20. Degrees of Belief

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ أَبِي الأحْوَصِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَضَعَ الإيمَانَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَسْهُمٍ عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالصِّدْقِ وَالْيَقِينِ وَالرِّضَا وَالْوَفَاءِ وَالْعِلْمِ وَالْحِلْمِ ثُمَّ قَسَمَ ذَلِكَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَمَنْ جَعَلَ فِيهِ هَذِهِ السَّبْعَةَ الأسْهُمِ فَهُوَ كَامِلٌ مُحْتَمِلٌ وَقَسَمَ لِبَعْضِ النَّاسِ السَّهْمَ وَلِبَعْضٍ السَّهْمَيْنِ وَلِبَعْضٍ الثَّلاثَةَ حَتَّى انْتَهَوْا إِلَى السَّبْعَةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لا تَحْمِلُوا عَلَى صَاحِبِ السَّهْمِ سَهْمَيْنِ وَلا عَلَى صَاحِبِ السَّهْمَيْنِ ثَلاثَةً فَتَبْهَضُوهُمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى يَنْتَهِيَ إِلَى السَّبْعَةِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from al- Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Ammar ibn abu al-Ahwas from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) has said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, made belief in seven shares: virtue, truthfulness, certainty, compliance, loyalty, knowledge and forbearance. He then distributed it among the people. Whoever received all seven shares is perfect and heavy. He has given to certain people one share or two or three and so on up to seven.’ The Imam then said, ‘Do not expect two shares from those who have been given one share or three from those who have received two shares lest you overburden them, and so on up to seven,’ he added.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول بعما ر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (272/ 7)



2ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ عَنْ أَبِي الْيَقْظَانِ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ الضَّحَّاكِ عَنْ رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا سَرَّاجٍ وَكَانَ خَادِماً لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ بَعَثَنِي أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) فِي حَاجَةٍ وَهُوَ بِالْحِيرَةِ أَنَا وَجَمَاعَةً مِنْ مَوَالِيهِ قَالَ فَانْطَلَقْنَا فِيهَا ثُمَّ رَجَعْنَا مُغْتَمِّينَ قَالَ وَكَانَ فِرَاشِي فِي الْحَائِرِ الَّذِي كُنَّا فِيهِ نُزُولاً فَجِئْتُ وَأَنَا بِحَالٍ فَرَمَيْتُ بِنَفْسِي فَبَيْنَا أَنَا كَذَلِكَ إِذَا أَنَا بِأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَدْ أَقْبَلَ قَالَ فَقَالَ قَدْ أَتَيْنَاكَ أَوْ قَالَ جِئْنَاكَ فَاسْتَوَيْتُ جَالِساً وَجَلَسَ عَلَى صَدْرِ فِرَاشِي فَسَأَلَنِي عَمَّا بَعَثَنِي لَهُ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ فَحَمِدَ الله ثُمَّ جَرَى ذِكْرُ قَوْمٍ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّا نَبْرَأُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّهُمْ لا يَقُولُونَ مَا نَقُولُ قَالَ فَقَالَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَا وَلا يَقُولُونَ مَا تَقُولُونَ تَبْرَءُونَ مِنْهُمْ قَالَ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَهُوَ ذَا عِنْدَنَا مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَكُمْ فَيَنْبَغِي لَنَا أَنْ نَبْرَأَ مِنْكُمْ قَالَ قُلْتُ لا جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ قَالَ وَهُوَ ذَا عِنْدَ الله مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَنَا أَ فَتَرَاهُ اطَّرَحَنَا قَالَ قُلْتُ لا وَالله جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مَا نَفْعَلُ قَالَ فَتَوَلَّوْهُمْ وَلا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَنْ لَهُ سَهْمٌ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ سَهْمَانِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ ثَلاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ خَمْسَةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ سِتَّةُ أَسْهُمٍ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَهُ سَبْعَةُ أَسْهُمٍ فَلَيْسَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُحْمَلَ صَاحِبُ السَّهْمِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ السَّهْمَيْنِ وَلا صَاحِبُ السَّهْمَيْنِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ الثَّلاثَةِ وَلا صَاحِبُ الثَّلاثَةِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ الأرْبَعَةِ وَلا صَاحِبُ الأرْبَعَةِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ الْخَمْسَةِ وَلا صَاحِبُ الْخَمْسَةِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ السِّتَّةِ وَلا صَاحِبُ السِّتَّةِ عَلَى مَا عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُ السَّبْعَةِ وَسَأَضْرِبُ لَكَ مَثَلاً إِنَّ رَجُلاً كَانَ لَهُ جَارٌ وَكَانَ نَصْرَانِيّاً فَدَعَاهُ إِلَى الإسْلامِ وَزَيَّنَهُ لَهُ فَأَجَابَهُ فَأَتَاهُ سُحَيْراً فَقَرَعَ عَلَيْهِ الْبَابَ فَقَالَ لَهُ مَنْ هَذَا قَالَ أَنَا فُلانٌ قَالَ وَمَا حَاجَتُكَ فَقَالَ تَوَضَّأْ وَالْبَسْ ثَوْبَيْكَ وَمُرَّ بِنَا إِلَى الصَّلاةِ قَالَ فَتَوَضَّأَ وَلَبِسَ ثَوْبَيْهِ وَخَرَجَ مَعَهُ قَالَ فَصَلَّيَا مَا شَاءَ الله ثُمَّ صَلَّيَا الْفَجْرَ ثُمَّ مَكَثَا حَتَّى أَصْبَحَا فَقَامَ الَّذِي كَانَ نَصْرَانِيّاً يُرِيدُ مَنْزِلَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ أَيْنَ تَذْهَبُ النَّهَارُ قَصِيرٌ وَالَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ قَلِيلٌ قَالَ فَجَلَسَ مَعَهُ إِلَى أَنْ صَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَمَا بَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ قَلِيلٌ فَاحْتَبَسَهُ حَتَّى صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَامَ وَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ إِنَّ هَذَا آخِرُ النَّهَارِ وَأَقَلُّ مِنْ أَوَّلِهِ فَاحْتَبَسَهُ حَتَّى صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ ثُمَّ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ إِنَّمَا بَقِيَتْ صَلاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ قَالَ فَمَكَثَ حَتَّى صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ الآخِرَةَ ثُمَّ تَفَرَّقَا فَلَمَّا كَانَ سُحَيْرٌ غَدَا عَلَيْهِ فَضَرَبَ عَلَيْهِ الْبَابَ فَقَالَ مَنْ هَذَا قَالَ أَنَا فُلانٌ قَالَ وَمَا حَاجَتُكَ قَالَ تَوَضَّأْ وَالْبَسْ ثَوْبَيْكَ وَاخْرُجْ بِنَا فَصَلِّ قَالَ اطْلُبْ لِهَذَا الدِّينِ مَنْ هُوَ أَفْرَغُ مِنِّي وَأَنَا إِنْسَانٌ مِسْكِينٌ وَعَلَيَّ عِيَالٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَدْخَلَهُ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ أَخْرَجَهُ مِنْهُ أَوْ قَالَ أَدْخَلَهُ مِنْ مِثْلِ ذِهْ وَأَخْرَجَهُ مِنْ مِثْلِ هَذَا.


