51. Who Is an Undesirable Leader in Salah (prayer)? Can a Slave Lead Salah (prayer)? Who Is Most Rightful to Lead Salah (prayer)

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1ـ جَمَاعَةٌ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ خَمْسَةٌ لاَ يَؤُمُّونَ النَّاسَ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ الْمَجْذُومُ وَالأبْرَصُ وَالْمَجْنُونُ وَوَلَدُ الزِّنَا وَالأعْرَابِيُّ.


1. A group has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al-Husayn ibn ‘Uthman from ibn Muskan from abu Basir from who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ’Five kinds of people are not to lead other people in Salah (prayer) in all circumstances: People suffering from leprosy, insanity, one born out of wedlock and al-A‘ra’biy Arab of the desert.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/258)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لاَ يَؤُمُّ الْمُقَيَّدُ الْمُطْلَقِينَ وَلاَ يَؤُمُّ صَاحِبُ الْفَالِجِ الأصِحَّاءَ وَلاَ صَاحِبُ التَّيَمُّمِ الْمُتَوَضِّينَ وَلاَ يَؤُمُّ الأعْمَى فِي الصَّحْرَاءِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُوَجَّهَ إِلَى الْقِبْلَةِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin said, ‘One bonded cannot lead in Salah (prayer) those who are free, one paralyzed cannot lead those in good health, one with Tayammum cannot lead those with Wudu’, a blind cannot lead others in the wilderness unless directed to al-Qiblah (al-Ka‘bah).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/259)



3ـ وَبِهَذَا الإِسْنَادِ فِي رَجُلَيْنِ اخْتَلَفَا فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا كُنْتُ إِمَامَكَ وَقَالَ الآخَرُ أَنَا كُنْتُ إِمَامَكَ فَقَالَ صَلاَتُهُمَا تَامَّةٌ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ قَالَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا كُنْتُ أَئْتَمُّ بِكَ قَالَ صَلاَتُهُمَا فَاسِدَةٌ وَلْيَسْتَأْنِفَا.


3. Through the chain of narrators as that of the previous Hadith is the following narration: “If two people disagree and one says, ‘I was your Imam’ and the other says, ‘I was your Imam’ he (the Imam) said, ‘Both persons’ Salah (prayer) is complete.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘What happens if each one says, ‘I followed you.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Both persons’ Salah (prayer) is invalid. They must perform it again.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/259)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ الصَّلاَةُ خَلْفَ الْعَبْدِ فَقَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ فَقِيهاً وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هُنَاكَ أَفْقَهُ مِنْهُ قَالَ قُلْتُ أُصَلِّي خَلْفَ الأعْمَى قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذَا كَانَ لَهُ مَنْ يُسَدِّدُهُ وَكَانَ أَفْضَلَهُمْ قَالَ وَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) لاَ يُصَلِّيَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ خَلْفَ الْمَجْذُومِ وَالأبْرَصِ وَالْمَجْنُونِ وَالْمَحْدُودِ وَوَلَدِ الزِّنَا وَالأعْرَابِيُّ لاَ يَؤُمُّ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about performing Salah (prayer) behind a slave. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not an offense if he has good understanding of fiqh (Islamic laws) and there is no one excelling him in fiqh (Islamic laws). He (the narrator) has said that he then asked, ‘Can I perform Salah (prayer) behind a blind man?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, if there is someone who shows him the direction and he is more excellent than others present.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, “No one of you must perform Salah (prayer) behind one suffering from leprosy, an insane man, one punished by law, one born of wedlock, behind a desert dwelling Arab and the immigrant (drifting) must not lead Salah (prayer)””’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/260)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الْقَوْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا يَجْتَمِعُونَ فَتَحْضُرُ الصَّلاَةُ فَيَقُولُ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ تَقَدَّمْ يَا فُلاَنُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ يَتَقَدَّمُ الْقَوْمَ أَقْرَؤُهُمْ لِلْقُرْآنِ فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ سَوَاءً فَأَقْدَمُهُمْ هِجْرَةً فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي الْهِجْرَةِ سَوَاءً فَأَكْبَرُهُمْ سِنّاً فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي السِّنِّ سَوَاءً فَلْيَؤُمَّهُمْ أَعْلَمُهُمْ بِالسُّنَّةِ وَأَفْقَهُهُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلاَ يَتَقَدَّمَنَّ أَحَدُكُمُ الرَّجُلَ فِي مَنْزِلِهِ وَلاَ صَاحِبَ السُّلْطَانِ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad and others have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab from abu ‘Ubaydah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a people of our companions who come together then Salah (prayer) time comes. Certain ones among them say to the others, ‘O so and so lead.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah has said that the most learned in al-Quran is to lead. If all of them are equally learned in al-Quran, the first to migrate among them, if all are equal in migration, then the oldest among them, if all are equal in age, then the most learned among them in the Sunnah and most learned in religion is to lead. No one of you must lead one in his house or the one with authority in his dominion.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/261)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ غِيَاثِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ بِالْغُلاَمِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَبْلُغِ الْحُلُمَ أَنْ يَؤُمَّ الْقَوْمَ وَأَنْ يُؤَذِّنَ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from Ghiyath ibn Ibrahim who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not an offense if a young boy, who has not become an adult, leads a people and says Adhan.”’ (Ahadith 1-6 and the following chapters are best explained in the form of fatwa.)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن أو موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/262)