132. One’s Renting a House or Land and His Renting to another Tenant for Higher Price

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ الشَّامِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَتَقَبَّلُ الأرْضَ مِنَ الدَّهَاقِينِ فَيُؤَاجِرُهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا يَتَقَبَّلُهَا وَيَقُومُ فِيهَا بِحَظِّ السُّلْطَانِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ إِنَّ الأرْضَ لَيْسَتْ مِثْلَ الأجِيرِ وَلا مِثْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّ فَضْلَ الأجِيرِ وَالْبَيْتِ حَرَامٌ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from all from ibn Mahbub from Khalid ibn Jarir from abu al-Rabi‘ al-Shamiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who contracted land from farmers, then rented it for more to others and undertook the share of al- Sultan. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful because land is not like wages or a house. The increase of wages and house rent is unlawful.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/354)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ الْهَاشِمِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ اسْتَأْجَرَ مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ مِنْ أَرْضِ الْخَرَاجِ بِدَرَاهِمَ مُسَمَّاةٍ أَوْ بِطَعَامٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ آجَرَهَا وَشَرَطَ لِمَنْ يَزْرَعُهَا أَنْ يُقَاسِمَهُ النِّصْفَ أَوْ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ وَلَهُ فِي الأرْضِ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَضْلٌ أَيَصْلُحُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذَا حَفَرَ نَهَراً أَوْ عَمِلَ لَهُمْ شَيْئاً يُعِينُهُمْ بِذَلِكَ فَلَهُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ اسْتَأْجَرَ أَرْضاً مِنْ أَرْضِ الْخَرَاجِ بِدَرَاهِمَ مُسَمَّاةٍ أَوْ بِطَعَامٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَيُؤَاجِرُهَا قِطْعَةً قِطْعَةً أَوْ جَرِيباً جَرِيباً بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَيَكُونُ لَهُ فَضْلٌ فِيمَا اسْتَأْجَرَهُ مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ وَلا يُنْفِقُ شَيْئاً أَوْ يُؤَاجِرُ تِلْكَ الأرْضَ قِطَعاً عَلَى أَنْ يُعْطِيَهُمُ الْبَذْرَ وَالنَّفَقَةَ فَيَكُونُ لَهُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَضْلٌ عَلَى إِجَارَتِهِ وَلَهُ تُرْبَةُ الأرْضِ أَوْ لَيْسَتْ لَهُ فَقَالَ إِذَا اسْتَأْجَرْتَ أَرْضاً فَأَنْفَقْتَ فِيهَا شَيْئاً أَوْ رَمَمْتَ فِيهَا فَلا بَأْسَ بِمَا ذَكَرْتَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban from ‘Isma’il ibn al-Fadl al- Hashimiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who leased from al-Sultan al-Kharaj (tax) land for a known amount of dirham or foodstuff of known amount, then rented to someone with the condition to cultivate it and to divide the produce in half and half or more or less and still something extra remained for him from the land; if it was valid for him. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes it is valid, provided, he digs a canal or a certain work to help them, then it is for him.’ I then asked him (the Imam) about the case of a man who leased a piece of land of Kharaj (tax) land for a certain amount of dirham or foodstuff, then rented it in pieces or by Jirib (a certain unit of measurement) for a known amount, then a certain amount extra remained for him after payment to al-Sultan but he did not spend anything, or that he leased that land in pieces with the condition to give them seed and expenses, then extra remained for him over the rent; if the soil was for him or not. He (the Imam) said, ‘If you rent a land and spend on it or do mending work in it, then the matters you have mentioned are not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/355)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَسْتَأْجِرُ الأرْضَ ثُمَّ يُؤَاجِرُهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اسْتَأْجَرَهَا فَقَالَ لا بَأْسَ إِنَّ هَذَا لَيْسَ كَالْحَانُوتِ وَلا الأجِيرِ إِنَّ فَضْلَ الأجِيرِ وَالْحَانُوتِ حَرَامٌ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from abu al-Mighra’ who has said the following: “About the case of a man who leases a piece of land, then rents it to someone for more than what he has leased for, he (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘It is not unlawful because it is not like a shop or wages; increase of wages and rent of shop is not lawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/355)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلا اسْتَأْجَرَ دَاراً بِعَشَرَةِ دَرَاهِمَ فَسَكَنَ ثُلُثَيْهَا وَآجَرَ ثُلُثَهَا بِعَشَرَةِ دَرَاهِمَ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهِ بَأْسٌ وَلا يُؤَاجِرْهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اسْتَأْجَرَهَا إِلا أَنْ يُحْدِثَ فِيهَا شَيْئاً.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If a man rents a house for ten dirham and lives in it, but uses only two-thirds and rents the other one-third for ten dirhams, it is not unlawful but he must not rent out for more than what has rented (which is ten dirham) unless he introduces something in it.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/356)



5- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ أَنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنَ الْمُثَنَّى سَأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَهُوَ يَسْمَعُ عَنِ الأرْضِ يَسْتَأْجِرُهَا الرَّجُلُ ثُمَّ يُؤَاجِرُهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ لَيْسَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ إِنَّ الأرْضَ لَيْسَتْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْبَيْتِ وَالأجِيرِ إِنَّ فَضْلَ الْبَيْتِ حَرَامٌ وَفَضْلَ الأجِيرِ حَرَامٌ‏.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Faddal from abu al-Mighra’ from Ibrahim ibn Maymun who has said the following: “Ibrahim ibn al-Muthanna’ once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, this, when I was listening, ‘A man leases land, then rents to someone else for more than what he pays.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful because land is not like a house or a worker on hire. Extra in the rent of a house is unlawful and extra in hiring is unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/356)



6- سَهْلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَتَقَبَّلُ الأرْضَ بِالثُّلُثِ أَوِ الرُّبُعِ فَأُقَبِّلُهَا بِالنِّصْفِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ قُلْتُ فَأَتَقَبَّلُهَا بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأُقَبِّلُهَا بِأَلْفَيْنِ قَالَ لا يَجُوزُ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ جَازَ الأوَّلُ وَلَمْ يَجُزِ الثَّانِي قَالَ لأنَّ هَذَا مَضْمُونٌ وَذَلِكَ غَيْرُ مَضْمُونٍ.


6. Sahl ibn Ziyad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Abd al-Karim from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about leasing saying, ‘There is a piece of land and it leased for one-third or one-fourth, then to someone else for one-half.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if I lease for one thousand dirhams and then lease it to someone else for two thousand dirhams?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not lawful.’ I then asked, ‘How is it that it is lawful in the first case and unlawful in the second case?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because in this case it is guaranteed and in that case it is not guaranteed.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/356)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا تَقَبَّلْتَ أَرْضاً بِذَهَبٍ أَوْ فِضَّةٍ فَلا تُقَبِّلْهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا تَقَبَّلْتَهَا بِهِ وَإِنْ تَقَبَّلْتَهَا بِالنِّصْفِ وَالثُّلُثِ فَلَكَ أَنْ تُقَبِّلَهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا تَقَبَّلْتَهَا بِهِ لأنَّ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ مَضْمُونَانِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If you lease a piece of land in exchange for gold or silver, then do not lease it to someone else for more than what you have leased; but if you lease it in exchange for one-half or one-third of the produce you can lease it to someone else for more, because gold and silver are guaranteed.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/357)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَسْتَأْجِرُ الدَّارَ ثُمَّ يُؤَاجِرُهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اسْتَأْجَرَهَا قَالَ لا يَصْلُحُ ذَلِكَ إِلا أَنْ يُحْدِثَ فِيهَا شَيْئاً.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “About the case of a man who leases a house then rents to someone else for more than what he has rented for, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not valid unless he introduces something in it.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/357)



9- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنِّي لأكْرَهُ أَنْ أَسْتَأْجِرَ رَحًى وَحْدَهَا ثُمَّ أُؤَاجِرَهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اسْتَأْجَرْتُهَا بِهِ إِلا أَنْ يُحْدَثَ فِيهَا حَدَثٌ أَوْ تُغْرَمَ فِيهَا غَرَامَةٌ.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘I dislike renting a grinding stone, then renting it out to someone else for more than what I has rented for, unless some improvement is made or loss has taken place.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/357)



10- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ أَخِيهِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ زُرْعَةَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى مَرْعًى يَرْعَى فِيهِ بِخَمْسِينَ دِرْهَماً أَوْ أَقَلَّ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يُدْخِلَ مَعَهُ مَنْ يَرْعَى فِيهِ وَيَأْخُذَ مِنْهُمُ الثَّمَنَ قَالَ فَلْيُدْخِلْ مَعَهُ مَنْ شَاءَ بِبَعْضِ مَا أَعْطَى وَإِنْ أَدْخَلَ مَعَهُ بِتِسْعَةٍ وَأَرْبَعِينَ وَكَانَتْ غَنَمُهُ بِدِرْهَمٍ فَلا بَأْسَ وَإِنْ هُوَ رَعَى فِيهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ بِشَهْرٍ أَوْ شَهْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ بَعْدَ أَنْ يُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ فَلا بَأْسَ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَبِيعَهُ بِخَمْسِينَ دِرْهَماً وَيَرْعَى مَعَهُمْ وَلا بِأَكْثَرَ مِنْ خَمْسِينَ وَلا يَرْعَى مَعَهُمْ إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدْ عَمِلَ فِي الْمَرْعَى عَمَلا حَفَرَ بِئْراً أَوْ شَقَّ نَهَراً أَوْ تَعَنَّى فِيهِ بِرِضَا أَصْحَابِ الْمَرْعَى فَلا بَأْسَ بِبَيْعِهِ بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اشْتَرَاهُ بِهِ لأنَّهُ قَدْ عَمِلَ فِيهِ عَمَلا فَبِذَلِكَ يَصْلُحُ لَهُ.


10. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from his brother, al-Hassan from Zur’ah ibn Muhammad from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “Upon asking him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who buys a pasture for fifty dirham or less or more and he wants to allow entering the pasture whoever wants to enter so that he charges them for it. He (the Imam) said, ‘He can allow whomever he wants with a payment of part of what he has paid. If he enters the pasture with a payment of forty-nine and his sheep (graze) for one dirham, it is not unlawful. He cannot receive payment of fifty dirham and his sheep graze along with them or for more than fifty but his sheep do not graze with them, unless he has done a certain work in the pasture, like digging a well, or a canal or has experienced fatigue in it with the consent of the owners of the pasture, in which case it is not unlawful to sell it for more than for what he has bought, because he has done certain work in it and with this it becomes valid for him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/357)