20. Inheritance of Brothers and Sisters with Children

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عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الأشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ وَقَعَ بَيْنَ رَجُلَيْنِ مِنْ بَنِي عَمِّي مُنَازَعَةٌ فِي مِيرَاثٍ فَأَشَرْتُ عَلَيْهِمَا بِالْكِتَابِ إِلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ لِيَصْدُرَا عَنْ رَأْيِهِ فَكَتَبَا إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعاً جَعَلَنَا اللهُ فِدَاكَ مَا تَقُولُ فِي امْرَأَةٍ تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَابْنَتَهَا لأبِيهَا وَأُمِّهَا وَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنْ رَأَيْتَ أَنْ تُجِيبَنَا بِمُرِّ الْحَقِّ فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِمَا كِتَابٌ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ عَافَانَا اللهُ وَإِيَّاكُمَا أَحْسَنَ عَافِيَةٍ فَهِمْتُ كِتَابَكُمَا ذَكَرْتُمَا أَنَّ امْرَأَةً مَاتَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَابْنَتَهَا وَأُخْتَهَا لأبِيهَا وَأُمِّهَا فَالْفَرِيضَةُ لِلزَّوْجِ الرُّبُعُ وَمَا بَقِيَ فَلِلابْنَةِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Ash‘ariy who has narrated the following: “A dispute took place between two men of the sons of my uncle on a legacy. I pointed out for them to write to him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about it to find out his opinion in the matter. They wrote, ‘We pray to Allah to keep our souls in service for your cause, what do you say about the case of a woman who leaves behind her husband and her daughter from her father and mother?’ I said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, if you consider it proper answer us with the bitter truth.’ A letter came to them that said, “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. May Allah grant you and us good health and the best form. I understood your letter in which you have mentioned that a woman has left behind her husband, her daughter and a sister from her both parents. The ordained share of the husband is one-fourth and the rest belongs to the daughter.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/150)



علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن عبد الله ابن محرز قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: رجل ترك ابنته وأخته لأبيه وأمه فقال: المال كله للابنة وليس للأخت من الأب والام شئ فقلت: فإنا قد احتجنا إلى هذا والميت رجل من هؤلاء الناس وأخته مؤمنة عارفة قال: فخذ النصف لها خذوا منهم كما يأخذون منكم (2) في سنتهم وقضاياهم قال ابن أذينة: فذكرت ذلك لزرارة فقال: إن على ما جاء به ابن محرز لنورا.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhriz who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies and leaves behind his daughter and his sister from his father and mother. He (the Imam) said, ‘The entire legacy belongs to the daughter and there is nothing for the sister from his father and mother.’ I then said, ‘We need it. The deceased is from those people and his sister is a believing person, well-aware.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Take one-half from them as they take from you according to their Sunnah and judgments.’ Ibn ’Udhaynah has said, ‘I mentioned it to Zurarah and he said, “What ibn Muhriz has brought is certainly light.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/150)



عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحْرِزٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) رَجُلٌ تَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ وَأُخْتَهُ لأبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ فَقَالَ الْمَالُ كُلُّهُ لِلابْنَةِ وَلَيْسَ لِلأخْتِ مِنَ الأبِ وَالأمِّ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقُلْتُ فَإِنَّا قَدِ احْتَجْنَا إِلَى هَذَا وَالْمَيِّتُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ هَؤُلاءِ النَّاسِ وَأُخْتُهُ مُؤْمِنَةٌ عَارِفَةٌ قَالَ فَخُذِ النِّصْفَ لَهَا خُذُوا مِنْهُمْ كَمَا يَأْخُذُونَ مِنْكُمْ فِي سُنَّتِهِمْ وَقَضَايَاهُمْ قَالَ ابْنُ أُذَيْنَةَ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِزُرَارَةَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ عَلَى مَا جَاءَ بِهِ ابْنُ مُحْرِزٍ لَنُوراً. عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قَالَ زُرَارَةُ النَّاسُ وَالْعَامَّةُ فِي أَحْكَامِهِمْ وَفَرَائِضِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ قَوْلا قَدْ أَجْمَعُوا عَلَيْهِ وَهُوَ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْهِمْ يَقُولُونَ فِي رَجُلٍ تُوُفِّيَ وَتَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ أَوِ ابْنَتَيْهِ وَتَرَكَ أَخَاهُ لأبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ أَوْ أُخْتَهُ لأبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ أَوْ أُخْتَهُ لأبِيهِ أَوْ أَخَاهُ لأبِيهِ إِنَّهُمْ يُعْطُونَ الابْنَةَ النِّصْفَ أَوِ ابْنَتَيْهِ الثُّلُثَيْنِ وَيُعْطُونَ بَقِيَّةَ الْمَالِ أَخَاهُ لأبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ أَوْ أُخْتَهُ لأبِيهِ أَوْ أُخْتَهُ لأبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ دُونَ عَصَبَةِ بَنِي عَمِّهِ وَبَنِي أَخِيهِ وَلا يُعْطُونَ الإخْوَةَ لِلأمِّ شَيْئاً قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ فَهَذِهِ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّمَا سَمَّى اللهُ لِلإخْوَةِ لِلأمِّ أَنَّهُ يُورَثُ كَلالَةً فَلَمْ تُعْطُوهُمْ مَعَ الابْنَةِ شَيْئاً وَأَعْطَيْتُمُ الأخْتَ لِلأبِ وَالأمِّ وَالأخْتَ لِلأبِ بَقِيَّةَ الْمَالِ دُونَ الْعَمِّ وَالْعَصَبَةِ وَإِنَّمَا سَمَّاهُمُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَلالَةً كَمَا سَمَّى الإخْوَةَ لِلأمِّ كَلالَةً فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ قَائِلٍ يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلالَةِ فَلِمَ فَرَّقْتُمْ بَيْنَهُمَا فَقَالُوا السُّنَّةِ وَإِجْمَاعِ الْجَمَاعَةِ قُلْنَا سُنَّةِ اللهِ وَسُنَّةِ رَسُولِهِ أَوْ سُنَّةِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَأَوْلِيَائِهِ فَقَالُوا سُنَّةِ فُلانٍ وَفُلانٍ قُلْنَا قَدْ تَابَعْتُمُونَا فِي خَصْلَتَيْنِ وَخَالَفْتُمُونَا فِي خَصْلَتَيْنِ قُلْنَا إِذَا تَرَكَ وَاحِداً مِنْ أَرْبَعَةٍ فَلَيْسَ الْمَيِّتُ يُورَثُ كَلالَةً إِذَا تَرَكَ أَباً أَوِ ابْناً قُلْتُمْ صَدَقْتُمْ فَقُلْنَا أَوْ أُمّاً أَوِ ابْنَةً فَأَبَيْتُمْ عَلَيْنَا ثُمَّ تَابَعْتُمُونَا فِي الابْنَةِ فَلَمْ تُعْطُوا الإخْوَةَ مِنَ الأمِّ مَعَهَا شَيْئاً وَخَالَفْتُمُونَا فِي الأمِّ فَكَيْفَ تُعْطُونَ الإخْوَةَ لِلأمِّ الثُّلُثَ مَعَ الأمِّ وَهِيَ حَيَّةٌ وَإِنَّمَا يَرِثُونَ بِحَقِّهَا وَرَحِمِهَا وَكَمَا أَنَّ الإخْوَةَ وَالأخَوَاتِ لِلأبِ وَالأمِّ وَالإخْوَةَ وَالأخَوَاتِ لِلأبِ لا يَرِثُونَ مَعَ الأبِ شَيْئاً لأنَّهُمْ يَرِثُونَ بِحَقِّ الأبِ كَذَلِكَ الإخْوَةُ وَالأخَوَاتُ لِلأمِّ لا يَرِثُونَ مَعَهَا شَيْئاً وَأَعْجَبُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّكُمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ الإخْوَةَ مِنَ الأمِّ لا يَرِثُونَ الثُّلُثَ وَيَحْجُبُونَ الأمَّ عَنِ الثُّلُثِ فَلا يَكُونُ لَهَا إِلا السُّدُسُ كَذِباً وَجَهْلا وَبَاطِلا قَدْ أَجْمَعْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ فَقُلْتُ لِزُرَارَةَ تَقُولُ هَذَا بِرَأْيِكَ فَقَالَ أَنَا أَقُولُ هَذَا بِرَأْيِي إِنِّي إِذاً لَفَاجِرٌ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنَ اللهِ وَمِنْ رَسُولِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “Zurarah has said that al-‘Ammah (non-Shi‘ah) in their rules, decisions and ordained shares say something on consensus which is authoritative and binding upon them. In the case of a deceased who leaves behind his daughter or two daughters and his brother from his father and mother or his sister from his father and mother or his sister from father or his brother from his father, they give one-half to the daughter, two-thirds to the two daughters and the rest of legacy to his brother from his father and mother or his sister from his father or his sister from his father and mother, and not to the relatives from sons of his uncle or children of his brother. They do not give anything to the brothers from the mother. He (the narrator) has said that I said to them this is binding upon you. Allah has mentioned for brothers from the mother that Kalalah (burdensome people) inherit. Why do you not give them with a daughter anything when you give the sister from father, mother, and sister from father the rest of legacy instead of uncle and relatives? Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has mentioned them as Kalalah just as He has called brothers from mother as Kalalah. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘They ask your fatwa. Say Allah gives you a fatwa about Kalalah.’ Why you have separated them from each other? They say that it is because of Sunnah and consensus of the group. We ask, ‘Is it the Sunnah of Allah and the Sunnah of His messenger or the Sunnah of Satan and his friends?’ They say, ‘It is the Sunnah of so and so.’ We say, ‘You have followed us in two issues and opposed us in two issues. We say, ‘If a deceased leaves behind one of the four then Kalalah of the deceased does not inherit. If he leaves a father or a son, you say, ‘You are right.’ We say, ‘If he leaves behind mother or a daughter.’ You deny it. You have followed us about the daughter. You do not give to brothers from mother anything and you have opposed us about mother. Why do you give one-third to brothers from the mother with the mother when she is living and they inherit because of her right and relation? Brothers and sisters from the father and mother and brothers and sisters from the mother do not inherit with the father (existing); they inherit because of the father, so also brothers and sisters from the mother do not inherit with the mother (esisting). More strange is that you say, ‘Brothers from the mother do not inherit one-third, they bar the mother from one-third and she only receives one-sixth.’ It is due to ignorance and it is untrue. Consensus is falsely made about it. I then said to Zurarah, ‘Do you say it from your own opinion?’ He said, ‘If I say this from my opinion I will be a sinful person. I testify that it is the truth from Allah and the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to your cause.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/151)



عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) امْرَأَةٌ تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَإِخْوَتَهَا لأمِّهَا وَإِخْوَتَهَا وَأَخَوَاتِهَا لأبِيهَا فَقَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلإخْوَةِ مِنَ الأمِّ الثُّلُثُ الذَّكَرُ وَالأنْثَى فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ وَبَقِيَ سَهْمٌ فَهُوَ لِلإخْوَةِ وَالأخَوَاتِ مِنَ الأبِ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ لأنَّ السِّهَامَ لا تَعُولُ وَلا يُنْقَصُ الزَّوْجُ مِنَ النِّصْفِ وَلا الإخْوَةُ مِنَ الأمِّ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِمْ لأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ فَإِنْ كانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةٌ فَلَهَا السُّدُسُ وَالَّذِي عَنَى اللهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فِي قَوْلِهِ وَإِنْ كانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ واحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ فَإِنْ كانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِذَلِكَ الإخْوَةَ وَالأخَوَاتِ مِنَ الأمِّ خَاصَّةً وَقَالَ فِي آخِرِ سُورَةِ النِّسَاءِ يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلالَةِ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ يَعْنِي أُخْتاً لأمٍّ وَأَبٍ أَوْ أُخْتاً لأبٍ فَلَها نِصْفُ ما تَرَكَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُها إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَها وَلَدٌ... وَإِنْ كانُوا إِخْوَةً رِجالا وَنِساءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ فَهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُزَادُونَ وَيُنْقَصُونَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْلادُهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُزَادُونَ وَيُنْقَصُونَ وَلَوْ أَنَّ امْرَأَةً تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَإِخْوَتَهَا لأمِّهَا وَأُخْتَيْهَا لأبِيهَا كَانَ لِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلإخْوَةِ مِنْ الأمِّ سَهْمَانِ وَبَقِيَ سَهْمٌ فَهُوَ لِلأخْتَيْنِ لِلأبِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةٌ فَهُوَ لَهَا لأنَّ الأخْتَيْنِ لأبٍ لَوْ كَانَتَا أَخَوَيْنِ لأبٍ لَمْ يُزَادَا عَلَى مَا بَقِيَ وَلَوْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةٌ أَوْ كَانَ مَكَانَ الْوَاحِدَةِ أَخٌ لَمْ يُزَدْ عَلَى مَا بَقِيَ وَلا يُزَادُ أُنْثَى مِنَ الأخَوَاتِ وَلا مِنَ الْوَلَدِ عَلَى مَا لَوْ كَانَ ذَكَراً لَمْ يُزَدْ عَلَيْهِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus all from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Bukayr ibn ‘A’yan who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who has left behind her husband, brothers from her mother and brothers and sisters from her father. He (the Imam) said, ‘The share of husband is one-half, three shares, the share of brothers from her mother is one-third, male and female receive equal shares. The one remaining share belongs to brothers and sisters from the father. Each male receives twice as much as a female; ordained shares do not face deficiency. The share of husband does not reduce from one-half and the share of brothers from her mother, which is one-third, does not reduce. