18. The Will and Debts

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّ الدَّيْنَ قَبْلَ الْوَصِيَّةِ ثُمَّ الْوَصِيَّةَ عَلَى إِثْرِ الدَّيْنِ ثُمَّ الْمِيرَاثَ بَعْدَ الْوَصِيَّةِ فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ الْقَضَاءِ كِتَابُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad all from ibn abu Najran ‘Asem ibn Humayd from Muhammad ibn Qays who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’ Amir al-Mu’minin has said, ‘A debt must be paid before the will, then the will is paid for. Thereafter are the shares of the heirs after the will, because the first judge in the case is the book of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/38)



2- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَوْصَى إِلَى رَجُلٍ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَقَالَ يَقْضِي الرَّجُلُ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ دَيْنِهِ وَيَقْسِمُ مَا بَقِيَ بَيْنَ الْوَرَثَةِ قُلْتُ فَسُرِقَ مَا كَانَ أَوْصَى بِهِ مِنَ الدَّيْنِ مِمَّنْ يُؤْخَذُ الدَّيْنُ أَمِنَ الْوَرَثَةِ قَالَ لا يُؤْخَذُ مِنَ الْوَرَثَةِ وَلَكِنَّ الْوَصِيَّ ضَامِنٌ لَهَا.


2. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from certain persons of his people from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from a man who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who makes a will and he is indebted. He (the Imam) said, ‘He (executor of the will) pays the debts first, then distributes the legacy among the heirs.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if what is assigned to pay debts is stolen and about who pays for the debt if it is deducted from the shares of the heirs?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The heirs are not responsible for it but the executor of the will is responsible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/38)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ يَحْيَى الشَّعِيرِيِّ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ عُتَيْبَةَ قَالَ كُنَّا عَلَى بَابِ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَنَحْنُ جَمَاعَةٌ نَنْتَظِرُ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ إِذْ جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ فَقَالَتْ أَيُّكُمْ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ فَقَالَ لَهَا الْقَوْمُ مَا تُرِيدِينَ مِنْهُ قَالَتْ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَسْأَلَهُ عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ فَقَالُوا لَهَا هَذَا فَقِيهُ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ فَسَلِيهِ فَقَالَتْ إِنَّ زَوْجِي مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ وَكَانَ لِي عَلَيْهِ مِنْ صَدَاقِي خَمْسُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَخَذْتُ صَدَاقِي وَأَخَذْتُ مِيرَاثِي ثُمَّ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ فَادَّعَى عَلَيْهِ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ فَشَهِدْتُ لَهُ قَالَ الْحَكَمُ فَبَيْنَا أَنَا أَحْسُبُ إِذْ خَرَجَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا الَّذِي أَرَاكَ تُحَرِّكُ بِهِ أَصَابِعَكَ يَا حَكَمُ فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْمَرْأَةَ ذَكَرَتْ أَنَّ زَوْجَهَا مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ وَكَانَ لَهَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ صَدَاقِهَا خَمْسُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَخَذَتْ صَدَاقَهَا وَأَخَذَتْ مِيرَاثَهَا ثُمَّ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ فَادَّعَى عَلَيْهِ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ فَشَهِدَتْ لَهُ فَقَالَ الْحَكَمُ فَوَ اللهِ مَا أَتْمَمْتُ الْكَلامَ حَتَّى قَالَ أَقَرَّتْ بِثُلُثِ مَا فِي يَدَيْهَا وَلا مِيرَاثَ لَهَا قَالَ الْحَكَمُ فَمَا رَأَيْتُ وَاللهِ أَفْهَمَ مِنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَطُّ. قَالَ ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَتَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لا مِيرَاثَ لَهَا حَتَّى تَقْضِيَ الدَّيْنَ وَإِنَّمَا تَرَكَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ وَعَلَيْهِ مِنَ الدَّيْنِ أَلْفٌ وَخَمْسُمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ لَهَا وَلِلرَّجُلِ فَلَهَا ثُلُثُ الألْفِ وَلِلرَّجُلِ ثُلُثَاهَا.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj from Zakariya ibn Yahya al-Shu‘ayriy from al-Hakam ibn ‘Utaybah who has narrated the following: “Once we were with abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. We were in a group waiting for him (the Imam) to come out. A woman came and asked, ‘Which one of you is abu Ja‘far?’ The people asked, ‘What for are you asking for him?’ She replied, ‘I want to ask him about an issue.’ They said, ‘This is the jurist of the people of Iraq. You can ask him your question.’ She said, ‘My husband has died and has left one thousand dirham as legacy. He owed me five hundred dirham as my mahr (dower) and my share of inheritance which I took from the legacy; but then a man came and said my husband owed him one thousand dirham and I testified in his favor.’ Al-Hakam has said, ‘I was counting it that abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, came out and said, “Why is it that I see you move your fingers, O Hakam?” I replied, “This woman has mentioned that her husband has died. He has left one thousand dirham as legacy. He owed to her five hundred dirham as her dower. She took her dower and the share of her inheritance, but then a man came and said that her husband owed him one thousand dirham and she testified in his favor.’” Hakam has said, ‘By Allah I had not completed my words that he (the Imam) said, “She has confessed to give back one-third of what she has in her hand and she does not have anything as her share of inheritance.’” Hakam has said, ‘I had never seen, by Allah, anyone more intelligent than abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/39)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ بَاعَ مَتَاعاً مِنْ رَجُلٍ فَقَبَضَ الْمُشْتَرِي الْمَتَاعَ وَلَمْ يَدْفَعِ الثَّمَنَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ الْمُشْتَرِي وَالْمَتَاعُ قَائِمٌ بِعَيْنِهِ قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ الْمَتَاعُ قَائِماً بِعَيْنِهِ رُدَّ إِلَى صَاحِبِ الْمَتَاعِ وَقَالَ لَيْسَ لِلْغُرَمَاءِ أَنْ يُخَاصِمُوهُ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil from certain persons of our people who has narrated the following: “This is about the case of a man who sells something to a man and the buyer takes possession of the goods but does not pay for it. Then the buyer dies and the goods exist as they were. Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the goods exist as they were, they must be returned to its owner and other creditors do not have any right to dispute him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/40)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَمُوتُ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَيَضْمَنُهُ ضَامِنٌ لِلْغُرَمَاءِ قَالَ إِذَا رَضِيَ الْغُرَمَاءُ فَقَدْ بَرِئَتْ ذِمَّةُ الْمَيِّتِ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has narrated the following: “About the case of a man who dies with debts on him and a guarantor takes responsibility to pay the creditors, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the creditors agree, the deceased becomes free from responsibility.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/41)



6- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ يَحْيَى الأزْرَقِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ قُتِلَ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ وَلَمْ يَتْرُكْ مَالا فَأَخَذَ أَهْلُهُ الدِّيَةَ مِنْ قَاتِلِهِ عَلَيْهِمْ يَقْضُونَ دَيْنَهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ وَهُوَ لَمْ يَتْرُكْ شَيْئاً قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَخَذُوا الدِّيَةَ فَعَلَيْهِمْ أَنْ يَقْضُوا دَيْنَهُ.


6. Abu Ali a l-Ash ‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Yahya al-Azraq who has narrated the following: “About the case of a man who is killed and who owed debs, but has not left any legacy but his heirs received blood money (wergild) from his killer; if they must pay his debts, abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, has said, ‘Yes, they must pay his debts.’ I then said, ‘He has not left any legacy.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because they have received blood money, thus, they must pay his debts.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/41)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ مَاتَ وَلَهُ عَلَيَّ دَيْنٌ وَخَلَّفَ وُلْداً رِجَالا وَنِسَاءً وَصِبْيَاناً فَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْهُمْ فَقَالَ أَنْتَ فِي حِلٍّ مِمَّا لأبِي عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِصَّتِي وَأَنْتَ فِي حِلٍّ مِمَّا لإخْوَتِي وَأَخَوَاتِي وَأَنَا ضَامِنٌ لِرِضَاهُمْ عَنْكَ قَالَ تَكُونُ فِي سَعَةٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَحِلٍّ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْطِهِمْ قَالَ كَانَ ذَلِكَ فِي عُنُقِهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ رَجَعَ الْوَرَثَةُ عَلَيَّ فَقَالُوا أَعْطِنَا حَقَّنَا فَقَالَ لَهُمْ ذَلِكَ فِي الْحُكْمِ الظَّاهِرِ فَأَمَّا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَأَنْتَ مِنْهَا فِي حِلٍّ إِذَا كَانَ الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي أَحَلَّ لَكَ يَضْمَنُ لَكَ عَنْهُمْ رِضَاهُمْ فَيَحْتَمِلُ الضَّامِنُ لَكَ قُلْتُ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِي الصَّبِيِّ لأمِّهِ أَنْ تُحَلِّلَ قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذَا كَانَ لَهَا مَا تُرْضِيهِ أَوْ تُعْطِيهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا قَالَ فَلا قُلْتُ فَقَدْ سَمِعْتُكَ تَقُولُ إِنَّهُ يَجُوزُ تَحْلِيلُهَا فَقَالَ إِنَّمَا أَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ لَهَا مَالٌ قُلْتُ فَالأبُ يَجُوزُ تَحْلِيلُهُ عَلَى ابْنِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ مَا كَانَ لَنَا مَعَ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَمْرٌ يَفْعَلُ فِي ذَلِكَ مَا شَاءَ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ ضَمِنَ لِي عَنْ ذَلِكَ الصَّبِيِّ وَأَنَا مِنْ حِصَّتِهِ فِي حِلٍّ فَإِنْ مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَبْلُغَ الصَّبِيُّ فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ الأمْرُ جَائِزٌ عَلَى مَا شَرَطَ لَكَ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from al-Hassan ibn al-Jahm who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies and I owe him a certain amount of money. He has left behind children, male, female, and smaller children. One of them once came to me and said, ‘You are free of the responsibility of what you owed to my father as much as my share is concerned and you are also free about the shares of my brothers and sister. I take the responsibility to obtain their agreement in your favor. He (the Imam) said, ‘You are relieved and you are free of responsibility.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if he did not give them?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is his responsibility.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if the heirs come to me and ask for payment of their rights?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘According to the way the case appears they can do so but between you and Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, you are free from all responsibility toward them, when the man who has taken upon himself to obtain their agreement to what he has done, and he carries the responsibility for you.’ I then asked if a mother can take such responsibility for her child.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it can happen if she has something with which she can make him agree.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if she does not have anything? He (the Imam) said, ‘It then is negative.’ I then said, ‘I have heard you saying that her waving is permissible.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What I meant thereby is that if she has assets.’ I then asked, ‘Can a father take such responsibility for his son?’ He (the Imam) said to him, ‘We had no difficulty with abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He (the Imam) would do whatever he wanted.’ I then said, ‘The man has taken the responsibility for me about the right of the child and about his share. Am I free from responsibility if the man dies before the child becomes mature and he does not owe anything?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is permissible according to the condition he has undertaken for you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/41)