33. Preferences for Relatives and Those of Them to Whom Zakat Cannot Be Paid

Back to book

1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ لِي قَرَابَةٌ أُنْفِقُ عَلَى بَعْضِهِمْ وَأُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَيَأْتِينِي إِبَّانُ الزَّكَاةِ أَ فَأُعْطِيهِمْ مِنْهَا قَالَ مُسْتَحِقُّونَ لَهَا قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ هُمْ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ أَعْطِهِمْ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَلْزَمُنِي مِنْ ذَوِي قَرَابَتِي حَتَّى لاَ أَحْسُبَ الزَّكَاةَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ أَبُوكَ وَأُمُّكَ قُلْتُ أَبِي وَأُمِّي قَالَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْوُلْدُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Utbah from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once said to abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that I pay Zakat to my relatives and give preference to certain ones among them over the others when it is time to pay Zakat. He (the Imam) asked, ’Are they deserving beneficiaries?’ I replied, ‘Yes, they deserve.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘They are better than others, you should give it to them.’ I then asked, ‘Who among them is the one to whom I must not pay as Zakat?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘They are your father and mother.’ I then said, ‘My father and mother!’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The parents and children.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/94)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُثَنًّى عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلَهُ رَجُلٌ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ قَالَ أُعْطِي قَرَابَتِي زَكَاةَ مَالِي وَهُمْ لاَ يَعْرِفُونَ قَالَ فَقَالَ لاَ تُعْطِ الزَّكَاةَ إِلاَّ مُسْلِماً وَأَعْطِهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَ تَرَوْنَ أَنَّمَا فِي الْمَالِ الزَّكَاةُ وَحْدَهَا مَا فَرَضَ الله فِي الْمَالِ مِنْ غَيْرِ الزَّكَاةِ أَكْثَرُ تُعْطِي مِنْهُ الْقَرَابَةَ وَالْمُعْتَرِضَ لَكَ مِمَّنْ يَسْأَلُكَ فَتُعْطِيهِ مَا لَمْ تَعْرِفْهُ بِالنَّصْبِ فَإِذَا عَرَفْتَهُ بِالنَّصْبِ فَلاَ تُعْطِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَخَافَ لِسَانَهُ فَتَشْتَرِيَ دِينَكَ وَعِرْضَكَ مِنْهُ.


2. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Muthanna’ from abu Basir who has said the following: “Once someone asked him (the Imam) ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when I was hearing, saying, ‘Can I pay Zakat to my relatives and they do not know (this belief)? He (the Imam) said, ‘Do not pay Zakat to anyone who is not a Muslim, but give them from other things.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said, ‘Do you think that Allah has made just Zakat obligatory on one’s assets? In fact, other things that Allah has made obligatory on one’s assets are more than Zakat. You pay to relatives, to one who asks you and you pay as long as you do not know him to be hostile; but when you learn that he is hostile, then do not pay him anything unless you are afraid of his tongue, in which case you buy your religion and dignity from him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/95)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ لَهُ قَرَابَةٌ وَمَوَالِي وَأَتْبَاعٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَلَيْسَ يَعْرِفُونَ صَاحِبَ هَذَا الأمْرِ أَ يُعْطَوْنَ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ قَالَ لاَ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr who has said the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has relatives, friends and followers who love ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, but they do not acknowledge the owner of this issue (one who possesses Divine Authority) if he can give Zakat to them. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, he cannot give Zakat to them.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/95)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ زُرْعَةَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَكُونُ لَهُ الزَّكَاةُ وَلَهُ قَرَابَةٌ مُحْتَاجُونَ غَيْرُ عَارِفِينَ أَ يُعْطِيهِمْ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ فَقَالَ لاَ وَلاَ كَرَامَةَ لاَ يَجْعَلُ الزَّكَاةَ وِقَايَةً لِمَالِهِ يُعْطِيهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ الزَّكَاةِ إِنْ أَرَادَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Zur’ah ibn Muhammad from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who owes Zakat and has needy relatives who do not know (one who possesses Divine Authority). ‘Can he give Zakat to them?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, he cannot give them and it is not an honor. He must not make Zakat to guard his assets. He can give them from his other assets if he likes.’”




5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ خَمْسَةٌ لاَ يُعْطَوْنَ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ شَيْئاً الأبُ وَالأمُّ وَالْوَلَدُ وَالْمَمْلُوكُ وَالْمَرْأَةُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُمْ عِيَالُهُ لاَزِمُونَ لَهُ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Zakat cannot be given to five kinds of people: father, mother, children, slaves, and one’s wife, because they are one’s dependents for whom one must provide sustenance.’”




6ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ زَيْدٍ الشَّحَّامِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ فِي الزَّكَاةِ يُعْطَى مِنْهَا الأخُ وَالأخْتُ وَالْعَمُّ وَالْعَمَّةُ وَالْخَالُ وَالْخَالَةُ وَلاَ يُعْطَى الْجَدُّ وَلاَ الْجَدَّةُ.


6. Ahmad ibn Idris and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from abu Jamilah from Zayd al-Shahham who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Zakat can be given to one’s brother, sister, uncle, aunt (paternal and maternal); but it cannot be given to grandfather and grandmother.’”




7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) رَجُلٌ مِنْ مَوَالِيكَ لَهُ قَرَابَةٌ كُلُّهُمْ يَقُولُ بِكَ وَلَهُ زَكَاةٌ أَ يَجُوزُ لَهُ أَنْ يُعْطِيَهُمْ جَمِيعَ زَكَاتِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya and Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah have narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Ja‘far from Ahmad ibn Hamzah who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who is one of your followers whose relatives all speak of you and he owes Zakat; can he pay all of his Zakat to them. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he can do so.’”




8ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَضَعُ زَكَاتَهُ كُلَّهَا فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَهُمْ يَتَوَلَّوْنَكَ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ.


8. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Mahziyar from who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who pays all of his Zakat to his relatives who have accepted you as their Waliy (one who possesses Divine Authority). He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he can do so.’”




9ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ الْقُمِّيِّ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الثَّالِثِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّ لِي وُلْداً رِجَالاً وَنِسَاءً أَ فَيَجُوزُ لِي أَنْ أُعْطِيَهُمْ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ شَيْئاً فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّ ذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لَكُمْ.


9. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Imran ibn ’Isma‘il ibn ‘Imran al-Qummiy who has said the following: “I once wrote to abu al-Hassan, the third, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and asked, ‘I have children, men and women. Can I pay from Zakat anything to them?’ He (the Imam) wrote to me, ‘It is permissible for you.’”




10ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَزَّكٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الصَّادِقَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَدْفَعُ عُشْرَ مَالِي إِلَى وُلْدِ ابْنَتِي قَالَ نَعَمْ لاَ بَأْسَ.


10. Ahmad ibn Idris and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from certain persons of our people from Muhammad ibn Jazzak who has said the following: “I once asked al-Sadiq, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Can I give one out of ten of my asset to the children of my daughter? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is not harmful.’”