Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the names of the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and his Household, peace be upon them
Hadith #1

حدثنا أبو الحسن محمد بن علي بن الشاه بمرو الرود ، قال: حدثنا أبو بكر محمد ابن جعفر بن أحمد البغدادي بآمد ، قال: حدثنا أبي، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن السخت، قال: أخبرنا محمد بن الأسود الوراق، عن أيوب بن سليمان، عن أبي البختري، عن محمد بن حميد ، عن محمد بن المنكدر، عن جابر بن عبد الله الأنصاري قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أنا أشبه الناس بآدم وإبراهيم أشبه الناس بي خلقه وخلقه، وسماني الله من فوق عرشه عشرة أسماء، وبين الله وصفي وبشر بي على لسان كل رسول بعثه إلى قومه، وسماني ونشر في التوراة اسمي، وبث ذكري في أهل التوارة والإنجيل، وعلمني كلامه، ورفعني في سمائه وشق لي اسما من أسمائه فسماني محمد وهو محمود، وأخرجني في خير قرن من أمتي، وجعل اسمي في التوراة أحيد، فبالتوحيد حرم أجساد أمتي على النار، وسماني في الإنجيل أحمد فأنا محمود في أهل السماء، وجعل أمتي الحامدين، وجعل اسمي في الزبور " ماح " محا الله عز وجل بي من الأرض عبادة الأوثان، وجعل اسمي في القرآن محمدا فأنا محمود في جميع أهل القيامة في فصل القضاء، لا يشفع أحد غيري، وسماني في القيامة حاشرا يحشر الناس على قدمي، وسماني الموقف أوقف الناس بين يدي الله جل جلاله، وسماني العاقب أنا عقب النبيين ليس بعدي رسول، وجعلني رسول الرحمة، ورسول التوبة، ورسول الملاحم، والمقفى قفيت النبيين جماعة، وأنا القيم الكامل الجامع، ومن علي ربي وقال لي: يا محمد صلى الله عليك فقد أرسلت كل رسول إلى أمته بلسانها، و أرسلتك إلى كل أحمر وأسود من خلقي، ونصرتك بالرعب الذي لم أنصر به أحدا، و أحللت لك الغنيمة ولم تحل لأحد قبلك، وأعطيت لك ولامتك كنزا من كنوز عرشي فاتحة الكتاب وخاتمة سورة البقرة، وجعلت لك وأمتك الأرض كلها مسجدا وترابها طهورا وأعطيت لك ولامتك التكبير، وقرنت ذكرك بذكري حتى لا يذكرني أحد من أمتك إلا ذكرك مع ذكري، فطوبى لك يا محمد ولامتك.

1. We were told by Abu’l-Hasan, Muhammed bin Ali bin Shah in Marw al-Rudh, that he said: We were told by Abu Bakr, Muhammed ibn Ja’far bin Ahmad al-Baghdadi in Amida, that he said: We were told by my father, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Sukht, that he said: We were informed by Muhammed bin Aswad al-Warraq, from Ayoub bin Sulayman, from Abu’l-Bukhturi, from Muhammed bin Hameed, from Muhammed bin Munkadir, from Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari, that he said: The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: I am the most resembling, among the people, to Adam, and Ibrahim is the most resembling, among the people, to me, in creation and mannerism. Allah named me, from above His Throne, with ten names, and Allah clarified my characteristic and gave glad tidings of me on the tongue of every Messenger He sent to his people, and He named me and spread my name in the Tawrat , and He disseminated my mentioning among the people of the Tawrat and Injeel . He taught me His Words, raised me in His Heaven and derived to me a name from His Names, and so He named me Muhammed [1], and He is Mahmud [2]. He brought me out in the best of centuries from my nation, and He made my name in the Tawrat to be Ahyad, and hence, with (belief in) Monotheism He forbade the bodies of my nation for the Fire. He named me in the Injeel as Ahmad [3], and hence, I am praised among the people of Heaven, and He made my nation the praisers. He made my name in the Zabur to be Maah’; Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, erased by me the worshipping of idols on earth. He made my name in the Qur’an to be Muhammed, and hence, I am praised among all the people of Resurrection with regards to settling the judgement, none will intercede but me. He named me for the Resurrection a Gatherer to whom people are gathered before my feet. He named me the Position, to whom He, Glorified be His Glory, made the people stand. He named me the Following, as I am the following in order of the Prophets, there is no Messenger after me. He made me the Messenger of Mercy, the Messenger of Returning [4], the Messenger of Epics, and the Traced, as I made the Prophets trace me in congregation [5], and I am the Precious, the Complete, the Collector. My Lord bestowed upon me a favor and said to me: O Muhammed, may Allah’s blessings be upon you, verily, I have sent every Messenger to his nation (to address them) by their tongue, and I sent you to every red and black of my creation, and I assisted you with the horror which I have not assisted anyone with, and I allowed for you the booty, and it was not allowed for anyone before you, and I gave to you and to your nation a treasure from the Treasures of My Throne, the Opening of the Book and the Seal of Surat al-Baqarah, and I made for you and your nation all the earth a spot of prostration and a purified soil, and I gave to you and to your nation the Takbeer [6], and I made your remembrance equivalent to My remembrance, so none of your nation will remember Me except that he remembers you along with My remembrance. Hence, Tuba is for you, O Muhammed, and for your nation.



