19. One Who Sets Free a Slave and He is Indebted

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ وَأَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ وَابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ سَأَلَنِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَلْ يَخْتَلِفُ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى وَابْنُ شُبْرُمَةَ فَقُلْتُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ مَاتَ مَوْلًى لِعِيسَى بْنِ مُوسَى وَتَرَكَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْناً كَثِيراً وَتَرَكَ مَمَالِيكَ يُحِيطُ دَيْنُهُ بِأَثْمَانِهِمْ فَأَعْتَقَهُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ فَسَأَلَهُمَا عِيسَى بْنُ مُوسَى عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ ابْنُ شُبْرُمَةَ أَرَى أَنْ يَسْتَسْعِيَهُمْ فِي قِيمَتِهِمْ فَيَدْفَعَهَا إِلَى الْغُرَمَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ أَعْتَقَهُمْ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ وَقَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى أَرَى أَنْ أَبِيعَهُمْ وَأَدْفَعَ أَثْمَانَهُمْ إِلَى الْغُرَمَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهُمْ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ يُحِيطُ بِهِمْ وَهَذَا أَهْلُ الْحِجَازِ الْيَوْمَ يُعْتِقُ الرَّجُلُ عَبْدَهُ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ كَثِيرٌ فَلا يُجِيزُونَ عِتْقَهُ إِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ كَثِيرٌ فَرَفَعَ ابْنُ شُبْرُمَةَ يَدَهُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللهِ يَا ابْنَ أَبِي لَيْلَى مَتَى قُلْتَ بِهَذَا الْقَوْلِ وَاللهِ مَا قُلْتَهُ إِلا طَلَبَ خِلافِي فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَعَنْ رَأْيِ أَيِّهِمَا صَدَرَ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ أَخَذَ بِرَأْيِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى وَكَانَ لَهُ فِي ذَلِكَ هَوًى فَبَاعَهُمْ وَقَضَى دَيْنَهُ قَالَ فَمَعَ أَيِّهِمَا مَنْ قِبَلَكُمْ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَعَ ابْنِ شُبْرُمَةَ وَقَدْ رَجَعَ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى إِلَى رَأْيِ ابْنِ شُبْرُمَةَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ أَمَا وَاللهِ إِنَّ الْحَقَّ لَفِي الَّذِي قَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ رَجَعَ عَنْهُ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ هَذَا يَنْكَسِرُ عِنْدَهُمْ فِي الْقِيَاسِ فَقَالَ هَاتِ قَايِسْنِي فَقُلْتُ أَنَا أُقَايِسُكَ فَقَالَ لَتَقُولَنَّ بِأَشَدِّ مَا يَدْخُلُ فِيهِ مِنَ الْقِيَاسِ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ تَرَكَ عَبْداً لَمْ يَتْرُكْ مَالا غَيْرَهُ وَقِيمَةُ الْعَبْدِ سِتُّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَدَيْنُهُ خَمْسُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَعْتَقَهُ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ كَيْفَ يُصْنَعُ قَالَ يُبَاعُ الْعَبْدُ فَيَأْخُذُ الْغُرَمَاءُ خَمْسَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَيَأْخُذُ الْوَرَثَةُ مِائَةَ دِرْهَمٍ فَقُلْتُ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ بَقِيَ مِنْ قِيمَةِ الْعَبْدِ مِائَةُ دِرْهَمٍ عَنْ دَيْنِهِ فَقَالَ بَلَى قُلْتُ أَلَيْسَ لِلرَّجُلِ ثُلُثُهُ يَصْنَعُ بِهِ مَا يَشَاءُ قَالَ بَلَى قُلْتُ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ أَوْصَى لِلْعَبْدِ بِالثُّلُثِ مِنَ الْمِائَةِ حِينَ أَعْتَقَهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ لا وَصِيَّةَ لَهُ إِنَّمَا مَالُهُ لِمَوَالِيهِ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِذَا كَانَتْ قِيمَةُ الْعَبْدِ سِتَّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَدَيْنُهُ أَرْبَعَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ قَالَ كَذَلِكَ يُبَاعُ الْعَبْدُ فَيَأْخُذُ الْغُرَمَاءُ أَرْبَعَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَيَأْخُذُ الْوَرَثَةُ مِائَتَيْنِ فَلا يَكُونُ لِلْعَبْدِ شَيْ‏ءٌ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنَّ قِيمَةَ الْعَبْدِ سِتُّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَدَيْنَهُ ثَلاثُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَضَحِكَ وَقَالَ مِنْ هَاهُنَا أُتِيَ أَصْحَابُكَ فَجَعَلُوا الأشْيَاءَ شَيْئاً وَاحِداً وَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا السُّنَّةَ إِذَا اسْتَوَى مَالُ الْغُرَمَاءِ وَمَالُ الْوَرَثَةِ أَوْ كَانَ مَالُ الْوَرَثَةِ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ مَالِ الْغُرَمَاءِ لَمْ يُتَّهَمِ الرَّجُلُ عَلَى وَصِيَّتِهِ وَأُجِيزَتْ وَصِيَّتُهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهَا فَالآنَ يُوقَفُ هَذَا فَيَكُونُ نِصْفُهُ لِلْغُرَمَاءِ وَيَكُونُ ثُلُثُهُ لِلْوَرَثَةِ وَيَكُونُ لَهُ السُّدُسُ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from and Abu Ali al- Ash‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan and ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once asked me, ‘Is there a difference between ibn abu Layla’ and ibn Shubramah?’ I replied, ‘It has come to my knowledge that a Maxvla of ‘Isa ibn Musa died with a great deal of debts on him. He possessed a number of slaves whom he set free at the time of his death. Had the slaves been sold, such a sale could pay all of his debts. ‘Isa ibn Musa asked them (ibn abu Layla’ and ibn Shubramah) about this case. Ibn Shubramah said, “In my opinion they must be made to work to pay their own price because they were freed at the time of his death.” Ibn abu Layla’ said, “In my opinion I sell them to pay the creditors because he did not have the right to free them at the time of his death with debts on him; the value of slaves could have covered his debts. These are people of al-Hijaz today. A man indebted greatly is not allowed to free his slaves at the time of his death.” Ibn Shubramah then raised his hands to the sky and said, “Allah is free of all defects, O ibn abu Layla’ when did you ever say so? You only say so in my opposition.’” Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then asked, ‘Whose opinion was taken as the rule?’ He (the narrator) has said that I said, ‘It has come to my knowledge that it was the opinion of ibn abu Layla’. He liked it. He sold them and paid his debts.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘With which one’s opinion do you side?’ I said, ‘It is with ibn Shubramah and ibn abu Layla’ later changed and accepted that of ibn Shubramah.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘By Allah, truth is with what ibn abu Layla’ said, even though he changed it later.’ I (the narrator) then said, ‘This becomes invalid according to their al-Qiyas (analogy).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allow us to examine their analogy. Give us an example.’ I then said, ‘I debate you according to analogy.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must present the strongest example of analogy.’ I then said, ‘There is a man who dies and leaves a slave and no other assets. The value of the slave is six hundred dirham and his debt is five hundred dirham. He sets him free at the time of his death. How is the case settled?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The slave must be sold. The creditors take five hundred and the heirs take the one hundred dirham.’ I said, ‘Is it not the case that one hundred is left extra over the debts?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, that is the case.’ ‘Is it not the case that one-third of it belongs to the deceased with which he can do whatever he wants?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, that is the case.’ I then said, ‘Is it not the case that at least one-third of the remaining one hundred belongs to the slave when he set him free?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘There is no will for the slave. The slave’s assets belong to his guardians (heirs).’ I then said, ‘What happens if the value of the slave is six hundred and the debt is four hundred dirham?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The slave is sold. The creditors take four hundred and the heirs take the two hundred and there is nothing for the slave.’ I then said, ‘The price of the slave is six hundred and the debt is three hundred.’ He (the Imam) smiled and said, ‘This is where your companions are proved incorrect. They have made all things as one thing without the knowledge of the Sunnah. When the debt and legacy are equal or the legacy is more than debts, the testator is not accused about his will and it is accepted as it is. Now it stops. One-half is for creditors, one-third for heirs and one-sixth is for him (the deceased).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/42)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ [عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ] عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ أَعْتَقَ مَمْلُوكَهُ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ قَالَ إِنْ كَانَ قِيمَتُهُ مِثْلَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ وَمِثْلَهُ جَازَ عِتْقُهُ وَإِلا لَمْ يَجُزْ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father [from ibn abu ‘Umayr] from Jamil ibn Darraj from Zurarah who has narrated the following: “About the case of a man who frees his slave at the time of his death with debt on him, one of the two Imam, (abu Ja‘far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, has said, ‘If the value of the debt and slave are equal, freeing is permissible, otherwise, it is not permissible.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/44)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ فِي رَجُلٍ أَعْتَقَ مَمْلُوكاً لَهُ وَقَدْ حَضَرَهُ الْمَوْتُ وَأَشْهَدَ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ وَقِيمَتُهُ سِتُّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ ثَلاثُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَلَمْ يَتْرُكْ شَيْئاً غَيْرَهُ قَالَ يُعْتَقُ مِنْهُ سُدُسُهُ لأنَّهُ إِنَّمَا لَهُ مِنْهُ ثَلاثُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَيُقْضَى مِنْهُ ثَلاثُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَلَهُ مِنَ الثَّلاثِمِائَةٍ ثُلُثُهَا وَهُوَ السُّدُسُ مِنَ الْجَمِيعِ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Faddal from al-Husayn Aban al-Jahm who has narrated the following: “This is about the case of a man who frees his slave at the time of his death in front of witnesses. The price of the slave is six hundred dirham, his debt is three hundred dirham and he has no other legacy. I once heard abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘One-sixth of him is free because he owns from him three hundred and the other three hundred is for the debt. Thus out of three hundred one-third is his which is one-sixth of the total.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق كالصحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/45)