10. The Reason Why a Male’s Share is Twice the Share of a Female

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ كَيْفَ صَارَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا مَاتَ وَوُلْدُهُ مِنَ الْقَرَابَةِ سَوَاءٌ تَرِثُ النِّسَاءُ نِصْفَ مِيرَاثِ الرِّجَالِ وَهُنَّ أَضْعَفُ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَأَقَلُّ حِيلَةً فَقَالَ لأنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَضَّلَ الرِّجَالَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِدَرَجَةٍ وَلأنَّ النِّسَاءَ يَرْجِعْنَ عِيَالا عَلَى الرِّجَالِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ’Isma‘il ibn Marrar from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman who has narrated the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, why is it that when a man dies his sons’ shares of the legacy are twice as much as the share of his daughters even though females are less capable and weaker?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has preferred men over women and because women become dependents of men.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/129)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ النَّخَعِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلَ الْفَهْفَكِيُّ أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا بَالُ الْمَرْأَةِ الْمِسْكِينَةِ الضَّعِيفَةِ تَأْخُذُ سَهْماً وَاحِداً وَيَأْخُذُ الرَّجُلُ سَهْمَيْنِ فَقَالَ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهَا جِهَادٌ وَلا نَفَقَةٌ وَلا عَلَيْهَا مَعْقُلَةٌ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ فَقُلْتُ فِي نَفْسِي قَدْ كَانَ قِيلَ لِي إِنَّ ابْنَ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ سَأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ فَأَجَابَهُ بِهَذَا الْجَوَابِ فَأَقْبَلَ أَبُو مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَيَّ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ مَسْأَلَةُ ابْنِ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ وَالْجَوَابُ مِنَّا وَاحِدٌ إِذَا كَانَ مَعْنَى الْمَسْأَلَةِ وَاحِداً جَرَى لآخِرِنَا مَا جَرَى لأوَّلِنَا وَأَوَّلُنَا وَآخِرُنَا فِي الْعِلْمِ سَوَاءٌ وَلِرَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَضْلُهُمَا.


2. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Ishaq ibn Muhammad al-Nakha’iy who has narrated the following: “Once, al-Fahfakiy asked abu Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Why is it that the destitute and weak woman’s share of the legacy is half as much as the share of man?’ Abu Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘It is because there is no Jihad on women; maintenance expenses and wergild to be paid by the relatives of the murderer, it is on men.’ I then said to myself that I was told about ibn abu al-‘Awja’s question to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about this issue and he had answered with this answer. Abu Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, turned to me and said, ‘Yes, this is the question of ibn abu al-‘Awja’ and the answer from us is one if the meaning of the question is the same. What applies to the last of us applies to the first of us. Our first and last in knowledge are the same, however, the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and Amir al-Mu’minin have their excellence.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/129)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنِ الأحْوَلِ قَالَ قَالَ لِي ابْنُ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ مَا بَالُ الْمَرْأَةِ الْمِسْكِينَةِ الضَّعِيفَةِ تَأْخُذُ سَهْماً وَاحِداً وَيَأْخُذُ الرَّجُلُ سَهْمَيْنِ قَالَ فَذَكَرَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهَا جِهَادٌ وَلا نَفَقَةٌ وَلا مَعْقُلَةٌ وَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ وَلِذَلِكَ جَعَلَ لِلْمَرْأَةِ سَهْماً وَاحِداً وَلِلرَّجُلِ سَهْمَيْنِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from Hisham from al-Ahwal who has narrated the following: “Once ibn abu al-‘Awaja’ asked me, ‘Why is it that the destitute and weak woman’s share of the legacy is half as much as the share of man?’ He (the narrator) has said that certain persons of our people mentioned to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who said, ‘It is because there is no Jihad on women and maintenance expenses and wergild to be paid by the relatives of the murderer; which is on men.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/130)