Al-Amālī > The Fifty-Ninth Assembly, the Assembly of Friday, the Eighteenth of the Month of Rabi` al-Akhir, 368 AH.
Hadith #1

1 حدثنا الشيخ الجليل أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى ابن بابويه القمي (رضي الله عنه)، قال: حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن موسى (رضي الله عنه)، قال: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر الكوفي الاسدي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن أحمد، قال: حدثنا إسماعيل بن الفضل، عن ثابت بن دينار الثمالي، عن سيد العابدين علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب (عليهم السلام)، قال: حق نفسك عليك أن تستعملها بطاعة الله عز وجل. وحق اللسان إكرامه عن الخنا (1)، وتعويده الخير، وترك الفضول التي لا فائدة لها، والبر بالناس وحسن القول فيهم. وحق السمع تنزيهه عن سماع الغيبة وسماع ما لا يحل سماعه. وحق البصر أن تغضه عما لا يحل لك، وتعتبر بالنظر به. وحق يدك أن لا تبسطها إلى ما لا يحل لك. وحق رجليك أن لا تمشي بهما إلى ما لا يحل لك، فبهما (2) تقف على الصراط، فانظر أن لا تزل بك فتتردى في النار. وحق بطنك أن لا تجعله وعاء للحرام، ولا تزيد على الشبع. وحق فرجك أن تحصنه عن الزنا، وتحفظه من أن ينظر إليه. وحق الصلاة أن تعلم أنها وفادة إلى الله عز وجل، أنك فيما قائم بين يدي الله عز وجل، فإذا علمت ذلك قمت مقام الذليل الحقير الراغب الراهب الراجي الخائف المستكين المتضرع المعظم لمن كان بين يديه بالسكون والوقار، وتقبل عليها بقلبك، وتقيمها بحدودها وحقوقها. وحق الصوم أن تعلم أنه حجاب ضربه الله عز وجل على لسانك وسمعك وبصرك وبطنك وفرجك ليسترك به من النار، فإن تركت الصوم خرقت ستر الله عليك. وحق الصدقة أن تعلم أنها ذخرك عند ربك عز وجل، ووديعتك التي لا تحتاج إلى الاشهاد عليها، وكنت بما تستودعه سرا أوثق منك بما تستودعه علانية، وتعلم أنها تدفع البايا والاسقام عنك في الدنيا، وتدفع عنك النار في الآخرة. وحق الحج أن تعلم أنه وفادة إلى ربك، وفرار إليه من ذنوبك، وفيه قبول توبتك وقضاء الفرض الذي أوجبه الله عليك. وحق الهدي أن تريد به الله عز وجل، ولا تريد به خلقه، وتريد به التعرض لرحمة الله ونجاة روحك يوم تلقاه. وحق السلطان أن تعلم أنك جعلت له فتنة، وأنه مبتلى فيك بما جعل الله عز وجل له عليك من السلطان، وأن عليك أن لا تتعرض لسخطه، فتلقي بيدك إلى التهلكة، وتكون شريكا له فيما يأتي إليك من سوء. وحق سايسك بالعلم التعظيم له، والتوقير لمجلسه، وحسن الاستماع إليه والاقبال عليه، وأن لا ترفع عليه صوتك، ولا تجيب أحدا يسأله عن شئ حتى يكون هو الذي يجيب، ولا تحدث في مجلسه أحدا، ولا تغتاب عنده أحدا، وأن تدفع عنه إذا ذكر عندك بسوء، وأن تستر عيوبه، وتظهر مناقبه، ولا تجالس له عدوا، ولا تعادي له وليا، فإذا فعلت ذلك شهدت لك ملائكة الله بأنك قصدته وتعلمت علمه لله - جل اسمه - لا للناس. وأما حق سايسك بالملك، فأن تطيعه ولا تعصيه إلا فيما يسخط الله، فإنه لا طاعة لمخلوق في معصية الخالق. وأما حق رعيتك بالسلطان، فأن تعلم أنهم صاروا رعيتك لضعفهم وقوتك، فيجب أن تعدل فيهم، وتكون لهم كالوالد الرحيم، وتغفر لهم جهلهم، ولا تعاجلهم بالعقوبة، وتشكر الله على ما آتاك من القوة عليهم. وأما حق رعيتك بالعلم، فأن تعلم أن الله عز وجل إنما جعلك قيما لهم فيما آتاك من العلم، وفتح لك من خزانة الحكمة، فإن أحسنت في تعليم الناس، ولم تخرق بهم (1)، ولم تضجر عليهم، زادك الله من فضله، وإن أنت منعت الناس علمك، أو خرقت بهم عند طلبهم العلم منك، كان حقا على الله عز وجل أن يسلبك العلم وبهاءه، ويسقط من القلوب محلك. وأما حق الزوجة، فأن تعلم أن الله عز وجل جعلها لك سكونا وأنسا، فتعلم أن ذلك نعمة من الله عز وجل عليك، فتكرمها وترفق بها، وإن كان حقك عليها أوجب، فإن لها عليك أن ترحمها لانها أسيرك، وتطعمها وتكسوها، وإذا جهلت عفوت عنها. وأما حق مملوكك، فأن تعلم أنه خلق ربك، وابن أبيك وأمك، ولحمك ودمك لم تملكه لانك صنعته دون الله، ولا خلقت شيئا من جوارحه، ولا أخرجت له رزقا، ولكن الله عز وجل كفاك ذلك، ثم سخره لك، وائتمنك عليه، واستودعك إياه، ليحفظ لك ما تأتيه من خير إليه فأحسن إليه كما أحسن الله إليك، وإن كرهته استبدلت به، ولم تعذب خلق الله، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق أمك، فأن تعلم أنها حملتك حيث لا يحتمل أحد أحدا، وأعطتك من ثمرة قلبها ما لا يعطي أحد أحدا، ووقتك بجميع جوارحها، ولن تبال أن تجوع وتطعمك، وتعطش وتسقيك وتعرى وتكسوك، وتظلك وتضحى (2)، وتهجر النوم لاجلك، ووقتك الحر والبرد لتكون لها، وأنك لا تطيق شكرها إلا بعون الله وتوفيقه. وأما حق أبيك، فأن تعلم أنه أصلك، وأنك لولاه لم تكن، فمهما رأيت في نفسك مما يعجبك فاعلم أن أباك أصل النعمة عليك فيه، فاحمد الله واشكره على قدر ذلك، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق ولدك فأن تعلم أنه منك ومضاف إليك في عاجل الدنيا بخيره وشره، وأنك مسؤول عما وليته به من حسن الادب، والدلالة على ربه عز وجل، والمعونة له على طاعته، فاعمل في أمره