20. Unlawfulness of Wine in the Book

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أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَقْطِينٍ قَالَ سَأَلَ الْمَهْدِيُّ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْخَمْرِ هَلْ هِيَ مُحَرَّمَةٌ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ إِنَّمَا يَعْرِفُونَ النَّهْيَ عَنْهَا وَ لَا يَعْرِفُونَ التَّحْرِيمَ لَهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) بَلْ هِيَ مُحَرَّمَةٌ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَفَقَالَ لَهُ فِي أَيِّ مَوْضِعٍ هِيَ مُحَرَّمَةٌ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ جَلَّ اسْمُهُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قُلْ إِنَّما حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَواحِشَ ما ظَهَرَ مِنْها وَ ما بَطَنَ وَ الْإِثْمَ وَ الْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ فَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ ما ظَهَرَ مِنْها يَعْنِي الزِّنَا الْمُعْلَنَ وَ نَصْبَ الرَّايَاتِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تَرْفَعُهَا الْفَوَاجِرُ لِلْفَوَاحِشِ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِوَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ ما بَطَنَ يَعْنِي مَا نَكَحَ مِنَ الْآبَاءِ لِأَنَّ النَّاسَ كَانُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُبْعَثَ النَّبِيُّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إِذَا كَانَ لِلرَّجُلِ زَوْجَةٌ وَ مَاتَ عَنْهَا تَزَوَّجَهَا ابْنُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ إِذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ أُمَّهُ فَحَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ذَلِكَوَ أَمَّا الْإِثْمُ فَإِنَّهَا الْخَمْرَةُ بِعَيْنِهَا وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ يَسْئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَ الْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِما إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَ مَنافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ فَأَمَّا الْإِثْمُ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَهِيَ الْخَمْرَةُ وَ الْمَيْسِرُ وَ إِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَىقَالَ فَقَالَ الْمَهْدِيُّ يَا عَلِيَّ بْنَ يَقْطِينٍ هَذِهِ وَ اللَّهِ فَتْوَى هَاشِمِيَّةٌ قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ صَدَقْتَ وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يُخْرِجْ هَذَا الْعِلْمَ مِنْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ قَالَ فَوَ اللَّهِ مَا صَبَرَ الْمَهْدِيُّ أَنْ قَالَ لِي صَدَقْتَ يَا رَافِضِيُّ .


1. Abu Ali al-Ash‘ariy has narrated from certain persons of our people and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father ‘Abd Allah from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu Hamzah from his father from Ali ibn Yaqtin who has said the following: “Al-Mahdiy once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about wine; if it is made unlawful in the book of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, because people know it is prohibited and they do not know if it is unlawful. Abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said to him, ‘Yes, it is unlawful in the book of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, O ’Amir al-Mu’minin.’ He then asked, ‘Where in the book of Allah, majestic is whose name, it is unlawful, O abu al-Hassan?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is in these words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Say, (O Muhammad) my Lord has made unlawful the sinful things, that which is clearly known and that which is not so clearly known, the sin and rebellion without right.’ (7:33) His words, ‘that which is clearly known ’ is a reference to openly committed fornication with flags hoisted like the ones at the time of ignorance, the prostitutes did. The words of Allah majestic is whose name, ‘that which is not clearly known ’ is a reference to marrying the wife of one’s father as it was done among people before the Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, was commanded to preach the death of a man who left a widow behind, his son married his own stepmother and Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, made it unlawful. ‘ al-‘Ithm ’ (sin) in the words of Allah stands for wine exactly. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said in another passage, ‘They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “There is great sin in them and benefits for people” (2:216) The word ‘ al-‘Ithm ’ (sin) stands for wine in the book of Allah and for gambling. The sin in them is greater as Allah most High has said.’ Al- Mahdiy then said, ‘O Ali ibn Yaqtin, this by Allah, is a Hashimiy fatwa.’ I (the narrator) then said, ‘You have spoken the truth, O ’Amir al-Mu’minin. All praise belongs to Allah who has not taken knowledge away from you Ah/ al-Bayt (people of the family of the Holy Prophet).’ He (the narrator) has said that al-Mahdiy could not wait but to say to me, ‘You have spoken the truth, O Rafidiy (rejecter).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (22/263)



