2. The Witness for the Will

Back to book

1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا شَهادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنانِ ذَوا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ أَوْ آخَرانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ قُلْتُ مَا آخَرَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ قَالَ هُمَا كَافِرَانِ قُلْتُ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ فَقَالَ مُسْلِمَانِ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from al-Fudayl from abu al-Sabbah al-Kinaniy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Blessed, most High, ‘O believing people there must be two just (Muslim) witnesses when anyone of you is about to die or from other people.’ (5:106) I asked, ‘What is the meaning of ‘(there must be) two from other people?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It means two non-Muslims.’ I then asked about ‘two just ones from among yourselves’, he (the Imam) said, ‘it means two Muslims.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/7)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ هَلْ تَجُوزُ شَهَادَةُ أَهْلِ مِلَّةٍ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَهْلِ مِلَّتِهِمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذَا لَمْ يُوجَدْ مِنْ أَهْلِ مِلَّتِهِمْ جَازَتْ شَهَادَةُ غَيْرِهِمْ إِنَّهُ لا يَصْلُحُ ذَهَابُ حَقِّ أَحَدٍ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if it is permissible for a person of the religion to appoint a witness who is not of the people of his religion. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is permissible when witness from the people of his own religion is no available; destroying anyone’s right is not suitable.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/8)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَوْ آخَرانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ الرَّجُلُ فِي بَلَدٍ لَيْسَ فِيهِ مُسْلِمٌ جَازَتْ شَهَادَةُ مَنْ لَيْسَ بِمُسْلِمٍ عَلَى الْوَصِيَّةِ.


3. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Fiisham ibn al-Hakam who has narrated the following: “About the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . and two people from others who are not of your people’ abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘This applies when he is in a place where Muslims are not available, then asking a non-Muslim to bear witness to a will is permissible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/8)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ رِبْعِيٍّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي شَهَادَةِ امْرَأَةٍ حَضَرَتْ رَجُلا يُوصِي لَيْسَ مَعَهَا رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يُجَازُ رُبُعُ مَا أَوْصَى بِحِسَابِ شَهَادَتِهَا.


4. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan, from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Rib‘iy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if a woman’s bearing witness to the will of a man when no man is available is accepted. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is effective for one-fourth of what is willed according to her testimony.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/8)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي وَصِيَّةٍ لَمْ يَشْهَدْهَا إِلا امْرَأَةٌ فَأَجَازَ شَهَادَةَ الْمَرْأَةِ فِي الرُّبُعِ مِنَ الْوَصِيَّةِ بِحِسَابِ شَهَادَتِهَا.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban who has narrated the following: “In the case of a will for which there is no witness except a woman, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, accepted it (such witness) for one-fourth of the will according to her testimony.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/9)



6- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا شَهادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنانِ ذَوا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ أَوْ آخَرانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّذَانِ مِنْكُمْ مُسْلِمَانِ وَاللَّذَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فَمِنَ الْمَجُوسِ لأنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) سَنَّ فِي الْمَجُوسِ سُنَّةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فِي الْجِزْيَةِ وَذَلِكَ إِذَا مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ فِي أَرْضِ غُرْبَةٍ فَلَمْ يَجِدْ مُسْلِمَيْنِ أَشْهَدَ رَجُلَيْنِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ يُحْبَسَانِ بَعْدَ الصَّلاةِ فَيُقْسِمَانِ بِاللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لا نَشْتَرِي بِهِ ثَمَناً وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى وَلا نَكْتُمُ شَهَادَةَ اللهِ إِنَّا إِذاً لَمِنَ الآثِمِينَ قَالَ وَذَلِكَ إِذَا ارْتَابَ وَلِيُّ الْمَيِّتِ فِي شَهَادَتِهِمَا فَإِنْ عَثَرَ عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا شَهِدَا بِالْبَاطِلِ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَنْقُضَ شَهَادَتَهُمَا حَتَّى يَجِي‏ءَ بِشَاهِدَيْنِ فَيَقُومَانِ مَقَامَ الشَّاهِدَيْنِ الأوَّلَيْنِ فَيُقْسِمَانِ بِاللهِ لَشَهَادَتُنَا أَحَقُّ مِنْ شَهَادَتِهِمَا وَمَا اعْتَدَيْنَا إِنَّا إِذاً لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ فَإِذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ نَقَضَ شَهَادَةَ الأوَّلَيْنِ وَجَازَتْ شَهَادَةُ الآخَرَيْنِ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ذلِكَ أَدْنى‏ أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِالشَّهادَةِ عَلى‏ وَجْهِها أَوْ يَخافُوا أَنْ تُرَدَّ أَيْمانٌ بَعْدَ أَيْمانِهِمْ.