عمل من يعلم أنه مثاب على الاحسان إليه، معاقب على الاساءة إليه. وأما حق أخيك، فأن تعلم أنه يدك وعزك وقوتك، فلا تتخذه سلاحا على معصية الله، ولا عدة للظلم لخلق الله، ولا تدع نصرته على عدوه والنصيحة له، فان أطاع الله وإلا فليكن الله أكرم عليك منه، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق مولاك المنعم عليك، فأن تعلم أنه أنفق فيك ماله، وأخرجك من ذل الرق ووحشته إلى عز الحرية وأنسها، فأطلقك من أسر الملكية، وفك عنك قيد العبودية، وأخرجك من السجن، وملكك نفسك، وفرغك لعبادة ربك، وتعلم أنه أولى الخلق بك في حياتك وبعد موتك، وأن نصرته عليك واجبة بنفسك، وما احتاج إليه منك، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق مولاك الذي أنعمت عليه، فأن تعلم أن الله عز وجل جعل عتقك له وسيلة إليه، وحجابا لك من النار، وأن ثوابك في العاجل ميراثه، إذا لم يكن له رحم، مكافأة بما أنفقت من مالك، وفي الآجل الجنة. وأما حق ذي المعروف عليك، فأن تشكره وتذكر معروفه، وتكسبه القالة (1) الحسنة، وتخلص له الدعاء فيما بينك وبين الله عز وجل، فإذا فعلت ذلك كنت قد شكرته سرا وعلانية، ثم إن قدرت على مكافأته يوما كافأته. وأما حق المؤذن، فأن تعلم أنه مذكر لك بربك عز وجل، وداع لك إلى حظك، وعونك على قضاء فرض الله عليك، فتشكره على ذلك شكرك للمحسن إليك. وأما حق إمامك في صلاتك، فأن تعلم أنه تقلد السفارة فيما بينك وبين ربك عز وجل، وتكلم عنك ولم تتكلم عنه، ودعا لك ولم تدع له، وكفاك هول المقام بين يدي الله عز وجل، فإن كان [ به ] (1) نقص كان به دونك، وإن كان تماما كنت به شريكه، ولم يكن له عليك فضل، فوقى نفسك بنفسه، وصلاتك بصلاته، فتشكر له على قدر ذلك. وأما حق جليسك، فأن تلين له جانبك، وتنصفه في مجاراة اللفظ، ولا تقوم من مجلسك إلا بإذنه، ومن يجلس إليك يجوز له القيام عنك بغير إذنك، وتنسى زلاته، وتحفظ خيراته، ولا تسمعه إلا خيرا. وأما حق جارك، فحفظه غائبا، وإكرامه شاهدا، ونصرته إذا كان مظلوما، ولا تتبع له عورة، فإن علمت عليه سوءا سترته عليه، وإن علمت أنه يقبل نصيحتك نصحته فيما بينك وبينه، ولا تسلمه عند شديدة، وتقيل عثرته، وتغفر ذنبه، وتعاشره معاشرة كريمة، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق الصاحب، فأن تصحبه بالتفضل والانصاف، وتكرمه كما يكرمك، ولا تدعه يسبق إلى مكرمة، وإن سبق كافيته، وتوده كما يودك، وتزجره عما يهم به من معصية، وكن عليه رحمة ولا تكن عليه عذابا، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق الشريك، فإن غاب كفيته، وإن حضر رعيته، ولا تحكم دون حكمه، ولا تعمل برأيك دون مناظرته، تحفظ عليه ماله، ولا تخونه فيما عز أو هان من أمره، فإن يد الله عز وجل على الشريكين ما لم يتخاونا، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق مالك، فأن لا تأخذه إلا منحله، ولا تنفقه إلا في وجهه، ولا تؤثر على نفسك من لا يحمدك، فاعمل فيه بطاعة ربك، ولا تبخل به فتبوء بالحسرة والندامة مع التبعة، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وأما حق غريمك الذي يطالبك، فإن كنت موسرا أعطيته، وإن كنت معسرا أرضيته بحسن القول، ورددته عن نفسك ردا لطيفا. وحق الخليط أن لا تغره، ولا تغشه، ولا تخدعه، وتتقي الله في أمره. وحق الخصم المدعي عليك، فان كان ما يدعي عليك حقا كنت شاهده على نفسك، ولم تظلمه و أوفيته حقه، وإن كان ما يدعي باطلا رفقت به، ولم تأت في أمره غير الرفق، و لم تسخط ربك في أمره، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وحق خصمك الذي تدعي عليه، إن كنت محقا في دعواك، أجملت مقاولته، ولم تجحد حقه، وإن كنت مبطلا في دعواك، اتقيت الله وتبت إليه، وتركت الدعوى. وحق المستشير، إن علمت له رأيا حسنا أشرت عليه، وإن لم تعلم أرشدته إلى من يعلم، وحق المشير عليك أن لا تتهمه فيما لا يوافقك من رأيه، وإن وافقك حمدت الله عز وجل. وحق المستنصح أن تؤدي إليه النصيحة، وليكن مذهبك الرحمة له والرفق به. وحق الناصح أن تلين له جناحك، وتصغي إليه بسمعك، فإن أتى بالصواب حمدت الله عز وجل، وإن لم يوفق رحمته ولم تتهمه، وعلمت أنه أخطأ، ولم تؤاخذه بذلك، إلا أن يكون مستحقا للتهمة، ولا تعبأ بشئ من أمره على حال، ولا قوة إلا بالله. وحق الكبير توقيره لسنه، وإجلاله لتقدمه في الاسلام قبلك، وترك مقابلته عند الخصام، ولا تسبقه إلى طريق، ولا تتقدمه ولا تستجهله، وإن جهل عليك احتملته وأكرمته بحق الاسلام وحرمته، وحق الصغير رحمته وتعليمه، والعفو عنه، والستر عليه، والرفق به، والمعونة له. وحق السائل إعطاؤه على قدر حاجته. وحق المسؤول إن أعطى فاقبل منه بالشكر والمعرفة بفضله، وإن منع فاقبل عذره. وحق من سرك الله به أن تحمد الله أولا ثم تشكره. وحق من ساءك أن تعفو عنه، وإن علمت أن العفو يضره انتصرت، قال الله عز وجل: (ولمن انتصر بعد ظلمه فأولئك ما عليهم من سبيل) (1). وحق أهل ملتك إضمار السلامة لهم، والرحمة بهم، والرفق بمسيئهم، وتألفهم، واستصلاحهم، وشكر محسنهم، وكف الاذى عنهم، وتحب لهم ما تحب لنفسك، وتكره لهم ما تكره لنفسك، وأن يكون شيوخهم بمنزلة أبيك، وشبابهم بمنزلة إخوتك، وعجائزهم بمنزلة أمك، والصغار بمنزلة أولادك (1)، وحق الذمة أن تقبل منهم ما قبل الله عز وجل منهم، ولا تظلمهم ما وفوا لله عز وجل بعهده، ولا قوة إلا بالله (2)

Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. `Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babuwayh al-Qummi (ra) narrated to us. He said: `Ali b. Ahmad b. Musa (ra) narrated to us. He said: Muhammad b. Ja`far al-Kufi al-Asadi narrated to us. He said: Muhammad b. Isma`il al-Barmaki narrated to us. He said: `Abdullah b. Ahmad narrated to us. He said: Isma`il b. al-Fadl narrated to us from Thabit b. Dinar al-Thumali from the Master of Worshipers `Ali b. al-Husayn b. `Ali b. Abi Talib (as). He said: The right of your self is that use it in the obedience of Allah. The right of the tongue is that you consider it too noble for obscenity, accustom it to good, refrain from any meddling in which there is nothing to be gained, express kindness to the people, and speak well concerning them. The right of hearing is to keep it pure from listening to backbiting (ghiba) and listening to that to which it is unlawful to listen. The right of sight is that you lower it before everything which is unlawful to you and that you take heed whenever you look at anything. The right of your hand is that you stretch it not toward that which is unlawful to you. The right of your two legs is that you walk not with them toward that which is unlawful to you. You have no escape from standing upon the Path, so you should see to it that your legs do not slip and cause you to fall into the Fire. The right of your stomach is that you make it not into a container for that which is unlawful to you and you eat no more than your fill. The right of your private part is that you protect it from fornication and guard it against being looked upon. The right of your prayer is that you know that it is an arrival before Allah and that through it you are standing before Him. When you know that, then you will stand in the station of him who is lowly, vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, and abased, and you will magnify Him who is before you through stillness and dignity. You will approach the prayer with your heart and you will perform it according to its bounds and its rights. The right of Hajj is that you know it is an arrival before your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; through it your repentance is accepted and you perform an obligation made incumbent upon you by Allah. The right of fasting is that you know it is a veil which Allah has set up over your tongue, your hearing, your sight, your stomach, and your private part to protect you from the Fire. If you abandon the fast, you will have torn Allah’s protective covering away from yourself. The right of charity (sadaqa) is that you know it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses. If you deposit it in secret, you will be more confident of it than if you deposit it in public. You should know that it repels afflictions and illnesses from you in this world and it will repel the Fire from you in the next world. The right of the offering (hady) is that through it you desire Allah and you not desire His creation; through it you desire only the exposure of your soul to Allah’s mercy and the deliverance of your spirit on the day you encounter Him. The right of the possessor of authority (sultan) is that you know that Allah has made you a trial (fitna) for him. Allah is testing him through the authority He has given him over you. You should not expose yourself to his displeasure, for thereby you cast yourself by your own hands into destruction and become his partner in his sin when he brings evil down upon you. The right of the one who trains you (sa'is) through knowledge is magnifying him, respecting his sessions, listening well to him, and attending to him with devotion. You should not raise your voice toward him. You should never answer anyone who asks him about something, in order that he may be the one who answers. You should not speak to anyone in his session nor speak ill of anyone with him. If anyone ever speaks ill of him in your presence, you should defend him. You should conceal his faults and make manifest his virtues. You should not sit with him in enmity or show hostility toward