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘. . . if they are more than this they share the one-third, if there is one he receives one-sixth.’ (4:12) What Allah, most Blessed, most High, has meant by His words, ‘. . . if it is a man inherited by Kalalah (burdensome people) or a woman and has a brother or sister then everyone gets one-sixth and if they are more than this they share the one- third.’ By this Allah has meant brothers and sisters from mother only. Allah in the end of chapter four has said, ‘. . . they ask for a fatwa from you about Kalalah. If a man dies and has no children but has a sister [meaning sister from both parents and sister from the father] she receives one-half of the legacy and he inherits her, if she does not leave children. If they are brothers and sisters, the share of the male is twice as much as the share of female.’ They are the ones whose shares increase and decrease. So also are their children whose shares increase and decrease. If a woman dies and leaves behind her husband and brothers from her mother and two sisters from her father, the share of husband is one- half, three shares, brothers from the mother receive two shares and one remaining share is for the two sisters from her father. If she is one, it is for her like two sisters from her father; if they were brothers from the father, no increase would take place in the remaining. If she was one or in the place of one female, there was a brother no increase would take place in the remaining. There is no increase for sisters or for a child if he was a male.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/152)



عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ بُكَيْرٍ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَسَأَلَهُ عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَإِخْوَتَهَا لأمِّهَا وَأُخْتَهَا لأبِيهَا فَقَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلِلإخْوَةِ مِنَ الأمِّ الثُّلُثُ سَهْمَانِ وَلِلأخْتِ مِنَ الأبِ السُّدُسُ سَهْمٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ فَإِنَّ فَرَائِضَ زَيْدٍ وَفَرَائِضَ الْعَامَّةِ وَالْقُضَاةِ عَلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ يَا أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ يَقُولُونَ لِلأخْتِ مِنَ الأبِ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ تَصِيرُ مِنْ سِتَّةٍ تَعُولُ إِلَى ثَمَانِيَةٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَلِمَ قَالُوا ذَلِكَ قَالَ لأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَها نِصْفُ ما تَرَكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الأخْتُ أَخاً قَالَ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ إِلا السُّدُسُ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَمَا لَكُمْ نَقَصْتُمُ الأخَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَحْتَجُّونَ لِلأخْتِ النِّصْفَ بِأَنَّ اللهَ سَمَّى لَهَا النِّصْفَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ سَمَّى لِلأخِ الْكُلَّ وَالْكُلُّ أَكْثَرُ مِنَ النِّصْفِ لأنَّهُ قَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ وَقَالَ لِلأخِ وَهُوَ يَرِثُها يَعْنِي جَمِيعَ مَالِهَا إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا وَلَدٌ فَلا تُعْطُونَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللهُ لَهُ الْجَمِيعَ فِي بَعْضِ فَرَائِضِكُمْ شَيْئاً وَتُعْطُونَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللهُ لَهُ النِّصْفَ تَامّاً فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللهُ فَكَيْفَ نُعْطِي الأخْتَ النِّصْفَ وَلا نُعْطِي الذَّكَرَ لَوْ كَانَتْ هِيَ ذَكَراً شَيْئاً قَالَ تَقُولُونَ فِي أُمٍّ وَزَوْجٍ وَإِخْوَةٍ لأمٍّ وَأُخْتٍ لأبٍ يُعْطُونَ الزَّوْجَ النِّصْفَ وَالأمَّ السُّدُسَ وَالإخْوَةَ مِنَ الأمِّ الثُّلُثَ وَالأخْتَ مِنَ الأبِ النِّصْفَ ثَلاثَةً فَيَجْعَلُونَهَا مِنْ تِسْعَةٍ وَهِيَ مِنْ سِتَّةٍ فَتَرْتَفِعُ إِلَى تِسْعَةٍ قَالَ وَكَذَلِكَ تَقُولُونَ قَالَ فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الأخْتُ ذَكَراً أَخاً لأبٍ قَالَ لَيْسَ لَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ لأبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جَعَلَنِيَ اللهُ فِدَاكَ فَمَا تَقُولُ أَنْتَ فَقَالَ لَيْسَ لِلإخْوَةِ مِنَ الأبِ وَالأمِّ وَلا الإخْوَةِ مِنَ الأمِّ وَلا الإخْوَةِ مِنَ الأبِ مَعَ الأمِّ شَيْ‏ءٌ. قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ أُذَيْنَةَ وَسَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ يَرْوِيهِ مِثْلَ مَا ذَكَرَ بُكَيْرٌ الْمَعْنَى سَوَاءٌ وَلَسْتُ أَحْفَظُهُ بِحُرُوفِهِ وَتَفْصِيلِهِ إِلا مَعْنَاهُ قَالَ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِزُرَارَةَ فَقَالَ صَدَقَا هُوَ وَاللهِ الْحَقُّ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr and Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Bukayr who has narrated the following: “Once a man came to abu Ja‘far, Alayhi al-Salam, and asked about a woman who has died and left behind her husband, brothers from her mother and her sister from her father. He (the Imam) said, ‘The share of the husband is one-half, three shares, brothers from her mother receive one-third, two shares and the sister from her father receives one-sixth which is one share.’ The man said to him (the Imam), ‘The laws of ordained shares of Zayd, the laws of ordained shares of ‘Ammah and judges are different, O abu Ja‘far. They say that the share of the sister from the father is three shares that are reduced from six to eight.’ Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asked, ‘Why do they say so?’ He replied, ‘It is because of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . and for him is a sister then her share is one- half of the legacy.’ Abu Ja‘far, then asked, ‘What is the rule if he was one brother instead of one sister?’ He replied, ‘He would have only one-sixth.’ Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said to him, ‘Why do you reduce the share of the brother if you argue to provide one-half for the sister, because Allah has mentioned one-half for her you must also take notice that Allah has mentioned Kalalah (burdensome people) of brothers more than one-half. Allah has said, ‘. . . her share is one-half.’ He has also said for the brother who inherits her, that is, all of her legacy if she does not have any children. So you do not give anything to the one for whom Allah has given all the legacy in certain laws of your ordained shares but you give complete to one whom Allah has given one-half.’ The man said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep you well, how do we give one-half to the sister and we do not give the male heir if she was a male?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘About a mother, husband, a brother from the mother and a sister from her father they give one-half to the husband. They give one-sixth to the mother, to the brothers from her mother one-third and to the sister from her father One-half of three. You can make nine and it is from six but is raised to nine. He (the Imam) said this is how you say it.’ He (man) said, ‘If she was a male and a brother from her father.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘There is nothing for him.’ The man then asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, what do you say?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘There is nothing for brothers from her father and mother, brothers from her mother or brothers from her father with the existence of the mother.’ ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah has said, ‘I heard Muhammad ibn Muslim narrate a similar Hadith like that of Bukayr with the same meaning, but I did not memorize its wordings in details, but I memorized its meaning. He has said, ‘I mentioned it to Zurarah who said, “It is true by Allah. They both have spoken the truth.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/153)



عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ وَأَبِي أَيُّوبَ وَعَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَا تَقُولُ فِي امْرَأَةٍ مَاتَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَإِخْوَتَهَا لأمِّهَا وَإِخْوَةً وَأَخَوَاتٍ لأبِيهَا فَقَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلإخْوَتِهَا لأمِّهَا الثُّلُثُ سَهْمَانِ الذَّكَرُ وَالأنْثَى فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ وَبَقِيَ سَهْمٌ فَهُوَ لِلإخْوَةِ وَالأخَوَاتِ مِنَ الأبِ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ لأنَّ السِّهَامَ لا تَعُولُ وَإِنَّ الزَّوْجَ لا يُنْقَصُ مِنَ النِّصْفِ وَلا الإخْوَةَ مِنَ الأمِّ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِمْ لأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ فَإِنْ كانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ وَإِنْ كَانَ وَاحِداً فَلَهُ السُّدُسُ وَإِنَّمَا عَنَى اللهُ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَإِنْ كانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ واحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِذَلِكَ الإخْوَةَ وَالأخَوَاتِ مِنَ الأمِّ خَاصَّةً وَقَالَ فِي آخِرِ سُورَةِ النِّسَاءِ يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلالَةِ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ يَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ أُخْتاً لأبٍ وَأُمٍّ أَوْ أُخْتاً لأبٍ فَلَها نِصْفُ ما تَرَكَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُها إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَها وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ وَإِنْ كانُوا إِخْوَةً رِجالا وَنِساءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأنْثَيَيْنِ وَهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُزَادُونَ وَيُنْقَصُونَ قَالَ وَلَوْ أَنَّ امْرَأَةً تَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَأُخْتَيْهَا لأمِّهَا وَأُخْتَيْهَا لأبِيهَا كَانَ لِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَلأخْتَيْهَا لأمِّهَا الثُّلُثُ سَهْمَانِ وَلأخْتَيْهَا لأبِيهَا السُّدُسُ سَهْمٌ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَهُوَ لَهَا لأنَّ الأخْتَيْنِ مِنَ الأبِ لا يُزَادُونَ عَلَى مَا بَقِيَ وَلَوْ كَانَ أَخٌ لأبٍ لَمْ يُزَدْ عَلَى مَا بَقِيَ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn Mahbub from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin and abu Ayyub and ‘Abd Allah ibn Bukayr from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who has left behind her husband, brothers from her mother and brothers and sisters from her father. He (the Imam) said, ‘The share of the husband is one-half, three shares, the share of brothers from her mother is one-third which is two shares; male and female receive equal shares. The one remaining share belongs to brothers and sisters from the father. Each male receives twice as much as a female; ordained shares do not face deficiency. The share of the husband does not reduce from one-half and the share of brothers from her mother, which is one-third, does not reduce. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘. . . if they are more than this they share the one-third, if there is one he receives one-sixth.’ (4:12) What Allah, most Blessed, most High, has meant by His words, ‘. . . if it is a man inherited by Kalalah or a woman, and has a brother or sister then for everyone is one-sixth.’ By this Allah has meant brothers and sisters from the mother only. Allah in the end of chapter four has said, ‘. . . they ask for a fatwa from you about Kalalah. If a man dies and has no children but has a sister [meaning sister from mother and father] she receives one-half of the legacy and he inherits her if she does not leave children. If they are brothers, male and female the share of the male is twice as much as the share of the female.’ They are the ones whose shares increase and decrease. So also are their children whose shares increase and decrease. If a woman dies and leaves behind her husband and two sisters from her and two sisters from her father, the share of the husband is one-half, which is three shares, sisters from her mother one- third or two shares and for the sisters from her father one-sixth, one share. If she is one it is for her; two sisters from her father do not receive any increase from the remaining and if he was a brother from father he would not receive any increase from the remaining.”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/153)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلَهُ رَجُلٌ عَنْ أُخْتَيْنِ وَزَوْجٍ فَقَالَ النِّصْفُ وَالنِّصْفُ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللهُ قَدْ سَمَّى اللهُ لَهُمَا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ هَذَا لَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُولُ فِي أَخٍ وَزَوْجٍ فَقَالَ النِّصْفُ وَالنِّصْفُ فَقَالَ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ سَمَّى اللهُ الْمَالَ فَقَالَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُها إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَها وَلَدٌ.


7. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj from Bukayr who has narrated the following: “A man once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about two sisters and a husband. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is half and half.’ The man then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep you well, Allah has mentioned their share to be more than that. Their share is two-thirds.’ He then asked, ‘What do you say about a brother and husband?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is half and half.’ He asked, ‘Has Allah not given the entire legacy, saying, “. . . and he inherits her if she has no children.”?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالحسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/153)



عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ قَالَ قَالَ لِي زُرَارَةُ مَا تَقُولُ فِي رَجُلٍ تَرَكَ أَبَوَيْهِ وَإِخْوَتَهُ لأمِّهِ فَقُلْتُ لأمِّهِ السُّدُسُ وَلِلأبِ مَا بَقِيَ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلأمِّهِ السُّدُسُ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا أُولَئِكَ الإخْوَةُ لِلأبِ وَالإخْوَةُ لِلأبِ وَالأمِّ وَهُوَ أَكْثَرُ لِنَصِيبِهَا إِنْ أَعْطَوُا الإخْوَةَ لِلأمِّ الثُّلُثَ وَأَعْطَوْهَا السُّدُسَ وَإِنَّمَا صَارَ لَهَا السُّدُسُ وَحَجَبَهَا الإخْوَةُ لِلأبِ وَالإخْوَةُ مِنَ الأبِ وَالأمِّ لأنَّ الأبَ يُنْفِقُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَوُفِّرَ نَصِيبُهُ وَانْتَقَصَتِ الأمُّ مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ فَأَمَّا الإخْوَةُ مِنَ الأمِّ فَلَيْسُوا مِنْ هَذِهِ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ لا يَحْجُبُونَ أُمَّهُمْ مِنَ الثُّلُثِ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ تَرِثُ الإخْوَةُ مِنَ الأمِّ شَيْئاً قَالَ لَيْسَ فِي هَذَا شَكٌّ إِنَّهُ كَمَا أَقُولُ لَكَ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from Musa ibn Bakr from Ali ibn Sa‘id who has narrated the following: “Zurarah once asked me, ‘What do you say about a man who leaves behind his parents and brothers from his mother?’ I replied, ‘The share of mother is one-sixth and the rest belongs to the father. ‘If there are brothers the share of the mother is one-sixth.’ He said, ‘These brothers are from the father. Brothers from father and mother receive the largest amount. Brothers from mother receive one-third and she receives one-sixth. It is one-sixth because brothers from father and brothers from father and mother bar her. The father spends on them so his share is expanded and the share of the mother is reduced for that reason. Brothers from the mother are not in it. They do not bar their mother from receiving one-third.’ I then asked, ‘Do brothers inherit from the mother anything?’ He said, ‘There is no doubt in it, it is just as I say to you.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/154)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِزُرَارَةَ إِنَّ بُكَيْراً حَدَّثَنِي عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ الإخْوَةَ لِلأبِ وَالأخَوَاتِ لِلأبِ وَالأمِّ يُزَادُونَ وَيُنْقَصُونَ لأنَّهُنَّ لا يَكُنَّ أَكْثَرَ نَصِيباً مِنَ الإخْوَةِ وَالأخَوَاتِ لِلأبِ وَالأمِّ لَوْ كَانُوا مَكَانَهُنَّ لأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَها نِصْفُ ما تَرَكَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُها إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَها وَلَدٌ يَقُولُ يَرِثُ جَمِيعَ مَالِهَا إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا وَلَدٌ فَأَعْطَوْا مَنْ سَمَّى اللهُ لَهُ النِّصْفَ كَمَلا وَعَمَدُوا فَأَعْطَوُا الَّذِي سَمَّى اللهُ لَهُ الْمَالَ كُلَّهُ أَقَلَّ مِنَ النِّصْفِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ لا تَكُونُ أَبَداً أَكْثَرَ نَصِيباً مِنْ رَجُلٍ لَوْ كَانَ مَكَانَهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ زُرَارَةُ وَهَذَا قَائِمٌ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا لإ يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ.


9. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Flassan ibn Ali from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from Musa ibn Bakr who has narrated the following: “I once said to Zurarah that ibn Bukayr has narrated to me from abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that the shares of brothers from the father and sisters from father and mother increase and decrease. It is because their shares are not greater than the share of brothers and sisters from father and mother if they were in their place. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, ‘. . . if a man dies who does not leave behind a child and he has a sister, she receives one-half of the legacy and he receives the entire legacy if she does not leave behind any children.’ He says that he receives the entire legacy, which she leaves behind if she does not leave behind a child. Despite this, they give complete to one whose share Allah has mentioned as One-half and they give less than One-half to one whom Allah has given the entire legacy. The share of woman is never more than the share of man if he was in her place. He (the narrator) has said that Zurarah then said, ‘This is applied by our people without any difference.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/155)




10. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from Jamil from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies and leaves behind his daughter, his sister from his both parents. He (the Imam) said, ‘The entire legacy belongs to his daughter.’” Al-Fadl has said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has made a share for the sister if she does not leave behind a child saying, ‘. . . if a man dies and does not leave behind a child and has a sister her share is one-half of the legacy.’ If he leaves behind a child then there is nothing for her. If anyone gives to her, it is opposing Allah and His messenger. The same is the case with the children of children male or female regardless how far below they may be. Brothers and sisters do not inherit with a child and so also is the case with the existence of one or both parents. [Note: The words of al-Fadl continues for the next several pages of the Arabic text and are not translated.]


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/156)