8. The Case of the Testimony of One Person and the Oath of the Plaintiff

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1- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يُجِيزُ فِي الدَّيْنِ شَهَادَةَ رَجُلٍ وَيَمِينَ الْمُدَّعِي.


1. Al-Husayn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying that in the case of a loan ’ Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, Alayhi al-Salam, would accept the testimony of one person with the oath of the plaintiff.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/229)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَضَى بِشَاهِدٍ وَيَمِينٍ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘My father has narrated to me that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, issued judgment on the basis of one witness and an oath.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/229)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ زُرْعَةَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ لَهُ عِنْدَ الرَّجُلِ الْحَقُّ وَلَهُ شَاهِدٌ وَاحِدٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقْضِي بِشَاهِدٍ وَاحِدٍ وَيَمِينَ صَاحِبِ الْحَقِّ وَذَلِكَ فِي الدَّيْنِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Zur’ah from Sama‘ah from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who has a certain claim on a man about which he has only one witness. He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, would issue judgment on the basis of one witness and an oath by the claimant in the issue of loan.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/229)



4- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقْضِي بِشَاهِدٍ وَاحِدٍ مَعَ يَمِينِ صَاحِبِ الْحَقِّ.


4. Abu Ali al-Ash ‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Mansur ibn Hazim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, would issue judgment on the basis of one witness and an oath by the claimant.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/229)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ دَخَلَ الْحَكَمُ بْنُ عُتَيْبَةَ وَسَلَمَةُ بْنُ كُهَيْلٍ عَلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَسَأَلاهُ عَنْ شَاهِدٍ وَيَمِينٍ فَقَالَ قَضَى بِهِ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَقَضَى بِهِ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عِنْدَكُمْ بِالْكُوفَةِ فَقَالا هَذَا خِلافُ الْقُرْآنِ فَقَالَ وَأَيْنَ وَجَدْتُمُوهُ خِلافَ الْقُرْآنِ فَقَالا إِنَّ اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَقُولُ وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُمَا أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَوْلُهُ وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ هُوَ أَنْ لا تَقْبَلُوا شَهَادَةَ وَاحِدٍ وَيَمِيناً ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) كَانَ قَاعِداً فِي مَسْجِدِ الْكُوفَةِ فَمَرَّ بِهِ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ قُفْلٍ التَّمِيمِيُّ وَمَعَهُ دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَذِهِ دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ قُفْلٍ فَاجْعَلْ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ قَاضِيَكَ الَّذِي رَضِيتَهُ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ فَجَعَلَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهُ شُرَيْحاً فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَذِهِ دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقَالَ لَهُ شُرَيْحٌ هَاتِ عَلَى مَا تَقُولُ بَيِّنَةً فَأَتَاهُ بِالْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَشَهِدَ أَنَّهَا دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقَالَ شُرَيْحٌ هَذَا شَاهِدٌ وَاحِدٌ فَلا أَقْضِي بِشَهَادَةِ شَاهِدٍ حَتَّى يَكُونَ مَعَهُ آخَرُ فَدَعَا قَنْبَراً فَشَهِدَ أَنَّهَا دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقَالَ شُرَيْحٌ هَذَا مَمْلُوكٌ وَلا أَقْضِي بِشَهَادَةِ مَمْلُوكٍ قَالَ فَغَضِبَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ خُذُوهَا فَإِنَّ هَذَا قَضَى بِجَوْرٍ ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ قَالَ فَتَحَوَّلَ شُرَيْحٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ لا أَقْضِي بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ حَتَّى تُخْبِرَنِي مِنْ أَيْنَ قَضَيْتُ بِجَوْرٍ ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ وَيْلَكَ أَوْ وَيْحَكَ إِنِّي لَمَّا أَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّهَا دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقُلْتَ هَاتِ عَلَى مَا تَقُولُ بَيِّنَةً وَقَدْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَيْثُمَا وُجِدَ غُلُولٌ أُخِذَ بِغَيْرِ بَيِّنَةٍ فَقُلْتُ رَجُلٌ لَمْ يَسْمَعِ الْحَدِيثَ فَهَذِهِ وَاحِدَةٌ ثُمَّ أَتَيْتُكَ بِالْحَسَنِ فَشَهِدَ فَقُلْتَ هَذَا وَاحِدٌ وَلا أَقْضِي بِشَهَادَةِ وَاحِدٍ حَتَّى يَكُونَ مَعَهُ آخَرُ وَقَدْ قَضَى رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِشَهَادَةِ وَاحِدٍ وَيَمِينٍ فَهَذِهِ ثِنْتَانِ ثُمَّ أَتَيْتُكَ بِقَنْبَرٍ فَشَهِدَ أَنَّهَا دِرْعُ طَلْحَةَ أُخِذَتْ غُلُولا يَوْمَ الْبَصْرَةِ فَقُلْتَ هَذَا مَمْلُوكٌ وَلا أَقْضِي بِشَهَادَةِ مَمْلُوكٍ وَمَا بَأْسٌ بِشَهَادَةِ الْمَمْلُوكِ إِذَا كَانَ عَدْلا ثُمَّ قَالَ وَيْلَكَ أَوْ وَيْحَكَ إِمَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يُؤْمَنُ مِنْ أُمُورِهِمْ عَلَى مَا هُوَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ هَذَا.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following: “Once al-Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah and Salmah ibn Kuhayl visited abu Ja‘far, Alayhi al-Salam, and asked about the testimony of one witness and a oath. He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, issued judgment on such basis as well as Ali, Alayhi al-Salam, before you in al-Kufah.’ They said, ‘This is against al-Quran because Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, says, “. . . two just people must testify.” (65:2) Abu Ja‘far, Alayhi al-Salam, then said to them, does, “. . . two just people must testify” (65:2) mean, do not accept the testimony of one witness with one oath? Besides, once Ali, Alayhi al-Salam, was sitting in the Masjid of al-Kufah that ‘Abd Allah ibn Qufl al-Tamimiy carrying the shield of Talhah passed by, and Ali, Alayhi al-Salam, said, “This is the shield of Talhah which you have stolen from the items captured in the war on the day of Basrah.” ‘Abd Allah ibn Qufl said, “Find a judge to decide for us and he can be the judge whom you have appointed for the Muslims.” He (the Imam) then found Shurayh to judge for them. Ali, Alayhi al-Salam, stated that this shield belonged to Talhah. He (Qufl) had stolen it on the day of al-Basrah. Shurayh asked for proof and he (the Imam) brought al-Hassan, Alayhi al-Salam, as witness who testified that it was the shield of Talhah which Qufl had stolen on the day of al-Basrah. Shurayh said, “This is one witness and I do not issue a judgment with one witness unless there is another one.” He (the Imam) called Qanbar who testified saying, “This was the shield of Talhah which he had stolen on the day of al-Basrah.” Shurayh said, “He is a slave and I do not issue judgment on the basis of the testimony of a slave.” ’Amir al- Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, became angry and said, “You take it and it is an unjust judgment.” He (the Imam) said it three times. Shurayh then turned around and said, “I will not work as a judge between two people until you tell me on what basis you said three times that my judgment is unjust.” He (the Imam) said to him, “Woe is upon you”, or he (the Imam) said, “Fie up on you. When I said, ‘This is the shield of Talhah which he had stolen on the day of al-Basrah’, you said that I must present proof. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘If items stolen from assets captured in a war are found, they can be taken back without testimony.’ I said, ‘The man has not heard the Hadith of the Messenger of Allah.’ This is one. Then I brought al-Hassan before you who testified and you said, ‘This is one and I do not issue judgment on the basis of one witness until there is another one.’ The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, issued judgment based on one witness and an oath. This is two. I then brought Qanbar before you who testified that it is the shield of Talhah, which he had stolen on the day of al-Basrah. You said that he is a slave and that you do not issue judgment on the basis of the testimony of a slave. In fact it is not harmful to accept the testimony of a slave if he is a just person.’” He (the Imam) then said, ‘Woe is upon you’ or he (the Imam) said, ‘Fie upon you. Imam of the Muslims is trusted for issues much more important than this.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/230)



6- بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي الثِّقَةُ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا شَهِدَ لِصَاحِبِ الْحَقِّ امْرَأَتَانِ وَيَمِينَهُ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ.


6. Certain persons of our people have narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from Sayf ibn ’Am/rah from Mansur ibn Hazim who has narrated the following: “A trustworthy man narrated to me from abu al-Hassan, Alayhi al-Salam, who has said that if two women testify for the right of someone with his (plaintiff’s) oath, it is an accepted proof.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/231)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَجَازَ شَهَادَةَ النِّسَاءِ مَعَ يَمِينِ الطَّالِبِ فِي الدَّيْنِ يَحْلِفُ بِاللهِ إِنَّ حَقَّهُ لَحَقٌّ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Urn ay r from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, accepted the testimony of women with the oath by the plaintiff in matters of loan. He swears by Allah that it is his right.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/231)



8- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ الْخَزَّازِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يُجِيزُ فِي الدَّيْنِ شَهَادَةَ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ وَيَمِينَ صَاحِبِ الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ يُجِيزُ فِي الْهِلالِ إِلا شَاهِدَيْ عَدْلٍ.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Ayyub al-Khazzaz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, in the matter of loan accepted the testimony of one man and the oath of the creditor. However, in the case of the sighting of new moon he would only accept two witnesses.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/231)