56. The Case of One Who Owes Fasting of Two Consecutive Months but an Obstacle Prevents Him

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي الرَّجُلِ الْحُرِّ يَلْزَمُهُ صَوْمُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فِي ظِهَارٍ فَيَصُومُ شَهْراً ثُمَّ يَمْرَضُ قَالَ يَسْتَقْبِلُ وَإِنْ زَادَ عَلَى الشَّهْرِ الآخَرِ يَوْماً أَوْ يَوْمَيْنِ بَنَى عَلَى مَا بَقِيَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil and Muhammad ibn Humran who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who is free and owes two consecutive months of fasting because of Zihar (calling on oath the back of one’s wife as that of one’s mother). He fasts for one month, then becomes ill. He (the Imam) said, ‘One is required to start all over again; however, if one fasts one month and one day of the next month, then it is permissible to begin from where one has left.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/345)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ صِيَامُ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ فِي الظِّهَارِ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ وَالتَّتَابُعُ أَنْ يَصُومَ شَهْراً وَيَصُومَ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ الآخَرِ أَيَّاماً أَوْ شَيْئاً مِنْهُ فَإِنْ عَرَضَ لَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ يُفْطَرُ فِيهِ أَفْطَرَ ثُمَّ قَضَى مَا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ صَامَ شَهْراً ثُمَّ عَرَضَ لَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَأَفْطَرَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَصُومَ مِنَ الآخَرِ شَيْئاً فَلَمْ يُتَابِعْ أَعَادَ الصِّيَامَ كُلَّهُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘In fasting, as expiation for an oath in the case of Zihar which is two consecutive months of fasting, consecutive order is established by fasting one whole month and certain days of the next month or something thereof. Thereafter if something occurs to him he may eat and then carryout Qada’ (compensatory fast) of what remains of the two months. If one fasts for one month only, then something occurs before fasting even one day of the second month, because of which one stops fasting, consecutive order becomes invalid; thus one is required to start all over again.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/346)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ أَ يُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الأَيَّامِ فَقَالَ إِذَا صَامَ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ شَهْرٍ فَوَصَلَهُ ثُمَّ عَرَضَ لَهُ أَمْرٌ فَأَفْطَرَ فَلا بَأْسَ فَإِنْ كَانَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ شَهْرٍ أَوْ شَهْراً فَعَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُعِيدَ الصِّيَامَ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who owes two consecutive months of fasting if he can separate the days. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he fasts for more than one month consecutively, then something happens because of which he stops fasting, it is not harmful; but if it is one month or less than one month, then he is required to start all over again.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/346)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي رَجُلٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فِي ظِهَارٍ فَصَامَ ذَا الْقَعْدَةِ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ ذُو الْحِجَّةِ قَالَ يَصُومُ ذَا الْحِجَّةِ كُلَّهُ إِلاَّ أَيَّامَ التَّشْرِيقِ يَقْضِيهَا فِي أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنَ الْمُحَرَّمِ حَتَّى يُتِمَّ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فَيَكُونُ قَدْ صَامَ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ قَالَ وَلا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَقْرَبَ أَهْلَهُ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ الَّتِي لَمْ يَصُمْهَا وَلا بَأْسَ إِنْ صَامَ شَهْراً ثُمَّ صَامَ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ الآخَرِ الَّذِي يَلِيهِ أَيَّاماً ثُمَّ عَرَضَ لَهُ عِلَّةٌ أَنْ يَقْطَعَهَا ثُمَّ يَقْضِيَ مِنْ بَعْدِ تَمَامِ الشَّهْرَيْنِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who owes two consecutive months of fasting because of Zihar and fasts the month of Dhu al-Qa’dah, then the month of Dhu al-Hajjah comes. He (the Imam) said, ‘He can fast the whole month of Dhu al-Hajjah except the days of tashriq (11, 12, 13) which he can make its Qada’ (compensatory fast) in the beginning of Muharram to complete three days, and in this way he has fasted two consecutive months.’ He (the Imam) said that it is not proper for him to go near his wife before completing Qada’ (compensatory fast) of the three days of tashriq, which he did not fast. It is not harmful to fast one month and certain days of the following month, and if something happens because of which fasting discontinues he can carry out its Qada’ (compensatory fast) after completing the two months.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/347)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ صَامَ فِي ظِهَارٍ شَعْبَانَ ثُمَّ أَدْرَكَهُ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ قَالَ يَصُومُ رَمَضَانَ وَيَسْتَأْنِفُ الصَّوْمَ فَإِنْ هُوَ صَامَ فِي الظِّهَارِ فَزَادَ فِي النِّصْفِ يَوْماً قَضَى بَقِيَّتَهُ.


5. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from Mansur who has said the following: “About a man who fasts because of Zihar in the month of al-Sha‘ban, then the month of Ramadan comes; abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘He is required to fast the month of Ramadan, then resume the fast. If because of Zihar he fasted for more than half by one day he completes only Qada’ (compensatory fast) of the rest.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/347)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ جَعَلَ عَلَيْهِ صَوْمَ شَهْرٍ فَصَامَ مِنْهُ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ عَرَضَ لَهُ أَمْرٌ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ صَامَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً فَلَهُ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ مَا بَقِيَ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً لَمْ يُجْزِئْهُ حَتَّى يَصُومَ شَهْراً تَامّاً.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr from al-Fudayl who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who makes it obligatory upon himself to fast one month. He fasts fifteen days then something happens. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he has fasted fifteen days he completes (compensatory fast) of the rest but if it is less than fifteen days, it is not sufficient until he fasts one whole month.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/347)



7ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ قَطْعِ صَوْمِ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ وَكَفَّارَةِ الظِّهَارِ وَكَفَّارَةِ الْقَتْلِ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ صِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فَأَفْطَرَ أَوْ مَرِضَ فِي الشَّهْرِ الأَوَّلِ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُعِيدَ الصِّيَامَ وَإِنْ صَامَ الشَّهْرَ الأَوَّلَ وَصَامَ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ الثَّانِي شَيْئاً ثُمَّ عَرَضَ لَهُ مَا لَهُ فِيهِ عُذْرٌ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ.


7. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about one’s discontinuing the fast which is for expiation due to an oath, Zihar or murder. He (the Imam) said, ‘If one owes fasting for two consecutive months, then stops fasting because of illness in the first month, he is required to resume the fast all over again. If one fasts the first month and also certain days from the second month then something happens which is good reason, he only is required to complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/348)



8ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ قَتَلَ رَجُلاً خَطَأً فِي الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قَالَ تُغَلَّظُ عَلَيْهِ الدِّيَةُ وَعَلَيْهِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ أَوْ صِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِنْ أَشْهُرِ الْحُرُمِ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُ يَدْخُلُ فِي هَذَا شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ مَا هُوَ قُلْتُ يَوْمُ الْعِيدِ وَأَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ قَالَ يَصُومُهُ فَإِنَّهُ حَقٌّ يَلْزَمُهُ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who kills a person by mistake in a sacred month. He (the Imam) said, ‘Blood money has become substantial on him. He is required to set a slave free or fast for two consecutive months of the sacred ones.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if something takes place in between?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Give an example.’ I said, ‘If ‘Id day or the days of tashriq (11, 12, and 13) come in between. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to fast because it is a binding right upon him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/348)



9ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) رَجُلٌ قَتَلَ رَجُلاً فِي الْحَرَمِ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ دِيَةٌ وَثُلُثٌ وَيَصُومُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِنْ أَشْهُرِ الْحُرُمِ وَيُعْتِقُ رَقَبَةً وَيُطْعِمُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِيناً قَالَ قُلْتُ يَدْخُلُ فِي هَذَا شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ وَمَا يَدْخُلُ قُلْتُ الْعِيدَانِ وَأَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ قَالَ يَصُومُهُ فَإِنَّهُ حَقٌّ لَزِمَهُ.


9. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Aban ibn Taghlib from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who kills a man in the sacred area. He (the Imam) said, ‘He owes one full and a half blood money, wergild. He fasts for two consecutive months of the sacred months, sets free a slave and feeds sixty destitute people.’ I then said, ‘What happens if something comes in between?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Give an example.’ I said, ‘The two ‘Id and the days of tashriq (11, 12, and 13).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to fast because it is an established right on him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/349)