2. Abu Ali al-Ash’ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa all from ibn Faddal from al-Hassan ibn al-Jahm from abu al-Yaqzan from Ya’qub ibn al-Dahhak from a man of our people, Sarraj who was a servant of abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) has said the following: “ Abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) once sent me with a group of his followers for an errand and at that time he was in Hirah (a place near Kufa, Iraq). We left for it and returned depressed. My bed was in al-Ha’ir (a comfortable private quarter). I went there in an upset condition and threw myself thereat. At this time abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) came in saying, ‘We have come to see you,’ or he said, ‘We have come to you.’ I then sat up straight and he sat in the middle of my bed and asked me about the errand for which he had sent me. I reported to him and he thanked Allah. Thereafter, a mention of certain people came up and I said, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, we disassociate from these people; they do not say what we say.’ The Imam then said, ‘If they love and support us, but do not say what you say, do you (still) disassociate from them?’ I then said, ‘Yes, we do so.’ “The Imam said, ‘It is just like this (’ A’immah’s case). We have what you do not have. Should we disassociate from you?’ I then said, ‘No, may Allah keep my soul in service for your cause.’ The Imam said, ‘It is just like this (the case of Allah). With Him there is what we do not have. Do you think we should give it up?’ “I then said, ‘No, may Allah keep my soul in service for your cause. We should not do so.’ The Imam said, ‘Be friends with them and do not disassociate from them. Among the Muslims there are those who have only one share, those who have two shares, three shares, four shares, five shares, six shares and those who have seven shares. It is not proper for those who have one share to blame those who have two shares, or those who have two shares to blame those who have three shares, those who have three shares to blame those who have four shares, those who have four shares to blame those who have five shares, those who have five shares to blame those who have six shares and those who have six shares to blame those who have seven shares. I will give an example: “A man had a Christian neighbor to whom he preached Islam attractively and the neighbor accepted. It was early next morning when he knocked at his (convert’s) door. He said, ‘Who is it?’ He (the preacher) said, ‘I am so and so.’ ‘What do you want?’ the (convert) said. ‘Make Wuzu, dress up in your two cloths and join us for prayer,’ said the preacher. The new convert then made Wuzu, dressed up in his two pieces of cloth and joined him. They performed prayers a great deal. Then they prayed the morning-prayer, then waited until it was light. The convert got up to go home and the man asked him, ‘Where are you going? The day is short. The time left to noontime is very little.’ The new convert sat down with him until noontime and they prayed the noontime prayer. Then he said that there is very little time to afternoon prayer. He prevented the new convert from going home until they said the afternoon prayer. He then wanted to go home but he (the preacher) said, ‘It is the last part of the day and is less than the beginning of it.’ So he (the preacher) stopped him until they performed the prayer at sunset. Then the new convert wanted to go home, he (the preacher) said, ‘Only one more prayer is left.’ He then waited until they performed the late evening prayer and then they departed each other. Next early morning he (the preacher) went and knocked at the door of the new convert. He (the new convert) asked, ‘Who is it?’ He (the preacher) said, ‘I am so and so.’ He (the new convert) asked, ‘What do you want?’ He (the preacher) said, ‘Make Wuzu, dress up in your two pieces of cloth and join us for prayer.’ He (the Christian man) said, ‘Find other persons for this religion who have more free time. I am a poor person with a family to feed.’ “Abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) then said, ‘He (the preacher) took him (Christian) into a thing in such a way that it took him (the new convert) out of it. Or that the Imam said, ‘Took him in like this and forced him out like that.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/274)