Hadith #2

حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه - رضي الله عنه - عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم، عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله، عن أبي الحسن علي بن الحسين الرقي، عن عبد الله بن جبلة، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن الحسن بن عبد الله، عن آبائه، عن جده الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام، قال: جاء نفر من اليهود إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فسأله أعلمهم وكان فيما سأله، أن قال له: لأي شئ سميت محمدا، وأحمد، وأبا القاسم، بشيرا، ونذيرا، وداعيا؟ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: أما محمد فإني محمود في الأرض، وأما أحمد فإني محمود في السماء، وأما أبو القاسم فإن الله عز وجل يقسم يوم القيامة قسمة النار فمن كفر بي من الأولين والآخرين ففي النار، ويقسم قسمة الجنة فمن آمن بي وأقر بنبوتي ففي الجنة، وأما الداعي فإني أدعو الناس إلى دين ربي عز وجل، وأما النذير فإني أنذر بالنار من عصاني، وأما البشير فإني ابشر بالجنة من أطاعني.

2. We were told by Muhammed bin Ali Majilawayh, may Allah be pleased with him, from his uncle, Muhammed bin Abi’l-Qasim, from Ahmad bin Abi Abdillah, from Abu’l-Hasan, Ali bin Hussain al-Raqqi, from Abdullah bin Jabala, from Mu’awiya bin Ammar, from Hasan bin Abdullah, from his fathers, from his grandfather, Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon them, that he said: Some individuals of the Jews came to the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and their most knowledgeable asked him, and among what he asked him is that he said to him: For what thing were you named Muhammed, Ahmad, Abu’l-Qasim , Bearer of glad tidings, Warner and a Caller? Then the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: As for Muhammed, then indeed, I am praised on earth. As for Ahmad, then indeed, I am praised in Heaven. As for Abu’l-Qasim, then indeed, Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, will divide the Day of Resurrection into the division of the Fire, and those who disbelieve in me from the first and the last shall be in the Fire, and He will make the division of Paradise, and those who believe in me and acknowledge my Prophethood shall be in Paradise. As for the Caller, then indeed, I call the people to the Religion of my Lord, Exalted and Glorious is He. As for the Warner, then indeed, I warn of the Fire to those who disobey me. As for the Bearer of glad tidings, then indeed, I give glad tidings of Paradise to those who obey me.



