94. Al-Mut‘ah (Advantageous Marriage)

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْمُتْعَةِ فَقَالَ نَزَلَتْ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَ‏آتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَلا جُناحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيما تَراضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from all from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asem ibn Hamid from abu Basir who has said the following: “In response to my question before abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage), he (the Imam) said, ‘It is mentioned in al-Quran, “If you marry them for al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) you must pay their dowries. There is no harm if you reach an understanding among yourselves about mahr (the dowry). Allah is All-knowing and All-wise.’”” (4:24)


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2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ لَوْ لا مَا سَبَقَنِي بِهِ بَنِي الْخَطَّابِ مَا زَنَى إِلا شَقِيٌّ.


2. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from ibn Muskan from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sulayman who has said the following: “I once heard abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying that Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would say, ‘Had banu al- Khattab not prohibited al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) before (the beginning of my administration) no one would commit fornication except the wicked ones.’”


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3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّمَا نَزَلَتْ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَ‏آتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from those whom he has mentioned who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It was revealed as “If you marry them [for an appointed time] for al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) you must pay their dowries.” (4:24)’”


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4- عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ جَاءَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عُمَيْرٍ اللَّيْثِيُّ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لَهُ مَا تَقُولُ فِي مُتْعَةِ النِّسَاءِ فَقَالَ أَحَلَّهَا اللهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَعَلَى لِسَانِ نَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَهِيَ حَلالٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ مِثْلُكَ يَقُولُ هَذَا وَقَدْ حَرَّمَهَا عُمَرُ وَنَهَى عَنْهَا فَقَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَ فَعَلَ قَالَ إِنِّي أُعِيذُكَ بِاللهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنْ تُحِلَّ شَيْئاً حَرَّمَهُ عُمَرُ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَهُ فَأَنْتَ عَلَى قَوْلِ صَاحِبِكَ وَأَنَا عَلَى قَوْلِ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَهَلُمَّ أُلاعِنْكَ أَنَّ الْقَوْلَ مَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَنَّ الْبَاطِلَ مَا قَالَ صَاحِبُكَ قَالَ فَأَقْبَلَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عُمَيْرٍ فَقَالَ يَسُرُّكَ أَنَّ نِسَاءَكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَأَخَوَاتِكَ وَبَنَاتِ عَمِّكَ يَفْعَلْنَ قَالَ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) حِينَ ذَكَرَ نِسَاءَهُ وَبَنَاتِ عَمِّهِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Zurarah who has said the following: “Once ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umayr al-Laythiy came to abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and asked, ‘What do you say about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) of women?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah has made it lawful in His book by the tongue of His Holy prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, thus it will remain lawful up to the Day of Judgment.’ He then said, ‘O abu Ja’far, how can someone like you say this, when ‘Umar made it unlawful and prohibited it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Even if he has done so.’ He said, ‘I ask Allah to protect you against a thing that ‘Umar has made unlawful.’ He (the narrator) has said that he (the Imam) then said, ‘So you can stand by the words of your friend but I stand by the words of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and I am prepared for al-Mula‘inah (ask Allah to condemn the party on the side of falsehood) that the word is what the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said; and that falsehood is what your friend has said.’ He (the narrator) has said that ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umayr then said, ‘Will it make you happy that your women, daughters, sisters, daughters of your aunts do?’ He (the narrator) has said that abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when he mentioned his women and daughters of his aunts turned away from him.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/228)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الْمُتْعَةُ نَزَلَ بِهَا الْقُرْآنُ وَجَرَتْ بِهَا السُّنَّةُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from abu Maryam who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) is mentioned in al- Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has followed it.’”


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6- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رِبَاطٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ يَسْأَلُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْمُتْعَةِ فَقَالَ أَيَّ الْمُتْعَتَيْنِ تَسْأَلُ قَالَ سَأَلْتُكَ عَنْ مُتْعَةِ الْحَجِّ فَأَنْبِئْنِي عَنْ مُتْعَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَحَقٌّ هِيَ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللهِ أَمَا قَرَأْتَ كِتَابَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَ‏آتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَقَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَاللهِ فَكَأَنَّهَا آيَةٌ لَمْ أَقْرَأْهَا قَطُّ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Afi ibn af-Hassan ibn Ribat from Hariz from ‘ Abd af-Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “I heard abu Hanifah ask abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous matters). He (the Imam) asked, ‘Are you asking about the two al-Mut‘ah (advantageous matters)? 5 He said, ‘I asked you about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous matters of al-Hajj) and you inform me about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) is it true?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah is free of all defects, have you not read the book of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “If you marry them for al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) you must pay their dowries. . . .”’ (4:24). Abu Hanifah said, ‘By Allah, it is as if I have never read this verse. 5 ”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/229)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ السَّائِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ أَتَزَوَّجُ الْمُتْعَةَ فَكَرِهْتُهَا وَتَشَأَّمْتُ بِهَا فَأَعْطَيْتُ اللهَ عَهْداً بَيْنَ الرُّكْنِ وَالْمَقَامِ وَجَعَلْتُ عَلَيَّ فِي ذَلِكَ نَذْراً وَصِيَاماً أَلا أَتَزَوَّجَهَا ثُمَّ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ شَقَّ عَلَيَّ وَنَدِمْتُ عَلَى يَمِينِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ بِيَدِي مِنَ الْقُوَّةِ مَا أَتَزَوَّجُ فِي الْعَلانِيَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ لِي عَاهَدْتَ اللهَ أَنْ لا تُطِيعَهُ وَاللهِ لَئِنْ لَمْ تُطِعْهُ لَتَعْصِيَنَّهُ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from al-Sa’iy who has said the following: “I once said to abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I would marry in the manner of al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage), I then disliked it and had bad omens about it; then I promised before Allah between the corner of al-Ka 5 bah and the Station of Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, kept a vow upon myself and fasting not to do such marriage again. It became difficult for me, I regretted because of my swearing and I was not able to marry publicly. He (the Imam) said, ‘You promised Allah not to obey Him. By Allah, if you do not obey Him you sin against Him. 555


