55. The Case of Fasting during Menses: Major or Minor One

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) الْحَائِضُ تَقْضِي الصَّوْمَ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ تَقْضِي الصَّلاةَ قَالَ لا قُلْتُ مِنْ أَيْنَ جَاءَ هَذَا قَالَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ قَاسَ إِبْلِيسُ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Hassan ibn Rashid who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if a woman experiencing Hayd (menses) is required to complete Qada’ (compensatory fast) of the fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, she is required to complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast).’ I then asked if she is required to perform Qada’ (compensatory salat) of Salat (prayer)?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, she is not required to perform Qada’ (compensatory salat) for Salat (prayer).’ I then asked, ‘On what basis is it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The first one who analogized was Iblis (Satan).”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/339)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ أَصْبَحَتْ صَائِمَةً فَلَمَّا ارْتَفَعَ النَّهَارُ أَوْ كَانَ الْعَشِيُّ حَاضَتْ أَ تُفْطِرُ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ وَقْتُ الْمَغْرِبِ فَلْتُفْطِرْ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ رَأَتِ الطُّهْرَ فِي أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَتَغْتَسِلُ وَلَمْ تَطْعَمْ فَمَا تَصْنَعُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ قَالَ تُفْطِرُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ فَإِنَّمَا فِطْرُهَا مِنَ الدَّمِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who gets up in the morning fasting but when the day rises or in the evening experiences Hayd (menses), if she can stop fasting. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, even if it is al-Maghrib (sunset), she can stop fasting.’ I then asked him (the Imam) about the case of a woman who becomes clean of Hayd (menses) in the morning of the month of Ramadan and she takes Ghusl (bath); but does not eat what should she do?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘She stops fasting that day; bleeding has invalidated her fast.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/339)



3ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عِيصِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ تَطْمَثُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَغِيبَ الشَّمْسُ قَالَ تُفْطِرُ حِينَ تَطْمَثُ.


3. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Is ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who experiences Hayd (menses) in the month of Ramadan before sunset. He (the Imam) said, ‘She must stop fasting at the time she finds Hayd (menses).”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/340)



4ـ صَفْوَانُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ تَلِدُ بَعْدَ الْعَصْرِ أَ تُتِمُّ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ أَمْ تُفْطِرُ قَالَ تُفْطِرُ وَتَقْضِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ.


4. From Safwan ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who gives birth after al-‘Asr if she completes or stops fasting on that day. He (the Imam) said, ‘She must stop fasting, and complete Qada’ (compensatory fast) of that day.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/340)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْمُسْتَحَاضَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ تَصُومُ شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ إِلاَّ الأَيَّامَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تَحِيضُ فِيهِنَّ ثُمَّ تَقْضِيهَا بَعْدَهُ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who experiences Istihadah. He (the Imam) said, ‘She is required to fast in the month of Ramadan except for the days during which she used to experience Hayd (menses) and thereafter complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast).”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/340)



6ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) امْرَأَةٌ طَهُرَتْ مِنْ حَيْضِهَا أَوْ مِنْ دَمِ نِفَاسِهَا فِي أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ اسْتَحَاضَتْ فَصَلَّتْ وَصَامَتْ شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ كُلَّهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ تَعْمَلَ مَا تَعْمَلُ الْمُسْتَحَاضَةُ مِنَ الْغُسْلِ لِكُلِّ صَلاتَيْنِ فَهَلْ يَجُوزُ صَوْمُهَا وَصَلاتُهَا أَمْ لا فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) تَقْضِي صَوْمَهَا وَلا تَقْضِي صَلاتَهَا إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَانَ يَأْمُرُ فَاطِمَةَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ مِنْ نِسَائِهِ بِذَلِكَ.


6. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Ali ibn Mahziyar from who has said the following: “I once wrote to him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who becomes clean of Hayd (menses) or childbirth bleeding on the first day of the month of Ramadan. She then experiences istihadah, she performs Salat (prayer) and fasts in all of the month of Ramadan without doing what a woman experiencing istihadah is required to do such as Ghusl (bath) for every Salat (prayer): if her fast and Salat (prayer) are valid. He (the Imam) wrote, ‘She completes Qada’ (compensatory fast) of fast but not Qada’ (compensatory salat) for her Salat (prayer); the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, would instruct Fatimah, ‘Alayha al-Salam, and the believing women to do so.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/340)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي امْرَأَةٍ أَصْبَحَتْ صَائِمَةً فَلَمَّا ارْتَفَعَ النَّهَارُ أَوْ كَانَ الْعَشِيُّ حَاضَتْ أَ تُفْطِرُ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَبْلَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَلْتُفْطِرْ وَعَنِ امْرَأَةٍ تَرَى الطُّهْرَ مِنْ أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ لَمْ تَغْتَسِلْ وَلَمْ تَطْعَمْ كَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ قَالَ إِنَّمَا فِطْرُهَا مِنَ الدَّمِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from abu al-Sabbah al-Kinaniy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who gets up fasting but when the day rises or it becomes evening, she experiences Hayd (menses), if she stops fasting. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, she is required to stop fasting even if it is before al-Maghrib.’ I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who becomes clean of Hayd (menses) in the beginning of the day in the month of Ramadan, does not take Ghusl (bath) and does not eat; what should she do about that day. He (the Imam) said, ‘Blood discharge has invalidated her fast.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/343)



8ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ مَرِضَتْ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَمَاتَتْ فِي شَوَّالٍ فَأَوْصَتْنِي أَنْ أَقْضِيَ عَنْهَا قَالَ هَلْ بَرَأَتْ مِنْ مَرَضِهَا قُلْتُ لا مَاتَتْ فِيهِ فَقَالَ لا تَقْضِ عَنْهَا فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمْ يَجْعَلْهُ عَلَيْهَا قُلْتُ فَإِنِّي أَشْتَهِي أَنْ أَقْضِيَ عَنْهَا وَقَدْ أَوْصَتْنِي بِذَلِكَ قَالَ كَيْفَ تَقْضِي عَنْهَا شَيْئاً لَمْ يَجْعَلْهُ الله عَلَيْهَا فَإِنِ اشْتَهَيْتَ أَنْ تَصُومَ لِنَفْسِكَ فَصُمْ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Muhammad ibn Yahya from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who became ill in the month of Ramadan and dies in the month of Shawwal. She asked me, in her will, to complete Qada’ (compensatory fast), on her behalf. He (the Imam) asked, ‘Did she get well from her illness?’ I replied, ‘No, she did not get well, but she died from that illness.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Do not complete Qada’ (compensatory fast) on her behalf; Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has not made anything obligatory on her.’ I said, ‘I like to carry out on her behalf because she has asked in her will.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘How can you carry out on her behalf something that Allah has not placed on her? If you like to fast for yourself, you may do so.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/343)



9ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ مَرِضَتْ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ أَوْ طَمِثَتْ أَوْ سَافَرَتْ فَمَاتَتْ قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ هَلْ يُقْضَى عَنْهَا قَالَ أَمَّا الطَّمْثُ وَالْمَرَضُ فَلا وَأَمَّا السَّفَرُ فَنَعَمْ.


9. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Hamzah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who becomes ill in the month of Ramadan, or experiences Hayd (menses) or travels and then dies before the month of Ramadan ends: if she owes to carry out Qada’ (compensatory fast). He (the Imam) said, ‘Because of Hayd (menses) and illness there is no Qada’ (compensatory fast), however, because of traveling there is Qada’ (compensatory fast) on her.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/344)



10ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ مُوسَى قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ تَنْذِرُ عَلَيْهَا صَوْمَ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ قَالَ تَصُومُ وَتَسْتَأْنِفُ أَيَّامَهَا الَّتِي قَعَدَتْ حَتَّى تُتِمَّ شَهْرَيْنِ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ هِيَ يَئِسَتْ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ أَ تَقْضِيهِ قَالَ لا تَقْضِي يُجْزِئُهَا الأَوَّلُ.


10. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Rifa’ah ibn Musa who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who vows to fast for two consecutive months. He (the Imam) said, ‘She is required to fast and fasts again for the days that were missed because of her Hayd (menses) until two months are complete.’ I then asked, ‘If she during her menopause fasts, does she still have to carry out Qada’ (compensatory fast)?’ He (the Imam) said,


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/344)



11ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنَّ امْرَأَتِي جَعَلَتْ عَلَى نَفْسِهَا صَوْمَ شَهْرَيْنِ فَوَضَعَتْ وَلَدَهَا وَأَدْرَكَهَا الْحَبَلُ فَلَمْ تَقْوَ عَلَى الصَّوْمِ قَالَ فَلْتَتَصَدَّقْ مَكَانَ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ بِمُدٍّ عَلَى مِسْكِينٍ.


11. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al-Husayn ibn ‘Uthman from ibn Muskan from Muhammad ibn Ja’far who has said the following: “I once said to abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that my woman had placed upon herself fasting for two months. She gave birth; then became pregnant. She is not able to fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘She is required to pay charity of one mud (certain measurement) for everyday to a destitute person.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/344)