Hadith #3

حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الطالقاني - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن يوسف بن سعيد الكوفي قال: حدثنا علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال عن أبيه، قال: سألت الرضا أبا الحسن عليه السلامفقلت له: لم كني النبي صلى الله عليه وآله بأبي القاسم فقال: لأنه كان له ابن يقال له: " قاسم " فكني به. قال: فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله فهل تراني أهلا للزيادة؟ فقال: نعم. أما علمت أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قال: أنا وعلي أبوا هذه الأمة! قلت: بلى. قال: أما علمت أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أب لجميع أمته وعلي عليه السلام فيهم بمنزلته؟ قلت: بلى. قال: أما علمت أن عليا قاسم الجنة والنار؟ قلت: بلي. قال: فقيل له: أبو القاسم لأنه أبو قاسم الجنة والنار. فقلت له: وما معنى ذلك؟ فقال: إن شفقة النبي صلى الله عليه وآله على أمته شفقة الآباء على الأولاد، وأفضل أمته علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، ومن بعده شفقة علي عليه السلام عليهم كشفقته صلى الله عليه وآله لأنه وصيه وخليفته والامام بعد، فقال: فلذلك قال صلى الله عليه وآله: أنا وعلي أبوا هذه الأمة. وصعد النبي صلى الله عليه وآله المنبر فقال: من ترك دينا أو ضياعا فعلي وإلي ومن ترك مالا فلورثته، فصال بذلك أولى بهم من آبائهم وأمهاتهم، وصار أولى بهم منهم بأنفسهم، وكذلك أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بعده جرى ذلك له مثل ما جرى لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله.

3. We were told by Muhammed bin Ibrahim bin Ishaq al-Talaqani, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Yusuf bin Sa’eed al-Kufi, that he said: We were told by Ali bin Hasan bin Ali bin Faddal, from his father, that he said: I asked al-Rida, Abu’l-Hasan, peace be upon him, and so I said to him: Why was the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, nicknamed as Abu’l-Qasim? Then he said: Because he had a son called Qasim, and so he was nicknamed due to him. He said: Then I said to him: O son of Allah’s Messenger, do you see me deserving for more? He said: Yes. Have you not known that Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: I and Ali are the fathers of this nation? I said: Sure. He said: Have you not known that Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, is a father to all his nation, and that Ali, peace be upon him, is in his position among them? I said: Sure. He said: Have you not known that Ali is the divider between Paradise and the Fire? I said: Sure. He said: Hence, he was called Abu’l-Qasim because he is the father of the divider of Paradise and the Fire. Then I said to him: And what is the meaning of that? Then he said: Indeed, the compassion of the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and hi Family, upon his nation is as the compassion of fathers upon children, and the best among his nation is Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon him. After him, the compassion of Ali, peace be upon him, upon them is like the compassion of him, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, because he is his Bequeathed, Successor and Imam after therein. Then he said: Hence, for that he, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: I and Ali are the fathers of this nation. The Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, climbed the pulpit and said: He who leaves behind a debt or a wastage, it is upon me, and to me (shall one come), and he who leaves behind property, it is for his inheritors. By that, he became of more priority to them than their fathers and mothers, and he became of more priority to them than their own selves, and so was the Commander of the Believers, peace be upon him, after him, it applied to him the same as what applied to Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family.



Hadith #4

حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى بن زكرياالقطان قال: حدثنا بكر بن عبد الله بن حبيب، قال: حدثنا تميم بن بهلول، عن أبيه، عن أبي الحسن العبدي، عن سليمان بن مهران، عن عباية، عن ابن عباس، قال: سألته عن قول الله عز وجل: " ألم يجدك يتيما فآوى " قال: إنما سمي يتيما لأنه لم يكن له نظير على وجه الأرض من الأولين ولا من الآخرين فقال الله عز وجل ممتنا عليه بنعمته: " ألم يجدك يتيما " أي وحيدا لا نظير لك " فآوى " إليك الناس وعرفهم فضلك حتى عرفوك " ووجدك ضالا " يقول: منسوبا عند قومك إلى الضلالة فهداهم لمعرفتك، " ووجدك عائلا " يقول: فقيرا عند قومك يقولون: لا مال لك فأغناك الله بمال خديجة، ثم زادك من فضله فجعل دعاك مستجابا حتى لو دعوت على حجر أن يجعله الله ذهبا ليقل عينه إلى مرادك وأتاك بالطعام حيث لا طعام، وأتاك بالماء حيث لا ماء، وأغاثك بالملائكة حيث لا مغيث فأظفرك بهم على أعدائك.

