36. The Inheritance of a Killer

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَتَوَارَثُ رَجُلانِ قَتَلَ أَحَدُهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Two people of whom one has killed the other cannot inherit each other.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/208)



2- أَحْمَدُ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ قَتَلَ أُمَّهُ أَيَرِثُهَا قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ ذُو رَحِمٍ قَتَلَ قَرِيبَهُ لَمْ يَرِثْهُ.


2. Al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id has narrated from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who has killed his mother; if he can inherit her. He (the Imam) said, ‘I heard my father, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, “Whoever of the relatives kills one of his relatives he cannot inherit from that relative.’””


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/208)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَدِيدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) قَالَ لا يَرِثُ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا قَتَلَ وَلَدَهُ أَوْ وَالِدَهُ وَلَكِنْ يَكُونُ الْمِيرَاثُ لِوَرَثَةِ الْقَاتِلِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Hadid all from Jamil ibn Darraj who has narrated the following: “One of the two Imam, (abu Ja‘far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, has said, ‘A man who kills his son or father cannot inherit from him, but the legacy is for the heirs of the killer.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/208)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ قَتَلَ أُمَّهُ قَالَ لا يَرِثُهَا وَيُقْتَلُ بِهَا صَاغِراً وَلا أَظُنُّ قَتْلَهُ بِهَا كَفَّارَةً لِذَنْبِهِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab fn abu ‘ Ubaydah who has narrated the following: “About the case of a man who kills his mother, abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘He cannot inherit from her. Instead he is executed against his wishes and I do not think that his execution can remedy his sin.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/208)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ وَعَبْدِ اللهِ ابْنَيْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لا مِيرَاثَ لِلْقَاتِلِ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad and ‘Abd Allah sons of Muhammad from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said that a murderer cannot receive inheritance.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/208)



6- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ شَرِبَتْ دَوَاءً وَهِيَ حَامِلٌ وَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ بِذَلِكَ زَوْجُهَا فَأَلْقَتْ وَلَدَهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ عَظْمٌ وَقَدْ نَبَتَ عَلَيْهِ اللَّحْمُ عَلَيْهَا دِيَةٌ تُسَلِّمُهَا لأبِيهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ حِينَ طَرَحَتْهُ عَلَقَةً أَوْ مُضْغَةً فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهَا أَرْبَعِينَ دِينَاراً أَوْ غُرَّةً تُؤَدِّيهَا إِلَى أَبِيهِ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَهِيَ لا تَرِثُ وَلَدَهَا مِنْ دِيَتِهِ مَعَ أَبِيهِ قَالَ لا لأنَّهَا قَتَلَتْهُ فَلا تَرِثُهُ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab from ‘Ubaydah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who takes medicine when pregnant without informing her husband, and miscarries her child. He (the narrator) has said that he (the Imam) said, ‘If the child had grown bones and flesh then the wergild is due on her which she must pay to the father; but if the miscarriage takes place when the fetus has just formed or is an embryo she owes forty dinars or a slave to the father.’ I then asked, ‘Is it the case that she cannot inherit with the father?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘She cannot inherit because she has killed the child, so she cannot inherit.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/209)



7- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا يُقْتَلُ الرَّجُلُ بِوَلَدِهِ إِذَا قَتَلَهُ وَيُقْتَلُ الْوَلَدُ بِوَالِدِهِ إِذَا قَتَلَ وَالِدَهُ وَلا يَرِثُ الرَّجُلُ أَبَاهُ إِذَا قَتَلَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ خَطَأً.


7. Al-Husayn from Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from certain persons of his people from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman from Fudayl ibn Yasar who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘A man is not executed because of killing his son but a son is executed because of killing his father; and a man cannot inherit from his father after killing him even if it is by mistake.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/209)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الْمَرْأَةُ تَرِثُ مِنْ دِيَةِ زَوْجِهَا وَيَرِثُ مِنْ دِيَتِهَا مَا لَمْ يَقْتُلْ أَحَدُهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asem ibn Humayd from Muhammad ibn Qays who has narrated the following: “Abu Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘A woman inherits from the wergild of her husband and her husband inherits from the wergild of his wife as long as one of them does not kill the other partner.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/209)



9- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَلْ لِلْمَرْأَةِ مِنْ دِيَةِ زَوْجِهَا وَهَلْ لِلرَّجُلِ مِنْ دِيَةِ امْرَأَتِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ مَا لَمْ يَقْتُلْ أَحَدُهُمَا الآخَرَ.


