Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the names of the Prophets and Messengers, peace be upon them, and other than that
Hadith #1

حدثنا مشايخنا - رضي الله عنهم - بأسانيد مرفوعة متصلة قد ذكرتها في كتاب علل الشرائع والاحكام والأسباب في أبواب متفرقة [و] رتبتها فيه: أن معنى آدم: أنه خلق من أديم الأرض - والأديم الأرض الرابعة - ومعنى حواء. أنها خلقت من حي وهو من آدم، ومعنى الانسان: أنه ينسى، ومعنى النساء إنهن أنس للرجال، ومعنى المرأة: أنها خلقت من المرء، ومعنى إدريس: أنه كان يكثر الدرس بحكم الله عز وجل وسنن الاسلام، ومعنى نوح: أنه كان ينوح على نفسه، وبكى خمس مائه عام، ونحى نفسه عما كان فيه قومه من الضلالة، ومعنى الطوفان في أيامه: أنه طفا الماء فوق كل شئ، ومعنى هود: أنه هدي إلى ما ضل عنه قومه، وبعث ليهديهم من ضلالتهم، ومعنى الريح العقيم التي أهلك الله عز وجل بها عادا: أنها تلقحت بالعذاب، وتعقمت عن الريح كتعقم الرجل إذا كان عقيما لا يولد له فطحنت تلك القصور والحصون والمدائن والمصانع حتى عاد ذلك كله رملا دقيقا تسفيه الريح، ومعنى ذات العماد: أن عادا كانوا ينحتون العمد من الجبال فيجعلون طول العمد مثل طول الجبل الذي يسلخونه من أسفله إلى أعلاه، ثم ينقلون تلك العمد فينصبونها، ثم يبنون فوقها القصور، فسميت ذات العماد لذلك، ومعنى إبراهيم: أنه هم فبره، ومعنى ذي القرنين: أنه دعا قومه إلى الله عز و جل فضربوه على قرنه الأيمن فغاب عنهم حينا، ثم عاد إليهم فضربوه على قرنه الآخر ومعنى أصحاب الرس: أنهم نسبوا إلى نهر يقال له: الرس من بلاد المشرق. وقد قيل: إن الرس هو البئر ، وإن أصحابه رسوا نبيهم بعد سليمان بن داود عليهما السلام، وكانوا قوما يعبدون شجرة صنوبر يقال لها: " شاه درخت " كان غرسها يافث بن نوح فأنبتت لنوح بعد الطوفان وكان نساؤهم يشتغلن بالنساء عن الرجال، فعذبهم الله عز وجل بريح عاصف شديده الحمرة، وجعل الأرض من تحتهم حجر كبريت يتوقد، وأظلتهم سحابة سوداء مظلمة، فانكفت عليهم كالقبة جمرة تلتهب فذابت أبدانهم كما يذوب الرصاص في النار، ومعنى يعقوب: أنه كان و " عيص " توأمين، فولد عيص ثم ولد يعقوب يعقب أخاه عيصا، ومعنى إسرائيل: عبد الله لان " إسرا " هو عبد، و " إيل " هو الله عز وجل. وروي في خبر آخر أن: (إسر) هو القوة، و (إيل) هو الله عز وجل. وكذلك جبرئيل، فمعنى إسرائيل قوة الله، وكذلك كل اسم آخره (إيل) مما قبله عبد أو عبيد، و (إيل) هو الله عز وجل، وكذلك جبرئيل معناه عبد الله، وميكائيل معناه عبيد الله، وكذلك معنى إسرافيل عبيد الله، ومعنى يوسف مأخوذ من آسف يوسف أي أغضب يغضب إخوانه قال الله عز وجل: " فلما آسفونا انتقمنا منهم " والمراد بتسمية يوسف أنه يغضب إخوته ما يظهر من فضله عليهم، ومعنى موسى: أنه التقطه آل فرعون من البحر بين الماء والشجر وهو في التابوت، وبلغة القبط: المأخوذ من الماء والشجر يقال له: موسى لأن الماء: " مو " والشجر: " سى " فسموه موسى لذلك، ومعنى الخضر: أنه كان لا يجلس على خشبة يابسة ولا أرض بيضاء إلا اهتزت خضراء، وكان اسمه تاليا بن ملكان عابر بن أرفخشذ ابن سام بن نوح عليه السلام، ومعنى طور سيناء: أنه كان عليه شجرة الزيتون وكل جبل يكون عليه ما ينتفع به من النبات والأشجار يسمى طور سيناء وطور سينين، وما لم يكن عليه ما ينتفع به من النبات والأشجار من الجبال فإنه يسمى " جبل " و " طور " ولا يقال له: " طور سيناء " ولا " طور سينين " ومعنى قوله عز وجل لموسى: " فاخلع نعليك " أي ارفع خوفيك يعني خوفه من ضياع أهله وقد خلفها تمخض وخوفه من فرعون. وقد روي أن نعليه كانتا من جلد حمار ميت والوادي المقدس: المطهر. وأما " طوى " فاسم الوادي، ومعنى قوله عز وجل: " فقولا له قولا لينا " أي كنياه وقولا له: يا أبا مصعب وكان فرعون اسمه الوليد بن مصعب وكنيته أبو مصعب، ومعنى " فرعون ذي الأوتاد " أنه كان إذا عذب رجلا بسطه على الأرض أو على خشب منبسط فوتد يديه ورجليه بأربعة أوتاد، ثم تركه على حاله حتى يموت، فسماه الله عز وجل ذا الأوتاد لذلك، ومعنى " داود " أنه داوى جرحه فود، وقد قيل: داوى وده بالطاعة حتى قيل: عبد، ومعنى " أيوب ": من آب يؤوب وهو أنه يرجع إلى العافية والنعمة والأهل و المال والولد بعد البلاء، ومعنى " يونس ": أنه ذهب مستأنسا لربه مغاضبا لقومه وصار مؤنسا لقومه بعد رجوعه إليهم، ومعنى تسمية الله عز وجل لإسماعيل بن حزقيل " صادق الوعد ": أنه وعد رجلا فجلس له حولا ينتظره، ومعنى " المسيح ": أنه كان يسيح في الأرض ويصوم، ومعنى " النصارى ": أنهم منسوبون إلى قرية يقال لهم: " ناصرة " من بلاد الشام، ومعنى الحواريين: المخلصون في أنفسهم والمخلصون لغيرهم من أوساخ الذنوب بالوعظ والتذكير وكانوا قصارين واشتق هذا الاسم لهم من الخبز الحوار، وسمي نوح وإبراهيم وموسى وعيسى ومحمد عليهم السلام أولي العزم لأنهم أصحاب العزائم والشرائع، وروي معنى آخر أن معنى أولي العزم أنهم عزموا على الاقرار بما عهد إليهم في محمد والأئمة صلوات الله عليهم.

1. We were told by our teachers, may Allah be pleased with them, with attributed, connected, chains which I have mentioned in the book ‘Ilal-ush-Shara’I’ wal-Ahkam wal-Asbab in diffused chapters and which I have put in order, and it includes that the meaning of Adam is that he was created from the tanned soil, and the tanned is the Fourth Earth. The meaning of Hawwa’ is that she was created from a living, that is Adam. The meaning of a human being is that he forgets , and the meaning of women is that they are a company to men, and the meaning of a woman is that she was created from an individual . The meaning of Idrees is that he engaged in much teaching of the Law of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, and the traditions of Islam. The meaning of Nuh is that he used to lament over himself, and he wept for five hundred years, and he lamented to himself due to what was in his people of aberration. The meaning of the flood in his days is that the water flooded above everything. The meaning of Hud is that he was a guide towards what his people aberrated from, and he was sent to them that he might guide them from their aberration. The meaning of the barren wind by which Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, annihilated ‘Ad is that it was fertilized with torment and barrened from wind, like how a man is barrened if he is sterile and it is not begotten to him, and so, those castles, fortresses, cities and facilities were pulverized until all of that returned to being particled sand that is hit by the wind. The meaning of the City of Pillars [1] is that ‘Ad used to engrave pillars from mountains and make the length of the pillar like the length of the mountain which they were peeling from its bottom to its top, and then they would move those pillars and erect them, and then they would build castles above them, and so it was named the City of Pillars due to that. The meaning of Ibrahim is that he set his purpose and regained strength . The meaning of the Two-Horned is that he called his people to Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, and they hit him on his right horn [2], and so he was absent from them for a while, and then he returned to them and they hit him on his other horn. The meaning of the people of the Well is that they were ascribed to a river called the Rass of the Land of the East. It was also said that Rass is a well, and that its people buried their Prophet after Sulayman bin Dawud, peace be upon them both. They were a people worshipping a pine tree called Shah Darakht, which was sown by Yafith bin Nuh [3], and it sprouted for Nuh after the flood. Their women occupied themselves with women instead of men, and so Allah punished them with a stormy wind whose redness was intense, and He made the earth beneath them into sulfur stone that is ignitable, and they were shadowed by a black, darkening, cloud, and it encompassed them like a dome, becoming a blazing ember, and their bodies melted like how graphite is melted in fire. The meaning of Ya’qoub Is that he was, along with ‘Ais, were twins. ‘Ais was born (first), and then Ya’qoub was born following his brother, ‘Ais. The meaning of Isra’eel is the Servant of Allah [4], because «Isra» is a servant and «Eel» is Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He. It has been narrated in another report that «Isr» is strength and «Eel» is Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He. And so is Jibra’eel, for the meaning of Isra’eel is the Strength of Allah, and so is every name whose ending is «Eel» that is preceded by a servant or a minor servant , and «Eel» is Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He. In this manner, Jibra’eel means the Servant of Allah, and Mika’eel means the Minor Servant of Allah, and similarly, the meaning of Israfeel is the Minor Servant of Allah. The meaning of Yusuf is taken from He caused distress , he is causing distress , meaning: He angered, he is causing anger to, his brothers. Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: «And when they grieved Us , We took retribution from them» (43:55). The purpose of the name of Yusuf is it was to anger his brothers due to what was to appear from his virtue over them. The meaning of Musa is that he was picked up by the family of Pharaoh from the sea in the midst of the water and trees whilst he was in the coffin. In the language of the Coptic, the one taken from the water and trees is called Musa, because water is «Mu» and trees are «Sa» and so they named him Musa due to that. The meaning of Khidr is that he did not sit on a dry try nor a white ground except that it shaked into green, and his name was Taliya bin Malkan ‘Aber [13] bin Arfakhshadh ibn Sam bin Nuh, peace be upon him. The meaning of Tur Sina’ [16] is that on it was an olive tree, and every mountain on which there is what to benefit from of plants and trees is called Tur Sina’ and Tur Sinin, and that from the mountains on which there is not what to benefit from of plants and trees is called a mountain or «Tur», and it is not called «Tur Sina’» nor «Tur Sinin». The meaning of His saying, Exalted and Glorious is He, to Musa: «So, take off your sandals» means: Put an end to your two fears, referring to his fear for the loss of his family when he had left her to give birth, and his fear from Pharao. It has been narrated that his sandals were of the leather of a donkey who had died (of natural causes), whereas the sacred valley was the purified. As for Tuwa, it was the name of the valley. The meaning of His saying, Exalted and Glorious is He: «And speak to him a lenient speech» (20:44) is: Address him by his nickname aand say to him: O Abu Mus’ab – Pharao’s name was Waleed bin Mus’ab and his nickname was Abu Mus’ab [5]. The meaning of «Pharao, the man of pickets» (89:10) is that when he would torture a man, he would extend him on the ground or on an extended plank, and he would fasten his hands and legs with four pickets, and then he would leave him in his condition until he dies, and so Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, named him the man of pickets for that. The meaning of Dawud is that he healed his wound and then loved. It was also said: He healed his affection through obedience until it was said: He has served. The meaning of Ayoub is that it stems from: He returned, he returns, which is that he was to return to comfort, grace, family, money and children after the affliction. The meaning of Yunus is that he went sociably to his Lord, angry at his people, and became sociable with his people after his return to them. The meaning of the naming of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, for Isma’il bin Hizqil as Truthful in Promise is that he promised a man, and so he sat for him a year waiting for him. The meaning of Masih [6] is that he used to tour the land and fast. The meaning of Nasara [7] is that they are ascribed to a village called Nasira in the lands of the Levant. The meaning of the disciples is: The sincere within themselves and the sincere towards others (purified) from the filths of sins through advice and reminding, and they were fullers, and this name was derived to them from prepared bread. Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and Muhammed, peace be upon them, were named Those of Obligations because they were the ones with obligations and legislations. It has also been narrated another meaning, which is that the meaning of Those of Obligations is that were determined to adjudicate what was solemnly pledged to them with regards to Muhammed and the Imams, Allah’s blessings be upon them.