4. We were told by Ahmad bin Hasan al-Qattan, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Yahya bin Zakariya al-Qattan, that he said: We were told by Bikr bin Abdullah bin Habib, that he said: We were told by Tamim bin Buhlul, from his father, from Abu’l-Hasan al-‘Abdi, from Sulayman bin Mahran, from ‘Abaya, from Ibn Abbas, that he said: I asked him about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Did He not find you an orphan, and give you refuge?» (93:6) He said: He was only named an orphan because he did not have any equal on the face of earth from the first, neither from the last, to which Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said, bestowing favor upon him with His grace: «Did He not find you an orphan, and give you refuge?» (93:6) meaning: Lonely, there is no equal to you, and then He gave the people refuge to towards you and made them know your virtue, until they came to know you. «And He found you astray» (93:7) He is saying: Among your people, you were attributed to aberration, and so He guided them to knowing you. «And He found you poor» (93:8) He is saying: Poor according to your people, as they say: You have no money, and then Allah enriched you with the money of Khadija, and then He increased you from His favor and made your prayer responded to, that even if you were to supplicate that a stone is made by Allah into gold, He would achieve your wish, and He brought to you food as there was no food, and He brought you water as there was no water, and He succored you with Angels as there was no succorer, and He granted you victory over your enemies.



Hadith #5

حدثنا حمزة بن محمد العلوي - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا أبو العباس أحمد بن محمد الكوفي، عن علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن أخيه أحمد، عن محمد بن عبد الله بن مروان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن بعض أصحابه، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن الله عز وجل أيتم نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله لئلا يكون لأحد عليه طاعة.

5. We were told by Hamza bin Muhammed al-Alawi, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Abu’l-Abbas, Ahmad bin Muhammed al-Kufi, from Ali bin Hasan bin Ali bin Faddal, from his brother, Ahmad, from Muhammed bin Abdullah bin Marwan, from Ibn Abi Umayr, from some of his companions, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: Indeed, Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, orphaned his Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, in order for there to be none upon him to obey.



Hadith #6

أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أبي عبد الله بن خالد البرقي، عن جعفر بن محمد الصوفي قال: سألت أبا جعفر محمد بن علي الرضا عليهم السلام فقلت: يا ابن رسول الله لم سمي النبي صلى الله عليه وآله الأمي؟ فقال: ما يقول الناس قلت: يزعمون أنه سمي الأمي لأنه لم يكتب. فقال عليه السلام: كذبوا، عليهم لعنة الله، أني ذلك والله عز وجل يقول في محكم كتابه: " هو الذي بعث في الأميين رسولا منهم يتلوا عليهم آياته ويزيكيهم ويعلمهم الكتاب والحكمة " فكيف كان يعلمهم ما لا يحسن والله لقد كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقرء ويكتب باثنين وسبعين - أو قال، بثلاثة وسبعين - لسانا وإنما سمي الأمي لأنه كان من أهل مكة ومكة من أمهات القرى ، وذلك قول الله عز وجل " لتنذر أم القرى ومن حولها ".

6. My father, may Allah grant him mercy, said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, from Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, from Abu Abdillah bin Khalid al-Barqi, from Ja’far bin Muhammed al-Sufi, that he said: I asked Abu Ja’far, Muhammed bin Ali al-Rida, peace be upon them, so I said: O son of Allah’s Messenger, why was the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, named the Ummi [1]? Then he said: What do the people say? I said: They claim that he was named the Ummi becase he did not write. Then he, peace be upon him, said: They have lied, upon them is the curse of Allah, how could that be? When Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, says in the clear text of His Book: «It is He who sent among the Ummis a Messenger from themselves, reciting for them His signs, purifying them and teaching them the Book and the Wisdom.» (62:2) How could he have taught them what he does not know? By Allah, verily, the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, used to read and write in seventy two – or he said, seventy three – tongues, and he was only named the Ummi because he was from the people of Mecca, and Mecca is the Mother of Towns. That is the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «That you may warn the Mother of Towns and those surrounding it.» (6:92)