him in friendship. If you do all of this, Allah’s angels will give witness for you that you went straight to him and learned his knowledge for Allah’s sake, not for the sake of the people. The right of him who trains you through property is that you should obey him and not disobey him, unless obeying him would displease Allah, for there can be no obedience to a creature when it is disobedience to Allah. The right of your subjects through authority is that you should know that they have been made subjects through their weakness and your strength. Hence it is incumbent upon you to act with justice toward them and to be like a compassionate father toward them. You should forgive them their ignorance and not hurry them to punishment and you should thank Allah for the power over them which He has given to you. The right of your subjects through knowledge is that you should know that Allah made you a caretaker over them only through the knowledge He has given you and His storehouses which He has opened up to you. If you do well in teaching the people, not treating them roughly or annoying them, then Allah will increase His bounty toward you. But if you withhold your knowledge from people or treat them roughly when they seek knowledge from you, then it will be Allah’s right to deprive you of knowledge and its splendour and to make you fall from your place in people's hearts. The right of your wife (zawja) is that you know that Allah has made her a repose and a comfort for you; you should know that she is Allah’s favour toward you, so you should honour her and treat her gently. Though her right toward you is more incumbent, you must treat her with compassion, since she is your prisoner (asir) whom you feed and clothe. If she is ignorant, you should pardon her. The right of your slave (mamluk) is that you should know that he is the creature of your Lord, the son of your father and mother, and your flesh and blood. You own him, but you did- not make him; Allah made him. You did not create any one of his limbs, nor do you provide him with his sustenance; on the contrary, Allah gives you the sufficiency for that. Then He subjugated him to you, entrusted him to you, and deposited him with you so that you may be safeguarded by the good you give to him. So, act well toward him, just as Allah has acted well toward you. If you dislike him, replace him, but do not torment a creature of Allah. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of your mother is that you know that she carried you where no one carries anyone, she gave to you of the fruit of her heart that which no one gives to anyone, and she protected you with all her organs. She did not care if she went hungry as long as you ate, if she was thirsty as long as you drank, if she was naked as long as you were clothed, if she was in the sun as long as you were in the shade. She gave up sleep for your sake, she protected you from heat and cold, all in order that you might belong to her. You will not be able to show her gratitude, unless through Allah’s help and giving success. The right of your father is that you know that he is your root. Without him, you would not be. Whenever you see anything in yourself which pleases you, know that your father is the root of its blessing upon you. So, praise Allah and thank Him in that measure. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of your child is that you should know that he is from you and will be ascribed to you, through both his good and his evil, in the immediate affairs of this world. You are responsible for what has been entrusted to you, such as educating him in good conduct (husn al-adab), pointing him in the direction of his Lord, and helping him to obey Him. So, act toward him with the action of one who knows that he will be rewarded for good doing toward him and punished for evildoing. The right of your brother is that you know that he is your hand, your might, and your strength. Take him not as a weapon with which to disobey Allah, nor as equipment with which to wrong Allah’s creatures. Do not neglect to help him against his enemy or to give him good counsel. If he obeys Allah, well and good, but if not, you should honour Allah more than him. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of your master (mawla) who has favoured you [by freeing you from slavery] is that you know that he has spent his property for you and brought you out of the abasement and estrangement of bondage to the exaltation and comfort of freedom. He has freed you from the captivity of possession and loosened the bonds of slavery from you. He has brought you out of prison, given you ownership of yourself, and given you leisure to worship your Lord. You should know that he is the closest of Allah’s creatures to you in your life and your death and that aiding him with your life and what he needs from you is incumbent upon you. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of the slave (mawla) whom you have favoured [by freeing him] is that you know that Allah has made your freeing him a means of access to Him and a veil against the Fire. Your immediate reward is to inherit from him- if he does not have any maternal relatives- as a compensation for the property you have spent for him, and your ultimate reward is the Garden. The right of him who does a kindly act (dhu l-ma'ruf) toward you is that you thank him and mention his kindness; you reward him with beautiful words and you supplicate for him sincerely in that which is between you and Allah. If you do that, you have thanked him secretly and openly. Then, if you are able to repay him one day, you repay him. The right of the mu’adhin is that you know that he is reminding you of your Lord, calling you to your good fortune, and helping you to accomplish what Allah has made obligatory upon you. So thank him for that just as you thank one who does good to you. The right of your imam in your ritual prayer is that you know that he has taken on the role of mediator between you and your Lord. He speaks for you, but you do not speak for him; he supplicates for you, but you do not supplicate for him. He has spared you the terror of standing before Allah. If he performs the prayer imperfectly, that belongs to him and not to you; but if he performs it perfectly, you are his partner, and he has no excellence over you. So protect yourself through him, protect your prayer through his prayer, and thank him in that measure. The right of your sitting companion (jalis) is that you treat him mildly, show fairness toward him while vying with him in discourse, and do not stand up from sitting with him without his permission. But it is permissible for him who sits with you to leave without asking your permission. You should forget his slips and remember his good qualities, and you should tell nothing about him but good. The right of your neighbour (jar) is that you guard him when he is absent, honour him when he is present, and aid him when he is wronged. You do not pursue anything of his that is shameful; if you know of any evil from him, you conceal it. If you know that he will accept your counsel, you counsel him in that which is between him and you. You do not forsake him in difficulty, you release him from his stumble, you forgive his sin, and you associate with him generously. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of the companion (sahib) is that you act as his companion with bounty and in fairness. You honour him as he honours you and you do not let him be the first to act with generosity. If he is the first, you repay him. You wish for him as he wishes for you and you restrain him from any act of disobedience he might attempt. Be a mercy for him, not a chastisement. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of the partner (sharik) is that if he should be absent, you suffice him in his affairs, and if he should be present, you show regard for him. You make no decision without his decision and you do nothing on the basis of your own opinion, but you exchange views with him. You guard his property for him, and you do not betray him in that of his affair which is difficult or of little importance, for Allah’s hand is above the hands of two partners as long as they do not betray each other. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of your property (mal) is that you take it only from what is lawful and you spend it only in what is proper. Through it you should not prefer above yourself those who will not praise you. You should act with it in obedience to your Lord and not be miserly with it, lest you fall back into regret and remorse while suffering the ill consequence. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of him to whom you owe a debt (al-gharim alladhi yutalibuka) is that, if you have the means, you pay him back, and if you are in straitened circumstances, you satisfy him with good words and you send him away with gentleness. The right of the associate (khalit) is that you neither mislead him, nor act dishonestly toward him, nor deceive him, and you fear Allah in his affair. The right of the adversary (khasm) who has a claim against you is that, if what he claims against you is true, you give witness to it against yourself. You do not wrong him and you give him his full due. If what he claims against you is false, you act with kindness toward him and you show nothing in his affair other than kindness; you do not displease your Lord in his affair. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of the adversary against whom you have a claim is that, if your claim against him is true, you maintain polite moderation in speaking to him and you do not deny his right. If your claim is false, you fear Allah, repent to Him, and abandon your claim. The right of him who asks you for advice (mustashir) is that, if you consider that he has a correct opinion, you advise him to follow it, and if you do not consider it so, you direct him to someone who does consider it so. The right of him whom you ask for advice (mushir) is that you do not make accusations against him for an opinion which does not conform to your own opinion. If it conforms to it, you praise Allah. The right of him who asks your counsel (mustansih) is that you give him your counsel, but you conduct yourself toward him with compassion and kindness. The right of your counselor (nasih) is that you act gently toward him and give ear to him. If he presents you with the right course, you praise Allah, but if he does not agree with you, you show compassion toward him and make no accusations against him; you consider him to have made a mistake, and you do not take him to task for that, unless he should be deserving of accusation. Then attach no more importance to his affair. And there is no strength save in Allah. The right of him who is older than you (kabir) is that you show reverence toward him because of his age and you honour him because he entered Islam before you. You leave off confronting him in a dispute, you do not precede him in a path, you do not go ahead of him, and you do not consider him foolish. If he should act foolishly toward you, you put up with him and you honour him because of the right of Islam and the respect due to it. The right of him who is younger (saghir) is that you show compassion toward him through teaching him, pardoning him, covering his faults, kindness toward him, and helping him. The right of him who asks (sa'il) from you is that you give to him in the measure of his need. The right of him from whom you ask is that you accept from him with gratitude and recognition of his bounty if he gives, and you accept his excuse if he withholds. The right of him through whom Allah makes you happy (surur) is that you first praise Allah, then you thank the person. The right of him who does evil to you is that you pardon him. But if you know that your pardon will harm him, you defend yourself. Allah says, “Whosoever defends himself after he has been wronged - against them there is no way.” (42:41) The right of the people of your creed (milla) is harbouring safety for them, compassion toward them, kindness toward their evildoer, treating them with friendliness, seeking their well-being, thanking their good-doer, and keeping harm away from them. You should love for them what you love for yourself and dislike for them what you dislike for yourself. Their old men stand in the place of your father, their youths in the place of your brothers, their old women in the place of your mother, and their young ones in the place of your children. The right of the people under the protection [of Islam] (dhimma) is that you accept from them what Allah has accepted from them and you do no wrong to them as long as they fulfil Allah’s covenant. And there is no strength save in Allah.