44. Reason for Difference about Waiting Period and Waiting Period of a Widow

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عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَيْفٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ كَيْفَ صَارَتْ عِدَّةُ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ ثَلَاثَ حِيَضٍ أَوْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ صَارَتْ عِدَّةُ الْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَشْراً فَقَالَ أَمَّا عِدَّةُ الْمُطَلَّقَةِ ثَلَاثَةُ قُرُوءٍ فَلِاسْتِبْرَاءِ الرَّحِمِ مِنَ الْوَلَدِ وَ أَمَّا عِدَّةُ الْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ شَرَطَ لِلنِّسَاءِ شَرْطاً وَ شَرَطَ عَلَيْهِنَّ شَرْطاً فَلَمْ يَجْأَ بِهِنَّ فِيمَا شَرَطَ لَهُنَّ وَ لَمْ يَجُرْ فِيمَا اشْتَرَطَ عَلَيْهِنَّشَرَطَ لَهُنَّ فِي الْإِيلَاءِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ إِذْ يَقُولُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَلَمْ يُجَوِّزْ لِأَحَدٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فِي الْإِيلَاءِ لِعِلْمِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى أَنَّهُ غَايَةُ صَبْرِ الْمَرْأَةِ مِنَ الرَّجُلِوَ أَمَّا مَا شَرَطَ عَلَيْهِنَّ فَإِنَّهُ أَمَرَهَا أَنْ تَعْتَدَّ إِذَا مَاتَ عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَشْراً فَأَخَذَ مِنْهَا لَهُ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ مَا أَخَذَ لَهَا مِنْهُ فِي حَيَاتِهِ عِنْدَ إِيلَائِهِ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَشْراً وَ لَمْ يَذْكُرِ الْعَشَرَةَ الْأَيَّامِ فِي الْعِدَّةِ إِلَّا مَعَ الْأَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَلِمَ أَنَّ غَايَةَ صَبْرِ الْمَرْأَةِ الْأَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ فِي تَرْكِ الْجِمَاعِ فَمِنْ ثَمَّ أَوْجَبَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَ لَهَا .


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Husayn ibn Sayf from Muhammad ibn Sulayman who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, al-Thaniy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, why is it that waiting period for a woman divorced three times, is three cycles of Hayd (menses) or three months, and the waiting period of a widow is four months and ten days? He (the Imam) said, ‘Waiting period for a woman divorced three times is passing of three Hayd (menses)- free periods. It is to ascertain a womb is free of child and pregnancy. About the waiting period of a widow Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has set a condition for and a condition against women. In the condition for them He does not hold them accountable and in the condition against them He has not done injustice to them. In the case of ’Ila’ (swearing not to go to bed with one’s wife) it is four months as Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, ‘. . . for those who swear there is a four month waiting period.’ (2:226) He has not made it permissible for anyone in the case of ‘Ila’ to wait more than four months because He, most Blessed, most High, knows how long women can wait without going to bed and without men. The condition against women is in the case of the death of their husband in which case they must wait for four months and ten days. Thus He has taken from her when he dies as much as He has takes for her from him during his life time in the case of ‘Ila’ as Allah, most Blessed, most High, says, ‘. . . they must wait for four months and ten days.’ He has not mentioned the ten days in waiting period except with four months. He knows that women can wait without men only for four months and without going to bed. For this reason He has set conditions for and against them.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/193)