1. The Will and What it Must Consist of

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1- حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ الْكَلْبِيِّ ابْنِ أُخْتِ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنْ لَمْ يُحْسِنْ وَصِيَّتَهُ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ كَانَ نَقْصاً فِي مُرُوءَتِهِ وَعَقْلِهِ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ وَكَيْفَ يُوصِي الْمَيِّتُ قَالَ إِذَا حَضَرَتْهُ وَفَاتُهُ وَاجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ قَالَ اللهُمَّ فَاطِرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الرَّحْمَنَ الرَّحِيمَ اللهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعْهَدُ إِلَيْكَ فِي دَارِ الدُّنْيَا أَنِّي أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا أَنْتَ وَحْدَكَ لا شَرِيكَ لَكَ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُكَ وَرَسُولُكَ وَأَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ النَّارَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ الْبَعْثَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ الْحِسَابَ حَقٌّ وَالْقَدَرَ وَالْمِيزَانَ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ الدِّينَ كَمَا وَصَفْتَ وَأَنَّ الإسْلامَ كَمَا شَرَعْتَ وَأَنَّ الْقَوْلَ كَمَا حَدَّثْتَ وَأَنَّ الْقُرْآنَ كَمَا أَنْزَلْتَ وَأَنَّكَ أَنْتَ اللهُ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُ جَزَى اللهُ مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) خَيْرَ الْجَزَاءِ وَحَيَّا اللهُ مُحَمَّداً وَآلَ مُحَمَّدٍ بِالسَّلامِ اللهُمَّ يَا عُدَّتِي عِنْدَ كُرْبَتِي وَيَا صَاحِبِي عِنْدَ شِدَّتِي وَيَا وَلِيَّ نِعْمَتِي إِلَهِي وَإِلَهَ آبَائِي لا تَكِلْنِي إِلَى نَفْسِي طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ أَبَداً فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ تَكِلْنِي إِلَى نَفْسِي طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ أَقْرُبْ مِنَ الشَّرِّ وَأَبْعُدْ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ فَ‏آنِسْ فِي الْقَبْرِ وَحْشَتِي وَاجْعَلْ لِي عَهْداً يَوْمَ أَلْقَاكَ مَنْشُوراً ثُمَّ يُوصِي بِحَاجَتِهِ وَتَصْدِيقُ هَذِهِ الْوَصِيَّةِ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فِي السُّورَةِ الَّتِي يَذْكُرُ فِيهَا مَرْيَمَ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لا يَمْلِكُونَ الشَّفاعَةَ إِلا مَنِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمنِ عَهْداً فَهَذَا عَهْدُ الْمَيِّتِ وَ الْوَصِيَّةُ حَقٌّ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ أَنْ يَحْفَظَ هَذِهِ الْوَصِيَّةَ وَيُعَلِّمَهَا وَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَّمَنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلَّمَنِيهَا جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام).


1. Narrated to us Ali ibn Ibrahim from Ali ibn Ishaq from al-Hassan ibn Hazim al-Kalbiy son of the sister of Hisham ibn Salim from Sulayman ibn Ja‘far who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah has said, ‘A person who does not make a proper will at the time of his death suffers from lack of kindness and proper understanding.’ It was then asked, ‘O messenger of Allah, what kind of will should a dying person make?’ The Messenger of Allah replied, ‘When one is about to die and people gather around him he should say: “O Allah, the Inventor of the heavens and earth, who has the knowledge of the unseen and the present matters, the Beneficent, the Merciful. O Allah, I entrust You, in this world, with my testimony, ‘I testify that no one beside You (O Allah), who is One and has no partners, deserve to be worshipped. I also testify that Muhammad is your servant and Messenger. I testify that Paradise is true, Hellfire is true, Resurrection is true, that Accountability of everyone, on the Day of Judgment, is true, and Measurement and Balance are true. I testify that Religion is as You have described, that Islam is as You have established and the Word is as You have spoken, that the Quran is as You have sent down and that You are Allah, the manifest truth. I pray to Allah to compensate Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, with the best of compensations and welcome Muhammad and his family with the (promised) peace. O Allah, You are my means and resource at the time of my living in distress, and You are my companion at the time of my suffering hardships. You are the Benefactor of bounties I have enjoyed. You are my Lord and the Lord of my ancestors. Do not ever leave me to myself; not even for a blinking of an eye, for if You leave me to myself for a blinking of an eye, I become closer to wickedness and move away from goodness. Comfort me in the grave against my fear and make this an open covenant in my favor on the day when I will come into Your presence.’” Thereafter he should make his will about the matters that he may need. Such a will is based on the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, in the Chapter of the Holy Quran where Mary is mentioned. “No one will possess any intercession (Shafa‘ah) except those who have entrusted the Beneficent to bear witness to their testimony.’” “It is a right upon every Muslim to memorize this will and testimony and teach it. Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah taught me this will.’ The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘ Jibril taught me this will.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/5)



2- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ صَبِيحٍ قَالَ صَحِبَنِي مَوْلًى لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يُقَالُ لَهُ أَعْيَنُ فَاشْتَكَى أَيَّاماً ثُمَّ بَرَأَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ فَأَخَذْتُ مَتَاعَهُ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُ فَأَتَيْتُ بِهِ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَأَخْبَرْتُهُ أَنَّهُ اشْتَكَى أَيَّاماً ثُمَّ بَرَأَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ قَالَ تِلْكَ رَاحَةُ الْمَوْتِ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَحَدٍ يَمُوتُ حَتَّى يَرُدَّ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ سَمْعِهِ وَبَصَرِهِ وَعَقْلِهِ لِلْوَصِيَّةِ أَخَذَ أَوْ تَرَكَ.


2. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘afla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from af-Wafid ibn Sabih who has narrated the following: “Once a Mawla’ of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, accompanied me (on a journey) and complained of illness for several days. Then it seemed as if he had no illness but very shortly, he died. I took his luggage to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and informed him (the Imam) that he complained for several days, then he seemed as if he had no illness at all, but shortly thereafter he died. He (the Imam) said, ‘That was the comfort of death. No one dies before, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, returns his ears, eyes and reason for making a will, regardless of whether he makes use of that opportunity or not.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/6)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ إِنِّي خَرَجْتُ إِلَى مَكَّةَ فَصَحِبَنِي رَجُلٌ وَكَانَ زَمِيلِي فَلَمَّا أَنْ كَانَ فِي بَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ مَرِضَ وَثَقُلَ ثِقْلا شَدِيداً فَكُنْتُ أَقُومُ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَفَاقَ حَتَّى لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدِي بِهِ بَأْسٌ فَلَمَّا أَنْ كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ أَفَاقَ فَمَاتَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا مِنْ مَيِّتٍ تَحْضُرُهُ الْوَفَاةُ إِلا رَدَّ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ سَمْعِهِ وَبَصَرِهِ وَعَقْلِهِ لِلْوَصِيَّةِ أَخَذَ الْوَصِيَّةَ أَوْ تَرَكَ وَهِيَ الرَّاحَةُ الَّتِي يُقَالُ لَهَا رَاحَةُ الْمَوْتِ فَهِيَ حَقٌّ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman who has narrated the following: “Once, a man said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I once travelled to Makkah and my travel mate, who was a friend, on the way became ill very seriously and I looked after him. He began to feel very well and I thought he is fine. On the day that he died, he became extremely well but on the same day, he died.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘To anyone who is about to die, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, returns his hearing, seeing and reasoning abilities so that he can make a will, regardless of whether he makes a will or not. It is the comfort that is called the comfort of death and that is the right of every Muslim.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/6)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْوَصِيَّةِ فَقَالَ هِيَ حَقٌّ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from Muhammad ibn af-Fudayf from abu af-Sabbah af-Kinaniy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the will. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is a right on every Muslim.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/7)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الْوَصِيَّةُ حَقٌّ وَقَدْ أَوْصَى رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَيَنْبَغِي لِلْمُسْلِمِ أَنْ يُوصِيَ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, from ibn Mahbub from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Making a will is a right that requires compliance. The Messenger of Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, made a will, thus it is proper for a Muslim to make a will.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/7)