Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the letters of sentences
Hadith #1

حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الهمداني مولى بني هاشم، قال: حدثنا جعفر بن عبد الله بن جعفر بن عبد الله بن جعفر بن محمد بن علي ابن أبي طالب، قال: حدثنا كثير بن عياش القطان عن أبي الجارود زياد بن المنذر، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر عليهما السلام قال: لما ولد عيسى ابن مريم عليه السلام كان ابن يوم كأنه ابن شهرين، فلما كان ابن سبعة أشهر أخذت والدته بيده وجاءت به إلى الكتاب فأقعدته بين يدي المؤدب، فقال المؤدب: قل: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. فقال عيسى عليه السلام: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. فقال له المؤدب: قل: أبجد. فرفع عيسى عليه السلام رأسه، فقال: فهل تدري ما أبجد؟ فعلاه بالدرة ليضربه، فقال: يا مؤدب لا تضربني إن كنت تدري وإلا فسلني حتى أفسر لك. قال: فسره لي. قال عيسى عليه السلام: " الألف " آلاء الله، و " الباء " بهجة الله، و " الجيم " جمال الله، و " الدال " دين الله. " هوز " " هاء " هول جهنم، و " الواو " ويل لأهل النار و " الزاي " زفير جهنم " حطي " حطت الخطايا عن المستغفرين. " كلمن " كلام الله لا مبدل لكلماته. " سعفص " صاع بصاع، والجزاء بالجزاء. " قرشت " قرشهم جهنم فحشرهم. فقال المؤدب: أيتها المرأة خذي بيد ابنك فقد علم فلا حاجة له في المؤدب.

1. We were told by Muhammed bin Ibrahim bin Ishaq, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Muhammed al-Hamdani, the servant of the sons of Hashim, that he said: We were told by Ja’far bin Abdullah bin Ja’far bin Abdullah bin Ja’far bin Muhammed bin Ali ibn Abi Talib. He said: We were told by Katheer bin ‘Ayyash al-Qattan, from Abu’l-Jaroud, Ziyad bin Mundhir, from Abu Ja’far, Muhammed bin Ali al-Baqir, peace be upon them both, that he said: When Isa ibn Maryam [1], peace be upon him, was born, he was as a child of one day seeming as child of two months, and when he was a child of seven months, his mother took by his hand and brought him to the writers and made him sit between the hands of the teacher. Then the teacher said: Say: In the Name of Allah, the Merciful with all the creation, the Merciful to the believers in particular. Then Isa, peace be upon him, said: In the Name of Allah, the Merciful with all the creation, the Merciful to the believers in particular. Then the teacher said to him: Recite the alphabet. Then Isa, peace be upon him, raised his head and said: Do you know what I should recite of the alphabet? Then he raised the whip to hit him, so he said: O teacher, do not hit me if you were to know. Otherwise, ask me that I might interpret to you. He said: Interpret to me. Isa, peace be upon him, said: The «Alif» is the Bounties of Allah, the «Baa’» is the Delight of Allah, the «Jeem» is the Beauty of Allah, the «Daal» is the Religion of Allah, the «Huz» - «Haa’» - is the dread [2] of Hell, the «Waw» refers to the woe to the people of the Fire, the «Zaay» is the sigh [3] of Hell, «Hhatti» is the falling [4] of intentional mistakes from (the account of) the seekers of forgiveness, «Kalman» is the Speech [5] of Allah, whose Speech none will replace, «Saa’fass» refers to a Ssaa’ [6] for a Ssaa’, the reward is based upon requital, and «Qarasht» refers to that He assembled them in Hell and gathered them. Then the teacher said: O woman, take by the hand of your son, for he has known, and there is no need to him for a teacher.



