82. Matters from Which One Must Not Do in the State of al-’Ihram, Such as Quarrelling

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُوماتٌ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدالَ فِي الْحَجِّ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ اشْتَرَطَ عَلَى النَّاسِ شَرْطاً وَشَرَطَ لَهُمْ شَرْطاً قُلْتُ فَمَا الَّذِي اشْتَرَطَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا الَّذِي اشْتَرَطَ لَهُمْ فَقَالَ أَمَّا الَّذِي اشْتَرَطَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَإِنَّهُ قَالَ الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُوماتٌ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَأَمَّا مَا شَرَطَ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّهُ قَالَ فَمَنْ تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْ تَأَخَّرَ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقى‏ قَالَ يَرْجِعُ لا ذَنْبَ لَهُ قَالَ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ مَنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِالْفُسُوقِ مَا عَلَيْهِ قَالَ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ الله لَهُ حَدّاً يَسْتَغْفِرُ الله وَيُلَبِّي قُلْتُ فَمَنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِالْجِدَالِ مَا عَلَيْهِ قَالَ إِذَا جَادَلَ فَوْقَ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَعَلَى الْمُصِيبِ دَمٌ يُهَرِيقُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُخْطِىِ بَقَرَةٌ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “This is about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘The months of al-Hajj are well known. Those who make al-Hajj obligatory upon themselves in these months, must take notice that there is no sexual relation, lying and swearing in al-Hajj.’ (2:196) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has set one condition against people and one condition for them.’ I then asked, ‘What is the condition against them and what is for them?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The one against them is, “The months of al-Hajj are well known. Those who make al-Hajj obligatory upon themselves in these months must take notice that there is no sexual relation, lying and swearing in al-Hajj” and the one for them is, “Those who are two days earlier, it is not a sin and those who are two days later, it is not a sin for those who observe piety.’” (2:202) He (the Imam) said, ‘He comes back with no sins on him.’ I then asked, ‘What is against one who sins?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What is against him is not definite but he must plead for forgiveness and say Talbiyah.’ I then asked, ‘What is against one who quarrels?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If one quarrels and argues more than twice because of it if true there is one animal to offer as expiation and if wrong, there is one cow to slaughter as expiation.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/269)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لله قَالَ إِتْمَامُهَا أَنْ لا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘Complete al-Hajj and al-‘Umrah for the sake of Allah,’ (2:195) he (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The completion means, no sexual relation, lying and swearing in al-Hajj.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/273)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى وَابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِذَا أَحْرَمْتَ فَعَلَيْكَ بِتَقْوَى الله وَذِكْرِ الله كَثِيراً وَقِلَّةِ الْكَلامِ إِلاَّ بِخَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ مِنْ تَمَامِ الْحَجِّ وَالْعُمْرَةِ أَنْ يَحْفَظَ الْمَرْءُ لِسَانَهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ كَمَا قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَالرَّفَثُ الْجِمَاعُ وَالْفُسُوقُ الْكَذِبُ وَالسِّبَابُ وَالْجِدَالُ قَوْلُ الرَّجُلِ لا وَالله وَبَلَى وَالله وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا حَلَفَ بِثَلاثِ أَيْمَانٍ وِلاءً فِي مَقَامٍ وَاحِدٍ وَهُوَ مُحْرِمٌ فَقَدْ جَادَلَ فَعَلَيْهِ دَمٌ يُهَرِيقُهُ وَيَتَصَدَّقُ بِهِ وَإِذَا حَلَفَ يَمِيناً وَاحِدَةً كَاذِبَةً فَقَدْ جَادَلَ وَعَلَيْهِ دَمٌ يُهَرِيقُهُ وَيَتَصَدَّقُ بِهِ وَقَالَ اتَّقِ الْمُفَاخَرَةَ وَعَلَيْكَ بِوَرَعٍ يَحْجُزُكَ عَنْ مَعَاصِي الله فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَلْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا بِالْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله مِنَ التَّفَثِ أَنْ تَتَكَلَّمَ فِي إِحْرَامِكَ بِكَلامٍ قَبِيحٍ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتَ مَكَّةَ وَطُفْتَ بِالْبَيْتِ وَتَكَلَّمْتَ بِكَلامٍ طَيِّبٍ فَكَانَ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةً قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَقُولُ لا لَعَمْرِي وَبَلَى لَعَمْرِي قَالَ لَيْسَ هَذَا مِنَ الْجِدَالِ إِنَّمَا الْجِدَالُ لا وَالله وَبَلَى وَالله.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from and Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya and ibn abu ‘Umayr all from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When you assume the state of Ihram you must maintain piety before Allah. You must speak of Allah very often, talk very little unless it is for good reasons, of the completion of al-Hajj and al-‘Umrah is safeguarding one’s tongue except in what is good. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “Those who make al-Hajj obligatory upon themselves must take notice that there is no sexual relation, lying, abusing and swearing in al-Hajj.” (2:197) Swearing means to say, “No, by Allah, yes, by Allah.” One must take notice that when a man swears three times at one place in the state of Ihram, he has committed al-Jidal (swearing), and he must offer an animal offering and give it as charity. For swearing only once which is a lie, he has committed al-Jidal (swearing), he must offer an animal offering and give it as charity.’ He (the Imam) has said, ‘Avoid boastfulness and you must stay away from sins in disobedience to Allah; Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, “Then you must remove the dirt away from you, fulfill your vows and perform Tawaf around the free House.’” (21:28) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is of al-Tafath (dirt) to speak improper words. When you enter Makkah, perform Tawaf around the House and speak nice words, it will be expiation (for speaking improper words).’ I asked him (the Imam) about the man who says, ‘No, I swear by my life, yes, by my life.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘That is not swearing. Swearing is saying, ‘No, by Allah, yes, by Allah.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/273)



4ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا حَلَفَ ثَلاثَ أَيْمَانٍ مُتَتَابِعَاتٍ صَادِقاً فَقَدْ جَادَلَ وَعَلَيْهِ دَمٌ وَإِذَا حَلَفَ بِيَمِينٍ وَاحِدَةٍ كَاذِباً فَقَدْ جَادَلَ وَعَلَيْهِ دَمٌ.


4. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from abu Basir who has said the following: “One of the two Imam, (abu Ja’far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, has said, ’If one swears three times, one immediately after the other and they are true, he has committed Jidal (swearing) and he owes one animal offering. If one swears one false swearing, he has committed Jidal (swearing) and he owes one animal offering/”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/276)



5ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمُحْرِمِ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَعْمَلَ الْعَمَلَ فَيَقُولُ لَهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَالله لا تَعْمَلْهُ فَيَقُولُ وَالله لأَعْمَلَنَّهُ فَيُخَالِفُهُ مِرَاراً أَ يَلْزَمُهُ مَا يَلْزَمُ صَاحِبَ الْجِدَالِ قَالَ لا إِنَّمَا أَرَادَ بِهَذَا إِكْرَامَ أَخِيهِ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ مَا كَانَ لله فِيهِ مَعْصِيَةٌ.


5. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who in the state of Ihram wants to do something and says to his friend, ’By Allah, you must not do it.’ He says, ’By Allah, I certainly want to do it.’ He opposes him several times. What does the swearing one owe? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, by this he meant to respect his brother. That which involves expiation is when Allah is disobeyed thereby.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/277)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ فِي الْجِدَالِ شَاةٌ وَفِي السِّبَابِ وَالْفُسُوقِ بَقَرَةٌ وَالرَّفَثِ فَسَادُ الْحَجِّ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from abu al- Mighra’ from Sulayman ibn Khalid who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘The expiation for abusing and swearing is a cow and because of sexual relation al-Hajj becomes invalid.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/277)