9. Al-Husayn from Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd Allah ibn abu Ya’fur who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if a woman can receive anything from the wergild of her husband or a man can receive anything from the wergild of his wife anything. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, they can do so as long as one of them does not kill the other partner.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/209)



10- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا قَتَلَ الرَّجُلُ أَبَاهُ قُتِلَ بِهِ وَإِنْ قَتَلَهُ أَبُوهُ لَمْ يُقْتَلْ بِهِ وَلَمْ يَرِثْهُ. الْفَضْلُ بْنُ شَاذَانَ قَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلا ضَرَبَ ابْنَهُ غَيْرَ مُسْرِفٍ فِي ذَلِكَ يُرِيدُ تَأْدِيبَهُ فَقُتِلَ الابْنُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الضَّرْبِ وَرِثَهُ الأبُ وَلَمْ تَلْزَمْهُ الْكَفَّارَةُ لأنَّ ذَلِكَ لِلأبِ لأنَّهُ مَأْمُورٌ بِتَأْدِيبِ وَلَدِهِ لأنَّهُ فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الإمَامِ يُقِيمُ حَدّاً عَلَى رَجُلٍ فَمَاتَ فَلا دِيَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَلا يُسَمَّى الإمَامُ قَاتِلا وَإِنْ ضَرَبَهُ ضَرْباً مُسْرِفاً لَمْ يَرِثْهُ الأبُ فَإِنْ كَانَ بِالابْنِ جُرْحٌ أَوْ خُرَاجٌ فَبَطَّهُ الأبُ فَمَاتَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ هَذَا لَيْسَ بِقَاتِلٍ وَلا كَفَّارَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهُ لأنَّ هَذَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ الأدَبِ وَالاسْتِصْلاحِ وَالْحَاجَةِ مِنَ الْوَلَدِ إِلَى ذَلِكَ وَإِلَى شِبْهِهِ مِنَ الْمُعَالَجَاتِ وَلَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلا كَانَ رَاكِباً عَلَى دَابَّةٍ فَأَوْطَأَتِ الدَّابَّةُ أَبَاهُ أَوْ أَخَاهُ فَمَاتَ لَمْ يَرِثْهُ وَلَوْ كَانَ يَسُوقُ الدَّابَّةَ أَوْ يَقُودُهَا فَوَطِئَتِ الدَّابَّةُ أَبَاهُ أَوْ أَخَاهُ فَمَاتَ وَرِثَهُ وَكَانَتِ الدِّيَةُ عَلَى عَاقِلَتِهِ لِغَيْرِهِ مِنَ الْوَرَثَةِ وَلَمْ تَلْزَمْهُ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُ حَفَرَ بِئْراً فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ أَوْ أَخْرَجَ كَنِيفاً أَوْ ظُلَّةً فَأَصَابَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْهَا وَارِثاً لَهُ فَقَتَلَهُ لَمْ تَلْزَمْهُ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَكَانَتِ الدِّيَةُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ وَوَرِثَهُ لأنَّ هَذَا لَيْسَ بِقَاتِلٍ أَلا تَرَى أَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فِي حَقِّهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِقَاتِلٍ وَلا وَجَبَ فِي ذَلِكَ دِيَةٌ وَلا كَفَّارَةٌ فَإِخْرَاجُهُ ذَلِكَ الشَّيْ‏ءَ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ لَيْسَ هُوَ بِقَتْلٍ لأنَّ ذَلِكَ بِعَيْنِهِ يَكُونُ فِي حَقِّهِ فَلا يَكُونُ قَتْلا وَإِنَّمَا أُلْزِمَ الدِّيَةَ فِي ذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ احْتِيَاطاً لِلدِّمَاءِ وَلِئَلا يَبْطُلَ دَمُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ وَكَيْلا يَتَعَدَّى النَّاسُ حُقُوقَهُمْ إِلَى مَا لا حَقَّ لَهُمْ فِيهِ وَكَذَلِكَ الصَّبِيُّ وَالْمَجْنُونُ لَوْ قَتَلا لَوَرِثَا وَكَانَتِ الدِّيَةُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ وَالْقَاتِلُ يَحْجُبُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَرِثْ قَالَ وَلا يَرِثُ الْقَاتِلُ مِنَ الْمَالِ شَيْئاً لأنَّهُ إِنْ قَتَلَ عَمْداً فَقَدْ أَجْمَعُوا أَنَّهُ لا يَرِثُ وَإِنْ قَتَلَ خَطَأً فَكَيْفَ يَرِثُ وَهُوَ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ الدِّيَةُ وَإِنَّمَا مُنِعَ الْقَاتِلُ مِنَ الْمِيرَاثِ احْتِيَاطاً لِدِمَاءِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَيْلا يَقْتُلَ أَهْلُ الْمِيرَاثِ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً طَمَعاً فِي الْمَوَارِيثِ.


10. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one kills his father, he is executed for him; but if his father kills him the father is not executed for his son’s murder, however he cannot inherit from him.’” [Note: The next few passages of the Arabic text are the words of Fadl ibn Shadhan and are not translated.]


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/210)