Hadith #2

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، وأحمد بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن علي بن أسباط، عن الحسن بن يزيد ، قال: حدثني محمد بن سالم، عن الأصبغ بن نباتة قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: سأل عثمان بن عفان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عن تفسير أبجد. فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: تعلموا تفسير أبجد فإن فيه الأعاجيب كلها ويل لعالم جهل تفسيره، فقيل: يا رسول الله وما تفسير أبجد؟ قال: أما " الألف " فآلاء الله، حرف من أسمائه. وأما " الباء " فبهجة الله وأما " الجيم " فجنة الله وجلال الله وجماله. وأما " الدال " فدين الله. وأما " هوز " " فالهاء " هاء الهاوية، فويل لمن هوى في النار. وأما " الواو " فويل لأهل النار. وأما " الزاي " فزاوية في النار فنعوذ بالله مما في الزاوية يعني زوايا جهنم وأما " حطي " " فالحاء " حطوط الخطايا عن المستغفرين في ليلة القدر، وما نزل به جبرئيل مع الملائكة إلى مطلع الفجر. وأما " الطاء " فطوبي لهم وحسن مآب، وهي شجرة غرسها الله عز وجل ونفخ فيها من روحه، وإن أغصانها لترى من وراء سورة الجنة تنبت بالحلي الحلل، متدلية على أفواهم. وأما " الياء " فيد الله فوق خلقه باسطة، سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون. وأما " كلمن " " فالكاف " كلام الله لا تبديل لكلمات الله ولن تجد من دونه ملتحدا. وأما " اللام " فإلمام أهل الجنة بينهم في الزيارة والتحية والسلام، وتلاوم أهل النار فيما بينهم وأما " الميم " فملك الله الذي لا يزول، ودوام الله الذي لا يفنى. وأما " النون " فنون والقلم وما يسطرون، والقلم قلم من نور، وكتاب من نور، في لوح محفوظ، يشهده المقربون، وكفى بالله شهيدا. وأما " سعفص " " فالصاد " صاع بصاع وفص بفص يعني الجزاء بالجزاء، وكما تدين تدان، إن الله لا يريد ظلما للعباد. وأما " قرشت " يعني قرشهم فحشرهم ونشرهم إلى يوم القيامة، فقضى بينهم بالحق وهم لا يظلمون. حدثنا بهذا الحديث أبو عبد الله بن [أبي] حامد، قال: أخبرنا أبو نصر أحمد بن محمد بن يزيد بن عبد الرحمن البخاري ببخارا، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن أحمد بن يعقوب بن أخي سهل بن يعقوب البزاز، قال: حدثنا إسحاق بن حمزة، قال: حدثنا أبو أحمد عيسى بن موسى النجار، عن محمد بن زياد السكري، عن الفرات بن سليمان ، عن أبان، عن أنس قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: تعلموا تفسير أبي جاد فإن فيه الأعاجيب كلها وذكر الحديث مثله سواء حرفا بحرف.

