18. Chapter 15(a) - Distribution of the Properties Captured from the Enemy

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) السَّرِيَّةُ يَبْعَثُهَا الإمَامُ فَيُصِيبُونَ غَنَائِمَ كَيْفَ تُقْسَمُ قَالَ إِنْ قَاتَلُوا عَلَيْهَا مَعَ أَمِيرٍ أَمَّرَهُ الإمَامُ عَلَيْهِمْ أُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا الْخُمُسُ للهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَقُسِمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَرْبَعَةُ أَخْمَاسٍ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا قَاتَلُوا عَلَيْهَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَانَ كُلُّ مَا غَنِمُوا لِلإمَامِ يَجْعَلُهُ حَيْثُ أَحَبَّ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘The Imam dispatches a small armed group against the enemy and they capture properties from the enemy. How should they distribute it?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘If they fight under the command of a commander appointed by the Imam they should keep aside one-fifth thereof and distribute the rest among themselves. If they have not fought the pagans, then all that they have captured belongs to the Imam who distributes as he finds proper.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/380)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَعَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ دَاوُدَ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ غِيَاثٍ قَالَ كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ بَعْضُ إِخْوَانِي أَنْ أَسْأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ مَسَائِلَ مِنَ السُّنَنِ فَسَأَلْتُهُ أَوْ كَتَبْتُ بِهَا إِلَيْهِ فَكَانَ فِيمَا سَأَلْتُهُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الْجَيْشِ إِذَا غَزَا أَرْضَ الْحَرْبِ فَغَنِمُوا غَنِيمَةً ثُمَّ لَحِقَهُمْ جَيْشٌ آخَرُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا إِلَى دَارِ السَّلامِ وَلَمْ يَلْقَوْا عَدُوّاً حَتَّى خَرَجُوا إِلَى دَارِ السَّلامِ هَلْ يُشَارِكُونَهُمْ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ وَعَنْ سَرِيَّةٍ كَانُوا فِي سَفِينَةٍ وَلَمْ يَرْكَبْ صَاحِبُ الْفَرَسِ فَرَسَهُ كَيْفَ تُقْسَمُ الْغَنِيمَةُ بَيْنَهُمْ فَقَالَ لِلْفَارِسِ سَهْمَانِ وَلِلرَّاجِلِ سَهْمٌ فَقُلْتُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَرْكَبُوا وَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوا عَلَى أَفْرَاسِهِمْ فَقَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ كَانُوا فِي عَسْكَرٍ فَتُقَدَّمُ الرُّجَّالُ فَقَاتَلُوا وَغَنِمُوإ؛ كَيْفَ كَانَ يُقْسَمُ بَيْنَهُمْ أَلَمْ أَجْعَلْ لِلْفَارِسِ سَهْمَيْنِ وَلِلرَّاجِلِ سَهْماً وَهُمُ الَّذِينَ غَنِمُوا دُونَ الْفُرْسَانِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Ali ibn Muhammad all have narrated from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Sulayman ibn Dawud from Hafs ibn Ghiyath who has said the following: “Certain ones of my brothers wrote to me to ask abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about certain issue of tradition and I then wrote to the Imam. Of such question one was as follows. ‘An army during a war captures certain amount of properties therein. Thereafter another army arrives and joins them before their coming out of the war zone. They do not face any enemy before returning to peaceful zone. Can the second army share in the captured properties?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Yes, they can share.’ Another question was about an army in the ship where the horse owners do not use their horses. How do they distribute the properties captured from the enemy?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘The share of the owner of horses is twice as much as that of those on foot.’ I then asked, ‘Even if they have not done any fighting when riding their horses?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Suppose if they are in an army and people on foot move first, fight and capture properties. How would they distribute the properties?’ Is not the share of people with horses twice as much as the share of the people on foot who are the ones who had captured the properties and not the people who had horses?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/380)



3- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ النَّضْرِ عَنْ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِذَا كَانَ مَعَ الرَّجُلِ أَفْرَاسٌ فِي الْغَزْوِ لَمْ يُسْهَمْ لَهُ إِلا لِفَرَسَيْنِ مِنْهَا.


3. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn Salim from Ahmad ibn al-Al-Nadr ibn al-Suwayd from al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allah from his father from his grandfather who has said the following: “If a person had many horses during a war Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would give him the shares for two of his horses only.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/381)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ يُؤْخَذُ الْخُمُسُ مِنَ الْغَنَائِمِ فَيُجْعَلُ لِمَنْ جَعَلَهُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَيُقْسَمُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَخْمَاسٍ بَيْنَ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَوَلِيَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ وَلِلإمَامِ صَفْوُ الْمَالِ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْجَارِيَةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَالدَّابَّةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَالثَّوْبَ وَالْمَتَاعَ مِمَّا يُحِبُّ وَيَشْتَهِي فَذَلِكَ لَهُ قَبْلَ قِسْمَةِ الْمَالِ وَقَبْلَ إِخْرَاجِ الْخُمُسِ قَالَ وَلَيْسَ لِمَنْ قَاتَلَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنَ الأرَضِينَ وَلا مَا غَلَبُوا عَلَيْهِ إِلا مَا احْتَوَى عَلَيْهِ الْعَسْكَرُ وَلَيْسَ لِلأعْرَابِ مِنَ الْغَنِيمَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَإِنْ قَاتَلُوا مَعَ الإمَامِ لأنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) صَالَحَ الأعْرَابَ أَنْ يَدَعَهُمْ فِي دِيَارِهِمْ وَلا يُهَاجِرُوا عَلَى أَنَّهُ إِنْ دَهِمَ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ دَهْمٌ أَنْ يَسْتَفِزَّهُمْ فَيُقَاتِلَ بِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ نَصِيبٌ وَسُنَّةٌ جَارِيَةٌ فِيهِمْ وَفِي غَيْرِهِمْ وَالأرْضُ الَّتِي أُخِذَتْ عَنْوَةً بِخَيْلٍ أَوْ رِكَابٍ فَهِيَ مَوْقُوفَةٌ مَتْرُوكَةٌ فِي يَدَيْ مَنْ يَعْمُرُهَا وَ يُحْيِيهَا وَيَقُومُ عَلَيْهَا عَلَى مَا يُصَالِحُهُمُ الْوَالِي عَلَى قَدْرِ طَاقَتِهِمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ النِّصْفِ وَالثُّلُثِ وَالثُّلُثَيْنِ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَكُونُ لَهُمْ صَالِحاً وَلا يَضُرُّهُمْ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad from certain individuals of his people from abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, who has said the following: “One fifth of the properties captured is first kept aside to distribute as Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has instructed. The remaining properties are distributed among those who have taken part in the war in which the properties were captured and are the authority thereof. He (the Imam) said, ‘The Imam has the right to have the best from such properties, the best slave-girls and the best animals, the best cloths and other items which are liked and desired for. Such items are for him (the Imam) before the distribution and before the deduction of the one-fifth. He (the Imam) then said, ‘There is nothing for the fighters of the land and not even of that on which they have defeated the enemy except that much which contains the army. The Arabs do not have any share in the properties captured in the war even if they are of the fighters alongside the Imam. It is because the Messenger of Allah had made a treaty with them which said that they can live in their land and do not migrate. In exchange, they must mobilize against those of the enemies who may attack the Messenger of Allah and fight them and will not have any share in the properties captured from the enemy. It is a tradition established in them and others. “The land which is taken by force and means such as mules and other means are of endowment that is left alone in the hands of those who revive them. They reach a settlement with governing authority on the basis of their abilities to pay back such as half, one-third or two-thirds and so on so that they can benefit and do not suffer losses.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/381)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الأعْرَابِ عَلَيْهِمْ جِهَادٌ قَالَ لا إِلا أَنْ يُخَافَ عَلَى الإسْلامِ فَيُسْتَعَانَ بِهِمْ قُلْتُ فَلَهُمْ مِنَ الْجِزْيَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ لا.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mansur from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, Ts it obligatory for the Arabs to do Jihad?’ He (the Imam) replied, ’No, Jihad is not obligatory on them unless al-Islam is feared for.’ I then asked, ’Do they have any share in al-Jizyah (taxes)?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘No, they do not have any share therein.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/382)



6- عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ آبَائِهِ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلام) عَنْ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَأْتِي الْقَوْمَ وَقَدْ غَنِمُوا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ شَهِدَ الْقِتَالَ فَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) هَؤُلاءِ الْمَحْرُومُونَ وَأَمَرَ أَنْ يُقْسَمَ لَهُمْ.


6. It is narrated from the same narrator (the narrator of the previous Hadith) from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Talhah ibn Zayd from abu ‘Abd Allah from his ancestors, recipients of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “About a man who joins an army who have captured properties but he has not taken part in fighting Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ’These people are deprived (from reward). He however, commanded to give such people a share.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف كالموثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/382)



7- مُحَمَّدٌ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْغَنِيمَةِ فَقَالَ يُخْرَجُ مِنْهَا خُمُسٌ للهِ وَخُمُسٌ لِلرَّسُولِ وَمَا بَقِيَ قُسِمَ بَيْنَ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَوَلِيَ ذَلِكَ.


7. Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mansur ibn Hazim from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about properties gained during a war from the enemies. He (the Imam) replied, ’One-fifth is kept aside thereof which is for Allah and the Messenger. The rest is divided among the fighters and the guardian thereof.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/382)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) خَرَجَ بِالنِّسَاءِ فِي الْحَرْبِ حَتَّى يُدَاوِينَ الْجَرْحَى وَلَمْ يَقْسِمْ لَهُنَّ مِنَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ شَيْئاً وَلَكِنَّهُ نَفَّلَهُنَّ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn all from ‘Uthman from ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah from one of the two Imams, recipients of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “The Messenger of Allah took part in war in company of women so that they could nurse the wounded. He did not give them a share of the captured properties but he did so in an optional manner.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/382)