19. Advancement in Belief

Back to book

1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ بُرَيْدٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَمْرٍو الزُّبَيْرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ لِلإيمَانِ دَرَجَاتٍ وَمَنَازِلَ يَتَفَاضَلُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ فِيهَا عِنْدَ الله قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ صِفْهُ لِي رَحِمَكَ الله حَتَّى أَفْهَمَهُ قَالَ إِنَّ الله سَبَّقَ بَيْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كَمَا يُسَبَّقُ بَيْنَ الْخَيْلِ يَوْمَ الرِّهَانِ ثُمَّ فَضَّلَهُمْ عَلَى دَرَجَاتِهِمْ فِي السَّبْقِ إِلَيْهِ فَجَعَلَ كُلَّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ عَلَى دَرَجَةِ سَبْقِهِ لا يَنْقُصُهُ فِيهَا مِنْ حَقِّهِ وَلا يَتَقَدَّمُ مَسْبُوقٌ سَابِقاً وَلا مَفْضُولٌ فَاضِلاً تَفَاضَلَ بِذَلِكَ أَوَائِلُ هَذِهِ الأمَّةِ وَأَوَاخِرُهَا وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِلسَّابِقِ إِلَى الإيمَانِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى الْمَسْبُوقِ إِذاً لَلَحِقَ آخِرُ هَذِهِ الأمَّةِ أَوَّلَهَا نَعَمْ وَلَتَقَدَّمُوهُمْ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِمَنْ سَبَقَ إِلَى الإيمَانِ الْفَضْلُ عَلَى مَنْ أَبْطَأَ عَنْهُ وَلَكِنْ بِدَرَجَاتِ الإيمَانِ قَدَّمَ الله السَّابِقِينَ وَبِالإبْطَاءِ عَنِ الإيمَانِ أَخَّرَ الله الْمُقَصِّرِينَ لأنَّا نَجِدُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنَ الآخِرِينَ مَنْ هُوَ أَكْثَرُ عَمَلاً مِنَ الأوَّلِينَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ صَلاةً وَصَوْماً وَحَجّاً وَزَكَاةً وَجِهَاداً وَإِنْفَاقاً وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ سَوَابِقُ يَفْضُلُ بِهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً عِنْدَ الله لَكَانَ الآخِرُونَ بِكَثْرَةِ الْعَمَلِ مُقَدَّمِينَ عَلَى الأوَّلِينَ وَلَكِنْ أَبَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ يُدْرِكَ آخِرُ دَرَجَاتِ الإيمَانِ أَوَّلَهَا وَيُقَدَّمَ فِيهَا مَنْ أَخَّرَ الله أَوْ يُؤَخَّرَ فِيهَا مَنْ قَدَّمَ الله قُلْتُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَمَّا نَدَبَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الإسْتِبَاقِ إِلَى الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ سابِقُوا إِلى‏ مَغْفِرَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُها كَعَرْضِ السَّماءِ وَالأرْضِ أُعِدَّتْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالله وَرُسُلِهِ وَقَالَ السَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ أُولئِكَ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَقَالَ وَالسَّابِقُونَ الأوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهاجِرِينَ وَالأنْصارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُمْ بِإِحْسانٍ رَضِيَ الله عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ فَبَدَأَ بِالْمُهَاجِرِينَ الأوَّلِينَ عَلَى دَرَجَةِ سَبْقِهِمْ ثُمَّ ثَنَّى بِالأنْصَارِ ثُمَّ ثَلَّثَ بِالتَّابِعِينَ لَهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ فَوَضَعَ كُلَّ قَوْمٍ عَلَى قَدْرِ دَرَجَاتِهِمْ وَمَنَازِلِهِمْ عِنْدَهُ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ مَا فَضَّلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلى‏ بَعْضٍ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَلَّمَ الله وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجاتٍ إِلَى آخِرِ الآيَةِ وَقَالَ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلى‏ بَعْضٍ وَقَالَ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلى‏ بَعْضٍ وَلَلآخِرَةُ أَكْبَرُ دَرَجاتٍ وَأَكْبَرُ تَفْضِيلاً وَقَالَ هُمْ دَرَجاتٌ عِنْدَ الله وَقَالَ وَيُؤْتِ كُلَّ ذِي فَضْلٍ فَضْلَهُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهاجَرُوا وَجاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ الله بِأَمْوالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ الله وَقَالَ فَضَّلَ الله الْمُجاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقاعِدِينَ أَجْراً عَظِيماً دَرَجاتٍ مِنْهُ وَمَغْفِرَةً وَرَحْمَةً وَقَالَ لا يَسْتَوِي مِنْكُمْ مَنْ أَنْفَقَ مِنْ قَبْلِ الْفَتْحِ وَقاتَلَ أُولئِكَ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ بَعْدُ وَقاتَلُوا وَقَالَ يَرْفَعِ الله الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجاتٍ وَقَالَ ذلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌ وَلا نَصَبٌ وَلا مَخْمَصَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ الله وَلا يَطَؤُنَ مَوْطِئاً يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلا يَنالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَيْلاً إِلا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ بِهِ عَمَلٌ صالِحٌ وَقَالَ وَما تُقَدِّمُوا لأنْفُسِكُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِنْدَ الله وَقَالَ فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْراً يَرَهُ وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ فَهَذَا ذِكْرُ دَرَجَاتِ الإيمَانِ وَمَنَازِلِهِ عِنْدَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Bakr ibn Salih from al-Qasim ibn Burayd who has said that abu ‘ Amr al-Zubayri who has said the following: “I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘Are there degrees and stages of belief in which the believers may excel in the sight of Allah?’ He said, ‘Yes, there are.’ 1 then said, ‘Explain to me, please, may Allah grant you favors, so I can understand.’ The Imam said, ‘Allah has set a contest among the believers like the contest set for horses. He then has given degrees of excellence for those who excel to win. For each contestant there He has set a level and everyone receives (a reward) exactly to the degree he has achieved. Those left behind do not go ahead of those who have advanced forward and have excelled others. Such was the case of the people who lived in the earliest period of the history of this nation and those who lived later. Had there been no distinction for those advanced in belief over those behind, the last of this nation could catch up with those of the earliest times of this nation. This certainly happens if those advancing in belief are given no distinction over those slow in their progress for belief. ‘In fact, by the degrees of belief Allah has given preference to the advancing ones, and due to slow progress in (matters of) belief Allah has left back those with shortcomings in belief. We find that of the believers of the later (generations) there are those who have many more (good) deeds than those of the earlier (generations), more prayer, fasting, Hajj al-Zakat (charity), hard work (Jihad) for the cause of Allah. Were it not for advancing being considered reason for distinction among the believers in the sight of Allah, those of later (generations) would have had superiority over those earlier, due to more deeds. However, Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, abstains from allowing the last, in degrees of belief, to reach the first and forward ones. It amounts to forwarding those whom Allah has made to be the last, and throwing back those whom Allah has made to be forward. ‘I then said, “Tell me about Allah’s call on the believers to advance in belief.’’ The Imam said, ‘It is in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, “Compete with one another to achieve forgiveness from your Lord and to reach paradise, which is as vast as the heavens and the earth, and is prepared for those who believe in Allah and His Messenger. . . .” (58:21) Allah has said, “(The foremost ones) will be the nearest ones to Allah.’’ (56:11) Allah has said, “Allah is well pleased with the foremost ones of those who left their homes for the cause of Allah, those who helped them after their arrival in Medina and those who nobly followed these two groups. . . .” (9:100) ‘He (Allah) has begun with the first immigrants according to the degree of their advancing. He then has spoken of the Ansars (first Muslims of Madina) and thirdly He has spoken of the second generation who followed them in good deeds. He has placed each group according to their degrees and stages in the sight of Allah. Thereafter Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has mentioned the degrees of His friends (messengers) of whom there are those who excel over the others. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “We gave certain ones of Our Messengers preference over others. To others of them Allah spoke and He raised the rank of a number of them. . . .” (2:253) ‘Allah has said, “We have given preference to certain prophets over others and We gave the psalms to David.” (17:55) Allah has said, “Consider how We have given preference to certain people above others, yet the life to come has more honor and respect.” (17:21) Allah has said, “People are of various grades in the sight of Allah. . . .” (3:163) Allah has said, “He (Allah) will reward everyone according to his merits.” (11:3) Allah has said. “To those who have believed in Allah, left their homes and fought for His cause with their possessions and in person, Allah will grant high ranks and success.” (9:20) ‘Allah has said, “He will grant greater reward to those who strive for His cause than to those who stay home (for no reason). (4:95) Allah will grant to those who strive, high ranks, forgiveness and mercy. . . .” (4:96) Allah has said, “Those who spend for the cause of Allah and fight before victory will have higher positions than those who spend for the cause of Allah and fight after victory. . . .” (57:10) Allah has said, “Allah will raise the position of the believers and of those who have received knowledge. Allah is Well-aware of what you do.” (58:11) ‘Allah has said, “. . . they did not experience any hardships of thirst, fatigue or hunger in their straggle for the cause of Allah, nor has any of their traveling enraged the disbelievers, and they did not receive any injury from enemies for which Allah did not record for them a virtuous deed. . . .” (9:120) Allah has said, “You will receive a good reward from Allah for all your good works. . . .” (2:110) Allah has said, “Whoever has done an atom’s weight of good (99:7) will see it, and whoever has done an atom’s weight of evil will also see it.” (99:8) ‘Such are the stages and degrees of belief in the sight of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/261)