6. Muhammad ibn Ahmad has narrated from ibn al-Salt from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Yahya ibn Muhammad who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘O believing people there must be two just (Muslim) witnesses when anyone of you is about to die or from other people.’ (5:106) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said that in this verse, “‘The two from you”, means two Muslims and “the two from others”, means the people of the book. If two people from the followers of the bible are not found then two Zoroastrians can bear witness. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, established a Sunnah about Zoroastrians like that for the people of the book in paying al-Jizyah (taxes). Thus, if one dies in loneliness in a strange land and cannot find two Muslims, he can appoint two men from the people of the book who are then kept in custody after Salat (prayer). They will take an oath on Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, saying that they do not sell their oath in exchange for a small price, even in favor of their relatives, that they do not hide the testimony for the sake of Allah; in so doing they will be committing sins.’ He (the Imam) said, ’This applies only when the heirs of the deceased doubt their testimony and it is found out that they have testified falsely. The heir cannot invalidate their testimony without presenting two witnesses who stand in place of the first two witnesses and take the oath on Allah that their testimony is more accurate than the testimony of the first two witnesses; if we transgress, we will be unjust. If this happens then the testimony of the first two becomes invalid and the testimony of the two later witnesses is admitted as valid. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “This will help preserve a proper testimony. The witnesses will be afraid of the rejection of their own testimony by a second pair of witnesses. Have fear of Allah and listen (properly). Allah does not guide the evil doing people.” (5:108)”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/9)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ رِجَالِهِ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ خَرَجَ تَمِيمٌ الدَّارِيُّ وَابْنُ بَيْدِيٍّ وَابْنُ أَبِي مَارِيَةَ فِي سَفَرٍ وَكَانَ تَمِيمٌ الدَّارِيُّ مُسْلِماً وَابْنُ بَيْدِيٍّ وَابْنُ أَبِي مَارِيَةَ نَصْرَانِيَّيْنِ وَكَانَ مَعَ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ خُرْجٌ لَهُ فِيهِ مَتَاعٌ وَآنِيَةٌ مَنْقُوشَةٌ بِالذَّهَبِ وَقِلادَةٌ أَخْرَجَهَا إِلَى بَعْضِ أَسْوَاقِ الْعَرَبِ لِلْبَيْعِ فَاعْتَلَّ تَمِيمٌ الدَّارِيُّ عِلَّةً شَدِيدَةً فَلَمَّا حَضَرَهُ الْمَوْتُ دَفَعَ مَا كَانَ مَعَهُ إِلَى ابْنِ بَيْدِيٍّ وَابْنِ أَبِي مَارِيَةَ وَأَمَرَهُمَا أَنْ يُوصِلاهُ إِلَى وَرَثَتِهِ فَقَدِمَا الْمَدِينَةَ وَقَدْ أَخَذَا مِنَ الْمَتَاعِ الآنِيَةَ وَالْقِلادَةَ وَأَوْصَلا سَائِرَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى وَرَثَتِهِ فَافْتَقَدَ الْقَوْمُ الآنِيَةَ وَالْقِلادَةَ فَقَالَ أَهْلُ تَمِيمٍ لَهُمَا هَلْ مَرِضَ صَاحِبُنَا مَرَضاً طَوِيلا أَنْفَقَ فِيهِ نَفَقَةً كَثِيرَةً فَقَالا لا مَا مَرِضَ إِلا أَيَّاماً قَلائِلَ قَالُوا فَهَلْ سُرِقَ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فِي سَفَرِهِ هَذَا قَالا لا قَالُوا فَهَلِ اتَّجَرَ تِجَارَةً خَسِرَ فِيهَا قَالا لا قَالُوا فَقَدِ افْتَقَدْنَا أَفْضَلَ شَيْ‏ءٍ كَانَ مَعَهُ آنِيَةً مَنْقُوشَةً بِالذَّهَبِ مُكَلَّلَةً بِالْجَوْهَرِ وَقِلادَةً فَقَالا مَا دَفَعَ إِلَيْنَا فَقَدْ أَدَّيْنَاهُ إِلَيْكُمْ فَقَدَّمُوهُمَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَأَوْجَبَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلَيْهِمَا الْيَمِينَ فَحَلَفَا فَخَلَّى عَنْهُمَا ثُمَّ ظَهَرَتْ تِلْكَ الآنِيَةُ وَالْقِلادَةُ عَلَيْهِمَا فَجَاءَ أَوْلِيَاءُ تَمِيمٍ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ عَلَى ابْنِ بَيْدِيٍّ وَابْنِ أَبِي مَارِيَةَ مَا ادَّعَيْنَاهُ عَلَيْهِمَا فَانْتَظَرَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مِنَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْحُكْمَ فِي ذَلِكَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا شَهادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنانِ ذَوا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ أَوْ آخَرانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ إِنْ أَنْتُمْ ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الأرْضِ فَأَطْلَقَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ شَهَادَةَ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ عَلَى الْوَصِيَّةِ فَقَطْ إِذَا كَانَ فِي سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ يَجِدِ الْمُسْلِمَيْنِ فَأَصابَتْكُمْ مُصِيبَةُ الْمَوْتِ تَحْبِسُونَهُما مِنْ بَعْدِ الصَّلاةِ فَيُقْسِمانِ بِاللهِ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ لا نَشْتَرِي بِهِ ثَمَناً وَلَوْ كانَ ذا قُرْبى‏ وَلا نَكْتُمُ شَهادَةَ اللهِ إِنَّا إِذاً لَمِنَ الآثِمِينَ فَهَذِهِ الشَّهَادَةُ الأولَى الَّتِي جَعَلَهَا رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَإِنْ عُثِرَ عَلى‏ أَنَّهُمَا اسْتَحَقَّا إِثْماً أَيْ أَنَّهُمَا حَلَفَا عَلَى كَذِبٍ فَ‏آخَرانِ يَقُومانِ مَقامَهُما يَعْنِي مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءِ الْمُدَّعِي مِنَ الَّذِينَ اسْتَحَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الأوْلَيانِ فَيُقْسِمانِ بِاللهِ يَحْلِفَانِ بِاللهِ أَنَّهُمَا أَحَقُّ بِهَذِهِ الدَّعْوَى مِنْهُمَا وَأَنَّهُمَا قَدْ كَذَبَا فِيمَا حَلَفَا بِاللهِ لَشَهادَتُنا أَحَقُّ مِنْ شَهادَتِهِما وَمَا اعْتَدَيْنا إِنَّا إِذاً لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ فَأَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَوْلِيَاءَ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ أَنْ يَحْلِفُوا بِاللهِ عَلَى مَا أَمَرَهُمْ بِهِ فَحَلَفُوا فَأَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْقِلادَةَ وَالآنِيَةَ مِنِ ابْنِ بَيْدِيٍّ وَابْنِ أَبِي مَارِيَةَ وَرَدَّهُمَا إِلَى أَوْلِيَاءِ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ ذلِكَ أَدْنى‏ أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِالشَّهادَةِ عَلى‏ وَجْهِها أَوْ يَخافُوا أَنْ تُرَدَّ أَيْمانٌ بَعْدَ أَيْمانِهِمْ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his people in a marfu‘ manner has said the following: “Tamim al-Dariy, ibn Baydiy and ibn Mariya once left for a journey. Tamim al-Dariy was a Muslim but ibn Baydiy and ibn Mariya were Christians and they were with Tamim al-Dariy who had certain assets and utensils, which were decorated with gold, and a necklace that he took for the Arab markets for sale. Tamim al-Dariy became ill severely and the time of his death came. He gave whatever he had to ibn Baydiy and ibn Mariya and asked them to deliver it to his heirs. The two came to al-Madinah, delivered the other things but they had taken the utensils and the necklace. The heirs found the utensils missing; so the family of Tamim asked the two men, ’Did he (Tamim) remain ill for a long time and incurred a large amount of expenses?’ The two replied, ‘He remained ill only for few days.’ They then asked, ’Was anything stolen from him during his journey?’ The two replied, ‘No, nothing was stolen from him during his journey.’ They then asked, ‘Did he make any business deals that caused him losses?’ The two replied, ‘No, he did not make any such deals.’ They then said, ‘The most expensive things are missing like the utensils decorated with gold and gems and a necklace.’ The two said, ‘Whatever he gave to us we have given to you.’ They then took the two before the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and he (the Messenger of Allah) judged that the two must take an oath. The two took an oath and they were released but the utensils and necklace were seen with them. The heirs of Tamim went to the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, saying, ‘O Messenger of Allah, our assets have been seen in the possession of ibn Baydiy and ibn Mariya.’ The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, waited to hear from Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, a judgment in the case. Allah, most Blessed, most High, then revealed, ‘Believers, when death approaches any one of you, allow two just men from your own people (Muslims) or any two other men (people of the book), if incident of death befalls you on a journey, bear witness to the bequest. [Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, applied the testimony of the people of the book about the will when it is on a journey and Muslims are not found] If you have any doubts about their (others’) honesty, detain them and allow them take an oath after the prayer, each one of them saying, “I swear by Allah that my testimony is true. I am not selling the Truth for a paltry price even though the beneficiary would be one of my relatives. I do not hide the testimony which is the right of Allah, for then I will be one of the sinners.” (5:106)’ This is the testimony, which is sanctioned by the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause. Tf their honesty is challenged, [they took false oath], two others from the relatives of the deceased should swear in the same way and testify to the bequest saying, “We swear by Allah that our testimony is the more accurate one. We do not transgress in the matter lest we become unjust ones.” (5:107)’ The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, commanded the heirs of Tamim al-Dariy to take an oath according to His command. They took an oath and the Messenger of Allah took the utensils and the necklace from ibn Baydiy and ibn Mariya and returned them to the heirs of Tamim al-Dariy. This is the least in presenting the testimony as it is for fear of another oath’s rejection of their oath thereafter.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/10)