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8- عَلِيٌّ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ سَأَلَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ النُّعْمَانِ صَاحِبَ الطَّاقِ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ مَا تَقُولُ فِي الْمُتْعَةِ أَتَزْعُمُ أَنَّهَا حَلالٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَمَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تَأْمُرَ نِسَاءَكَ أَنْ يُسْتَمْتَعْنَ وَيَكْتَسِبْنَ عَلَيْكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ لَيْسَ كُلُّ الصِّنَاعَاتِ يُرْغَبُ فِيهَا وَإِنْ كَانَتْ حَلالا وَلِلنَّاسِ أَقْدَارٌ وَمَرَاتِبُ يَرْفَعُونَ أَقْدَارَهُمْ وَلَكِنْ مَا تَقُولُ يَا أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ فِي النَّبِيذِ أَتَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ حَلالٌ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَمَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تُقْعِدَ نِسَاءَكَ فِي الْحَوَانِيتِ نَبَّاذَاتٍ فَيَكْتَسِبْنَ عَلَيْكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَاحِدَةٌ بِوَاحِدَةٍ وَسَهْمُكَ أَنْفَذُ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ إِنَّ الآيَةَ الَّتِي فِي سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ تَنْطِقُ بِتَحْرِيمِ الْمُتْعَةِ وَالرِّوَايَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَدْ جَاءَتْ بِنَسْخِهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ يَا أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ إِنَّ سُورَةَ سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ مَكِّيَّةٌ وَآيَةُ الْمُتْعَةِ مَدَنِيَّةٌ وَرِوَايَتَكَ شَاذَّةٌ رَدِيَّةٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ وَآيَةُ الْمِيرَاثِ أَيْضاً تَنْطِقُ بِنَسْخِ الْمُتْعَةِ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ قَدْ ثَبَتَ النِّكَاحُ بِغَيْرِ مِيرَاثٍ قَالَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ مِنْ أَيْنَ قُلْتَ ذَاكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ثُمَّ تُوُفِّيَ عَنْهَا مَا تَقُولُ فِيهَا قَالَ لا تَرِثُ مِنْهُ قَالَ فَقَدْ ثَبَتَ النِّكَاحُ بِغَيْرِ مِيرَاثٍ ثُمَّ افْتَرَقَا.


8. Ali has narrated from in a marfu’ manner saying: “Abu Hanifah once asked abu Ja‘far, Muhammad ibn al-Nu 5 man Sahib al-Taq saying, ‘O abu Ja‘far, what do you say about al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage)? Do you think it is lawful? 5 He replied, ‘Yes, it is lawful. 5 He then said, ‘Why then do you not ask your women to go for al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) and earn for you? 5 Abu Ja’far said, ‘All kinds of skills are not desirable even if they are lawful, because people have their values and positions which raise their values. However, what do you say O abu Hanifah, about al-Nabidh (wine from dates)? Do you think it is lawful? 5 He replied, ‘Yes, it is lawful. 5 He then said, ‘What prevents you from making your women sit in shops as al-Nabidh sellers to sell al-Nabidh to earn for you? 5 Abu Hanifah said, ‘This is one for one and your share is more effective. 5 He then said, ‘O abu Ja‘far, the verse in which there is “one asking a question asked” (Chapter 70) speaks of unlawfulness of al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) and Hadith from the Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has come to cancel it. 5 Abu Ja’far said, ‘O abu Hanifah, the chapter “one asking a question asked” was revealed in Makkah and the verse that speaks of al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) was revealed in al-Madinah and Hadith you spoke of is atypical and refuted. 5 Abu Hanifah then said, ‘The verse about inheritance also speaks of cancellation of al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage). 5 Abu Ja‘far, said, ‘Proof of lawfulness of marriage is without inheritance. 5 Abu Hanifah said, ‘On what basis you say so? 5 Abu Ja‘far, asked, ‘If a Muslim marries a woman from the people of the book then he dies what do you say about her? 5 He said, ‘She will not inherit him. 5 Abu Ja‘far, said, ‘So marriage is proved without inheritance. They then departed each other. 5 ” (Because of marriage spouses inherit each other. In Mut‘ah inheritance is not applicable thus Mut‘ah is not a marriage, according to the argument of abu Hanifah, if inheritance between the spouses is not applicable it is not a marriage. Abu Ja’far, proved one case where there is marriage but inheritance is not applicable).


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/229)