of food that you provide to your family.’ Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is just as it is at home. Certain people eat one mud (a certain measurement) and certain others less or in between. If you like you can prepare a certain kind of sauce, the least of which is salt, the middle is vinegar and oil, and of a high quality is meat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/338)



8- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَمَّنْ قَالَ وَاللهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَفِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) كَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مُدّاً مُدّاً مِنْ دَقِيقٍ أَوْ حِنْطَةٍ أَوْ تَحْرِيرِ رَقَبَةٍ أَوْ صِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مُتَوَالِيَاتٍ إِذَا لَمْ يَجِدْ شَيْئاً مِنْ ذَا.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Hamzah al-Thumaliy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who has said by Allah, but has not remained firm about it. He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘The Kaffarah (expiation) for it is to feed ten destitute people, one mud (a certain measurement) to each one of flour or wheat, or free a slave, or fast for three consecutive days if he cannot find the other remedies.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/339)



9- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ مُدٌّ مُدٌّ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ وَحَفْنَةٌ لِتَكُونَ الْحَفْنَةُ فِي طَحْنِهِ وَحَطَبِهِ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has narrated the following: “About the Kaffarah (expiation) due to an oath which is one mud (a certain measurement) for each person abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that it must be a handful of food made into flour and cooked.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/339)



10- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فِي الْكَفَّارَةِ إِلا الرَّجُلَ وَالرَّجُلَيْنِ فَلْيُكَرِّرْ عَلَيْهِمْ حَتَّى يَسْتَكْمِلَ الْعَشَرَةَ يُعْطِيهِمُ الْيَوْمَ ثُمَّ يُعْطِيهِمْ غَداً.


10. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one cannot find ten destitute people at one time he can feed fewer people several times like this and in next day until it is equal to feeding ten destitute people.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/339)



11- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ فَقَالَ يَصُومُ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ قُلْتُ إِنَّهُ ضَعُفَ عَنِ الصَّوْمِ وَعَجَزَ قَالَ يَتَصَدَّقُ عَلَى عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ قُلْتُ إِنَّهُ عَجَزَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ فَلْيَسْتَغْفِرِ اللهَ وَلا يَعُدْ فَإِنَّهُ أَفْضَلُ الْكَفَّارَةِ وَأَقْصَاهُ وَأَدْنَاهُ فَلْيَسْتَغْفِرْ رَبَّهُ وَيُظْهِرُ تَوْبَةً وَنَدَامَةً.


11. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the Kaffarah (expiation) due to oath. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is fasting for three days.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if one feels weak and cannot do it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He can give charity to ten destitute people.’ I asked, ‘What happens if he cannot do it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He must ask forgiveness from Allah and must not do such thing again because the best is Kaffarah (expiation) in its highest and lowest form, so he must ask forgiveness from his Lord and express regret and repentance.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/339)



12- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ غِيَاثِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يُجْزِئُ إِطْعَامُ الصَّغِيرِ فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ وَلَكِنْ صَغِيرَيْنِ بِكَبِيرٍ.


12. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ghiyath ibn Ibrahim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said in paying expiation for an oath, feeding small people is not sufficient, however, two small ones are equal to one grown-up person.”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/340)



13- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي خَالِدٍ الْقَمَّاطِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَا يُطْعِمُ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَصُومَ يُطْعِمُ عَشَرَةَ مَسَاكِينَ مُدّاً مُدّاً فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ.


13. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar af-Yemaniy from abu Khafid al-Qammat who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘If one is able to feed ten destitute people for expiation of an oath he cannot fast instead. He must feed ten destitute people, one mud (a certain measurement) to each one, and if one cannot do this, then he must fast for three days.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/340)



14- عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ أَوْسَطِ ما تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُوتُونَ بِهِ عِيَالَكُمْ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ وَمَا أَوْسَطُ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ الْخَلُّ وَالزَّيْتُ وَالتَّمْرُ وَالْخُبْزُ تُشْبِعُهُمْ بِهِ مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً قُلْتُ كِسْوَتُهُمْ قَالَ ثَوْبٌ وَاحِدٌ.


14. Ali has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about, ‘. . . the average kind of food that you provide for your family.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is the kind of food which you feed your family, it must be of the middle of the two, high and low, quality that you provide for your family.’ I then asked, ‘What is the middle of such food?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is vinegar and oil and dates and bread to satisfy them once.’ I then asked about clothing them. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is one piece of cloth.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/340)