بعض أصحابنا مرسلا قال: إن أول ما نزل في تحريم الخمر قول الله عز وجل " يسئلونك عن الخمر والميسر قل فيهما إثم كبير ومنافع للناس وإثمهما أكبر من نفعهما " فلما نزلت هذه الآية أحس القوم بتحريمها وتحريم الميسر وعلموا أن الاثم مما ينبغي اجتنابه ولا يحمل الله عز وجل عليهم من كل طريق لأنه قال: ومنافع للناس ثم أنزل الله عز وجل آية أخرى " إنما الخمر والميسر والأنصاب والأزلام رجس من عمل الشيطان فاجتنبوه لعلكم تفلحون (1) " فكانت هذه الآية أشد من الأولى وأغلظ في التحريم ثم ثلث بآية أخرى فكانت أغلظ من الآية الأولى والثانية وأشد فقال عز وجل: " إنما يريد الشيطان أن يوقع بينكم العدواة والبغضاء في الخمر والميسر ويصدكم عن ذكر الله وعن الصلاة فهل أنتم منتهون (2) " فأمر عز وجل باجتنابها وفسر عللها التي لها ومن أجلها حرمها ثم بين الله عز وجل تحريمها وكشفه في الآية الرابعة مع ما دل عليه في هذه الآي المذكورة المتقدمة بقوله عز وجل: " قل إنما حرم ربي الفواحش ما ظهر منها وما بطن والاثم والبغي بغير الحق " وقال عز وجل في الآية الأولى: " يسئلونك عن الخمر والميسر قل فيهما إثم كبير ومنافع للناس " ثم قال في الآية الرابعة: " قل إنما حرم ربي الفواحش ما ظهر منها وما بطن والاثم " فخبر الله عز وجل أن الاثم في الخمر وغيرها وأنه حرام (3) وذلك أن الله عز وجل إذا أراد أن يفترض فريضة أنزلها شيئا بعد شئ حتى يوطن الناس أنفسهم عليها ويسكنوا إلى أمر الله عز وجل ونهيه فيها وكان ذلك من فعل الله عز وجل على وجه التدبير فيهم أصوب وأقرب لهم إلى الاخذ بها وأقل لنفارهم منها.


2. Certain persons of our people have, in mursal manner, narrated the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The first thing about the unlawfulness of wine is in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, ‘There is great sin in them and benefits for people but the sin in them is greater than their benefits.’” (2:219) When this verse was revealed people sensed the prohibition on it and prohibition on gambling. They learned that one must stay away from sins and that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, does not impose on them both ways because of His saying, “and benefits for people”. Thereafter Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, sent another verse, “Wine, gambling, signs (indicators of sins), and gambling arrows are filthy matters of the acts of Satan, therefore, you must stay away from them, perhaps you attain salvation.” (5:90) This verse is more intense than the previous one in being more forceful about the unlawfulness. Then is the third stage and the third verse which is even more forceful than the first and the second verses as Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “Satan only wants to place animosity and hatred among you in wine and gambling and prevent you from speaking of Allah and from Salat (prayer). Why then do you not stay away from them?” (5:91) Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has commanded to stay away from them and has explained the reason because of which they are unlawful. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, then in the fourth verse has stated, besides these verses, saying, “Say (O Muhammad) my Lord has made unlawful only the sins which are clearly known and that which is not clearly known, the sin and rebellion without right.” In the first verse Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, ’There are great sins in them and there is benefit for people.’” In the fourth verse He has said to say, “My Lord has made unlawful only the sins which are clearly known and that which is not clearly known.” Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has informed that there is sin in wine and other things and that it is unlawful because when Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, decides to sanction an obligation He explains in gradual steps. This, on the part of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, is a plan which is more correct and closer to them for acceptance and of less dislike on their part.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (22/264)