2. We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan al-Saffar, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Hussain bin Abi’l-Khattab, and Ahmad bin Hasan bin Ali bin Faddal, from Ali bin Asbat, from Hasan bin Yazid, that he said: I was told by Muhammed bin Salim, from Asbagh bin Nubata, that he said: The Commander of the Believers, peace be upon him, said: Uthman bin Affan asked Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, about the interpretation of the alphabet. Then the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: Learn the interpretation of the alphabet, for indeed, in it are all amazing things. Woe to a scholar who is ignorant of its interpretation. Then it was said: O Messenger of Allah, and what is the interpretation of the alphabet? He said: As for the «Alif» it is the Bounties of Allah, a letter from His Names. As for «Baa’» it is the Delight of Allah. As for «Jeem» it is the Cover of Allah and the Glory of Allah and His Beauty. as for the «Daal» it is the Religion of Allah. As for «Huz“ it is the «Haa’» the «Haa’» of the Abyss , hence, woe to those who fall into the Fire. As for the «Waw» it refers to the woe to the people of the Fire. As for the «Zaay» it is a corner in the Fire, hence, we seek refuge in Allah from what is in the corner, meaning the corners of Hell. As for «Hhatti» it is the «Hhaa’» which is the falling of mistakes from the seekers of forgiveness during the night of Qadr and what Jibra’eel descended with along with the Angels till the rise of dawn. As for the «Ttaa’» it refers to Tuba for them, and a good return, that is a tree sown by Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, and which He blew into from His Spirit, and indeed, its branches are, verily, seen from behind the lofty position of Paradise, it sprouts jewelries through jewelries, dangling at their mouths. As for the «Yaa’» it is the Hand of Allah that is Extended above His creation, Glorified and Exalted is He above what they associate. As for «Kalman» the «Kaaf» is the Speech of Allah. «There is no change for the Words of Allah» (10:64) «Never will you find, other than Him, a refuge.» (18:27) As for the «Laam» it is the familiarity of the people of Paradise among themselves with visit, greeting and peace-wishing, and the compatibility of the people of the Fire in between themselves. As for the «Meem» it is the Kingdom of Allah that does not terminate and the Permanentness of Allah that does not cease. As for the «Nun» it is «Nun. By the Pen and they inscribe.» (68:1) the Pen is a pen of Light, and there is a Book of Light in a preserved Tablet, witnessed by the Near, and sufficient is Allah as a witness. As for the «Saa’fass» the «Ssaad» refers to a Ssaa’ for a Ssaa’ and a segment , meaning that the reward is based upon requital, and that as you owe, you will be owed (likewise). Indeed, Allah does not want injustice for the servants. As for «Qarasht» it means that He assembled them and then gathered them and dispersed them until the Day of Resurrection and judged between them with the truth, and they will not be wronged. We were told of this narration by Abu Abdillah bin Abi Hamid, who said: We were informed by Abu Nasr, Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Yazid bin Abdul-Rahman al-Bukhari, in Bukhara, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Ahmad bin Ya’qub, son of the brother of Sahl bin Ya’qub al-Bazzaz, that he said: We were told by Ishaq bin Hamza, that he said: We were told by Abu Ahmad, Isa bin Musa al-Najjar, of Muhammed bin Ziyad al-Sukkari, of Furat in Sulayman, of Aban, of Anas, that he said: The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: Learn the interpretation of Abu Jaad [1], for indeed, in it are all amazing things. And he mentioned the same narration, equivalent, letter by letter.



Hadith #3

وروي في خبر آخر أن شمعون سأل النبي صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: أخبرني ما أبو جاد؟ وما هوز؟ وما حطي؟ وما كلمن؟ وما سعفص؟ وما قرشت؟ وما كتب؟ فقال رسول صلى الله عليه وآله: أما " أبو جاد " فهو كنية آدم عليه السلام أبى أن يأكل من الشجرة فجاد فأكل. وأما " هوز " هوى من السماء فنزل إلى الأرض. وأما " حطي " أحاطت به خطيئته. وأما " كلمن " كلم الله عز وجل. وأما " سعفص " قال الله عز وجل: صاع بصاع، كما تدين تدان. وأما " قرشت " " أقر بالسيئات فغفر له. وأما " كتب " فكتب الله عز وجل [عنده] في اللوح المحفوظ قبل أن يخلق آدم بألفي عام إن آدم خلق من التراب وعيسى عليه السلام خلق بغير أب وأنزل الله عز وجل تصديقه " إن مثل عيسى عند الله كمثل آدم خلقه من تراب " قال: صدقت يا محمد.

3. It has been narrated in another report that Sham’un asked the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and said: Tell me, what is Abu Jaad? And what is «Huz»? And what is «Hatti»? And what is «Kalman»? And what is «Saa’fass»? And what is «Qarasht»? And what is «Katab»? Then the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: As for Abu Jaad, it is the nickname of Adam, peace be upon him, he refused to eat from the tree, so he worked with effort and ate. As for «Huz» it is that he fell from the sky and descended to earth. As for «Hatti» it is that his intentional mistake encompassed . As for «Kalman» it is that he spoke to Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He. As for «Saa’fass» it is that Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: A Ssaa’ for a Ssaa’, as you owe, you will be owed. As for «Qarasht» it is that he admitted the misdeeds, so He forgave him. As for «Katab» it is that Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, wrote, near Himself, at the preserved Tablet before He created Adam with two thousand years: Indeed, Adam was created from soil, and Isa, peace be upon him, was created without a father. Then Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, sent down in declaring his truthfulness: «The example of Isa for Allah is like the example of Adam; He created him from soil» (3:59). Then he said: You spoke true, O Muhammed.