156. Liability for Animal’s Causing Losses

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ شَعِرٍ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ وَالإبِلِ يَكُونُ فِي الرَّعْيِ فَتُفْسِدُ شَيْئاً هَلْ عَلَيْهَا ضَمَانٌ فَقَالَ إِنْ أَفْسَدَتْ نَهَاراً فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهَا ضَمَانٌ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَهُ يَحْفَظُونَهُ وَإِنْ أَفْسَدَتْ لَيْلا فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهَا ضَمَانٌ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Yazid ibn Ishaq Sha‘ir from Harun ibn Hamzah who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of cows, sheep and camels in a pasture which destroy certain things; if anyone is held responsible for anything. He (the Imam) said, ‘If they destroy during the day there is no responsibility; the owners must protect them (their belongings); but if they destroy during the night then the owner of cattle is held responsibility.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/411)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ الْمُعَلَّى أَبِي عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَداوُدَ وَسُلَيْمانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمانِ فِي الْحَرْثِ إِذْ نَفَشَتْ فِيهِ غَنَمُ الْقَوْمِ فَقَالَ لا يَكُونُ النَّفَشُ إِلا بِاللَّيْلِ إِنَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الْحَرْثِ أَنْ يَحْفَظَ الْحَرْثَ بِالنَّهَارِ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الْمَاشِيَةِ حِفْظُهَا بِالنَّهَارِ وَإِنَّمَا رَعْيُهَا بِالنَّهَارِ وَأَرْزَاقُهَا فَمَا أَفْسَدَتْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى أَصْحَابِ الْمَاشِيَةِ حِفْظُ الْمَاشِيَةِ بِاللَّيْلِ عَنْ حَرْثِ النَّاسِ فَمَا أَفْسَدَتْ بِاللَّيْلِ فَقَدْ ضَمِنُوا وَهُوَ النَّفَشُ وَإِنَّ دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) حَكَمَ لِلَّذِي أَصَابَ زَرْعَهُ رِقَابَ الْغَنَمِ وَحَكَمَ سُلَيْمَانُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الرِّسْلَ وَالثَّلَّةَ وَهُوَ اللَّبَنُ وَالصُّوفُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from certain persons of our people from Mu’alla’ abu ‘Uthman from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . and Dawud and Sulayman who judged about the plantation which was damaged by the sheep of the people.’ (21:78) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Such damage can happen only during the night. It is the responsibility of the owner of plantation to protect it during the day. The owner of cattle is not required to protect them during the day. During the day it is grazing and feeding. What is damaged is not the responsibility of its owner. The owner of the cattle is responsible to guard them during the night against destroying the people’s plantation. Whatever they may destroy during the night is the responsibility of the owner of cattle and that is what is called al-Nafsh (grazing). Dawud issued judgment in favor of the one whose plantation was damaged against the owner of sheep. Sulayman issued his judgment to pay for the damage in the form of one year’s milk and wool of the sheep to the owner of the plantation.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/411)



3- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ بَحْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ قَوْلُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَداوُدَ وَسُلَيْمانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمانِ فِي الْحَرْثِ قُلْتُ حِينَ حَكَمَا فِي الْحَرْثِ كَانَتْ قَضِيَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ أَوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى النَّبِيِّينَ قَبْلَ دَاوُدَ إِلَى أَنْ بَعَثَ اللهُ دَاوُدَ أَيُّ غَنَمٍ نَفَشَتْ فِي الْحَرْثِ فَلِصَاحِبِ الْحَرْثِ رِقَابُ الْغَنَمِ وَلا يَكُونُ النَّفَشُ إِلا بِاللَّيْلِ فَإِنَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الزَّرْعِ أَنْ يَحْفَظَهُ بِالنَّهَارِ وَعَلَى صَاحِبِ الْغَنَمِ حِفْظُ الْغَنَمِ بِاللَّيْلِ فَحَكَمَ دَاوُدُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَا حَكَمَتْ بِهِ الأنْبِيَاءُ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلام) مِنْ قَبْلِهِ وَأَوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى سُلَيْمَانَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَيُّ غَنَمٍ نَفَشَتْ فِي زَرْعٍ فَلَيْسَ لِصَاحِبِ الزَّرْعِ إِلا مَا خَرَجَ مِنْ بُطُونِهَا وَكَذَلِكَ جَرَتِ السُّنَّةُ بَعْدَ سُلَيْمَانَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَهُوَ قَوْلُ اللهِ تَعَالَى وَكُلا آتَيْنا حُكْماً وَعِلْماً فَحَكَمَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا بِحُكْمِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bahr from ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once said abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘What is the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, “Dawud and Sulayman who issued judgment about the plantation.’” I asked, ‘Was it one issue about which they gave judgment?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, had sent revelation to the prophets before Dawud about such issue. To Dawud Allah revealed that whatever of sheep graze on a plantation, the owner of the plantation receives the necks of the sheep and such grazing must be that which takes place during the night; the owner of the plantation must protect it during the day; and the owner of the sheep must guard them during the night, therefore, Dawud judged as the prophets had judged before. To Sulayman Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, sent revelation that required the owner of the plantation to ask only for what comes out of the belly of the sheep. This tradition continued after Sulayman and that is mentioned in the words of Allah, most High, “To everyone of them We give command and knowledge,” (22:79) thus, everyone of them judged according to the command of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/412)