62. Swearing at the Time of Buying and Selling

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1- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ النَّضْرِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الْفَزَارِيِّ قَالَ دَعَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَوْلًى لَهُ يُقَالُ لَهُ مُصَادِفٌ فَأَعْطَاهُ أَلْفَ دِينَارٍ وَقَالَ لَهُ تَجَهَّزْ حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ إِلَى مِصْرَ فَإِنَّ عِيَالِي قَدْ كَثُرُوا قَالَ فَتَجَهَّزَ بِمَتَاعٍ وَخَرَجَ مَعَ التُّجَّارِ إِلَى مِصْرَ فَلَمَّا دَنَوْا مِنْ مِصْرَ اسْتَقْبَلَتْهُمْ قَافِلَةٌ خَارِجَةٌ مِنْ مِصْرَ فَسَأَلُوهُمْ عَنِ الْمَتَاعِ الَّذِي مَعَهُمْ مَا حَالُهُ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ مَتَاعَ الْعَامَّةِ فَأَخْبَرُوهُمْ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِمِصْرَ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَتَحَالَفُوا وَتَعَاقَدُوا عَلَى أَنْ لا يَنْقُصُوا مَتَاعَهُمْ مِنْ رِبْحِ الدِّينَارِ دِينَاراً فَلَمَّا قَبَضُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَانْصَرَفُوا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَدَخَلَ مُصَادِفٌ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَمَعَهُ كِيسَانِ فِي كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ أَلْفُ دِينَارٍ فَقَالَ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ هَذَا رَأْسُ الْمَالِ وَهَذَا الآخَرُ رِبْحٌ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الرِّبْحَ كَثِيرٌ وَلَكِنْ مَا صَنَعْتَهُ فِي الْمَتَاعِ فَحَدَّثَهُ كَيْفَ صَنَعُوا وَكَيْفَ تَحَالَفُوا فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ اللهِ تَحْلِفُونَ عَلَى قَوْمٍ مُسْلِمِينَ أَلا تَبِيعُوهُمْ إِلا رِبْحَ الدِّينَارِ دِينَاراً ثُمَّ أَخَذَ أَحَدَ الْكِيسَيْنِ فَقَالَ هَذَا رَأْسُ مَالِي وَلا حَاجَةَ لَنَا فِي هَذَا الرِّبْحِ ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا مُصَادِفُ مُجَادَلَةُ السُّيُوفِ أَهْوَنُ مِنْ طَلَبِ الْحَلالِ.


1. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Ahmad ibn abu Nadr from abu Ja’far al-Fazariy who has said the following: “Once abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, called one of his servants named Musadif and gave him a thousand dinar. He (the Imam) told him to prepare for traveling to Egypt and added, ‘The number of my dependents has increased.’ He (the narrator) has said that the servant prepared certain items of merchandise along with the traders to go for trade to Egypt. When they arrived near Egypt they met a caravan coming out of Egypt. They asked the outgoing caravan with regards to the condition of their merchandise, which was of general nature, in the city. The outgoing people informed them that no such merchandise was available in the city. They (people of the incoming caravan) made an agreement among themselves on oath not to sell their merchandise for less than a profit of one dinar for each dinar worth of merchandise. After taking possession of their belongings, they returned to al-Madinah and Musadif came to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, with two bagfuls of dinars, each of which had a thousand dinars. He said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, this is the capital and this is the profit.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is a great deal of profit. However, what did you do with the merchandise?’ He (Musadif) told the story of their agreement on oath. He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah is free of all defects. Why do you make an agreement on oath against a Muslim people not to sell for less than a profit of one dinar for each dinar worth of merchandise?’ He (the Imam) then took the two bags and said, ‘This is my capital and we do not need this profit.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘O Musadif, settling with sword is easier than earning by lawful ways.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/150)



2- وَعَنْهُ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْكُوفِيِّ عَنْ عُبَيْسِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَامَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَلَى دَارِ ابْنِ أَبِي مُعَيْطٍ وَكَانَ يُقَامُ فِيهَا الإبِلُ فَقَالَ يَا مَعَاشِرَ السَّمَاسِرَةِ أَقِلُّوا الأيْمَانَ فَإِنَّهَا مَنْفَقَةٌ لِلسِّلْعَةِ مَمْحَقَةٌ لِلرِّبْحِ.


2. Through the same chain of narrators as the previous one is the following Hadith from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Kufiy from ‘Ubays ibn Hisham from Aban ibn Taghlib from abu Hamzah in a marfu’ manner’ has said, the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once stood on the house of ibn abu Mu‘ayt where camel men stayed, and said, ‘O middlemen people, you must reduce swearing; it makes a merchandise easily marketable but destroys the profit.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/151)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ الدِّهْقَانِ عَنْ دُرُسْتَ بْنِ أَبِي مَنْصُورٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ ثَلاثَةٌ لا يَنْظُرُ اللهُ تَعَالَى إِلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَحَدُهُمْ رَجُلٌ اتَّخَذَ اللهَ بِضَاعَةً لا يَشْتَرِي إِلا بِيَمِينٍ وَلا يَبِيعُ إِلا بِيَمِينٍ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Muhammad ibn Tsa from ‘Ubayd Allah al- Dihqan from Durust ibn abu Mansur from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid who has said the following: “Abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘On the Day of Judgment, Allah, most High, will not look to three kinds of people. Of such people one kind is a man who does not buy or sell anything without swearing.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/151)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ زَعْلانَ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْمَاعِيلَ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ إِيَّاكُمْ وَالْحَلْفَ فَإِنَّهُ يُنَفِّقُ السِّلْعَةَ وَيَمْحَقُ الْبَرَكَةَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Tsa from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Za’lan from abu Tsma’il; in a marfu’ manner’ has said, the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would say, ‘Beware of swearing; it may make a merchandise easily sell, but it destroys the blessings.’”